Louis II of Naples
Louis II was King of Naples from 1389 until 1399 and Duke of Anjou from 1384 until 1417. He was a member of the House of Valois-Anjou, born in Toulouse, Louis II was the son of Louis I of Anjou, King of Naples, and Marie of Blois. He came into his Angevin inheritance, which included Provence, in 1384, with his rival Charles of Durazzo, of the senior Angevin line, most towns in Provence revolted after the death of his father. His mother raised an army and they traveled from town to town, Louis was recognized as Count of Provence in 1387. He founded a university in Aix-en-Provence in 1409, in 1386, Charles of Durazzos son, the underage Ladislaus, was expelled from Naples soon after his father died. Louis II was crowned King of Naples by the Avignonese antipope Clement VII on 1 November 1389 and he was ousted in turn by his rival in 1399. In 1409, Louis liberated Rome from Ladislaus occupation, in 1410, as an ally of the antipope John XXIII he attacked Ladislaus, eventually Louis lost his Neapolitan support and had to retire.
His claim to Naples passed to his son, Louis III and he married his first cousin once removed Yolande of Aragon in Arles in 1400, giving him a possibility of inheriting the throne of Aragon through her right. Her father, King John I of Aragon had died in 1396 and his son Louis was bethrothed to Catherine of Burgundy, a daughter of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. However, after John instigated a mob attack on the Dauphin of France, he, the betrothal to Catherine was repudiated, which caused the enmity of the Duke of Burgundy. He was not present at the Battle of Agincourt, because he had a bladder infection, after the battle, he fled from Paris to join his wife and children at Angers. Louis II died at his chateau of Angers, the county town of Anjou and Yolande had five surviving children, Louis III of Anjou, titular King of Naples, Duke of Anjou. René of Anjou, King of Naples, Duke of Anjou, Charles of Le Maine, Count of Maine. Marie of Anjou, married 1422 at Bourges Charles VII of France, married firstly Philip I, Duke of Brabant and secondly in 1431, Francis I, Duke of Brittany.
The Good King, René of Anjou and Fifteenth Century Europe
Capetian House of Anjou
The Capetian House of Anjou, known as the House of Anjou-Sicily and House of Anjou-Naples, was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty. It is one of three royal houses referred to as Angevin, meaning from Anjou in France. Founded by Charles I of Naples, a son of Louis VIII of France, the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him out of the island of Sicily, leaving him with just the southern half of the Italian Peninsula — the Kingdom of Naples. The house and its various branches would go on to much of the history of Southern and Central Europe during the Middle Ages. Historically, the House ruled Naples and Sicily, parts of Greece and Poland. A younger son of House of Capet king Louis VIII of France the Lion, Charles married the heiress of the County of Provence named Beatrice of Provence, she was a member of the House of Barcelona, this meant Charles holdings were growing as Count of Provence. The reason for Charles being offered the kingdom was because of a conflict between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, the latter of whom were represented by the ruling House of Hohenstaufen.
It was at the Battle of Benevento that the Guelph Capetians gained the Sicilian kingdom from the Ghibelline Swabians, in keeping with the political landscape of the period, Charles is described by scholars as shrewd and highly ambitious. The Byzantines had taken back the city of Constantinople in 1261, for a while Charles was preoccupied helping his French brother in the unsuccessful Eighth Crusade on Tunis. After this he once again focused on Constantinople, but his fleet was wrecked in a storm off the coast of Trapani. Charles had fully solidified his rule over Durazzo by 1272, creating a small Kingdom of Albania for himself, out of previously Despotate of Epirus territory, Charles was driven out of Sicily in 1282, but his successors ruled Naples until 1435. The line became extinct in the line with the death of King Ladislaus of Naples in 1414. The Kingdom of Albania, or Regnum Albaniae, was established by Charles of Anjou in the Albanian territory he conquered from the Despotate of Epirus in 1271 and he took the title of King of Albania in February 1272.
The kingdom extended from the region of Durrës south along the coast to Butrint, a major attempt to advance further in direction of Constantinople, failed at the Siege of Berat. A Byzantine counteroffensive soon ensued, which drove the Angevins out of the interior by 1281, the Sicilian Vespers further weakened the position of Charles, and the Kingdom was soon reduced by the Epirotes to a small area around Durrës. The Angevins held out here, until 1368, when the city was captured by Karl Thopia, in 1392 Karl Thopias son surrendered the city and his domains to the Republic of Venice. The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press. A History of the Crusades, Volume III, The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Press
Louis I of Naples
Louis I, known as Louis of Taranto, was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou who reigned as King of Naples, Count of Provence and Forcalquier, and Prince of Taranto. Louis gained the crown of Naples by marrying his first cousin, Queen Joanna I, whose prior husband, immediately after securing his status as her co-ruler, Louis successfully wrested away all power from his wife, leaving her a sovereign in name only. Their disastrous marriage resulted in the birth of two daughters and Frances, neither of whom survived their parents, during their joint reign, Louis dealt with numerous uprisings and unsuccessful military operations, he is generally considered an inefficient monarch. Following his death, Joanna resumed her power and refused to share it with her subsequent husbands, a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, Louis was born in Naples as the second son of Philip I, Prince of Taranto, and Catherine of Valois. He was a patrilineal first cousin once removed of both Queen Joanna I of Naples and her husband Andrew, Duke of Calabria, in addition to being Joannas maternal first cousin, Louis older brother Robert, Prince of Taranto, was having an open affair with Queen Joanna.
When the 17-year-old Andrew was assassinated on 18 September 1345 for seeking to co-reign with his wife, Joanna was immediately suspected of ordering the murder with the help of Louis and Robert. Following her husbands death, the queen was strongly influenced by Robert. The brothers mother died the month, leaving her claim to the Latin Empire to Robert. Louis and Joanna married in Naples on 22 August 1347, without seeking dispensation from Pope Clement VI – necessary because of their closely related. The marriage was an attempt to secure the kingdom for Louis rather than to pacify the belligerent branches of the House of Anjou. The couple fled to Provence, which Joanna ruled as countess and they met Clement, feudal overlord of the Kingdom of Naples, in Avignon. To secure his acceptance of their marriage and support against the accusations of Andrews murder, the Black Death forced the Hungarians to retreat from Naples in August 1348. Louis and Joanna, who had just had their daughter, Catherine.
From early 1349 onwards, all documents for the kingdom were issued in the names of husband and wife, and Louis was indisputably in control of military fortresses. On coins issued during their joint reign, Louis name always preceded Joannas, although he was not officially recognised by Clement as king and co-ruler until 1352, it is likely that Neapolitans considered him their monarch from the moment he started acting as such. Louis took advantage of the caused by yet another Hungarian attack to wrest complete royal authority from his wife. He purged the court of her supporters, and struck down her favourite, Enrico Caracciolo, in 1350, the King of Hungary launched another invasion, forcing Louis and Joanna to flee to Gaeta. Louis narrowly defeated Hungarian forces with Pope Clements help and their younger daughter, was born soon thereafter
House of Valois
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Burgundy, the Valois descended from Charles, Count of Valois, the second surviving son of King Philip III of France. Their title to the throne was based on a precedent in 1316, the Capetian dynasty seemed secure both during and after the reign of Philip IV from 1285 to 1313. Philip had left three surviving sons and a daughter, each son became king in turn but died young without male heirs, leaving only daughters who could not inherit the throne. When Charles IV died in 1328, the French succession became more problematic, in 1328 three candidates had plausible claims to the throne, Count of Valois, son of Charles of Valois, who was the closest heir in male line and a grandson of Philip III. Because his father was the brother of the late Philip IV, he was therefore a nephew of Philip IV, Charles IV had chosen him as the regent before his death.
Philip, Count of Évreux, another nephew of Philip IV and he strengthened his position by marrying Joan of France, daughter of Louis X. Edward III of England, son of Isabella of France and only surviving child of Philip IV. Edward claimed to be the heir as a grandson of Philip IV, in England, Isabella of France claimed the throne on behalf of her son. Like the French, the English law of succession did not allow the succession of females, the French rejected Isabellas claims, arguing that since she herself, as a woman, could not succeed, she could not transmit any such right to her son. Thus the French magnates chose Philip of Valois, who became Philip VI of France, the throne of Navarre went its separate way, to Joan of France, daughter of Louis X, who became Joan II of Navarre. Because diplomacy and negotiation had failed, Edward III would have to back his claims with force to obtain the French throne, for a few years and France maintained an uneasy peace. Eventually, an escalation of conflict between the two led to the confiscation of the duchy of Aquitaine.
Instead of paying homage to the French king, as his ancestors had done and these events helped launch the Hundred Years War between England and France. The Hundred Years War could be considered a war of succession between the houses of Valois and Plantagenet. The early reign of Philip VI was a one for France. The new king fought the Flemings on behalf of his vassal, the count of Flanders, Edward IIIs aggression against Scotland, a French ally, prompted Philip VI to confiscate Guyenne. In the past the English kings would have to submit to the King of France, but Edward, having descended from the French kings, claimed the throne for himself
Joanna II of Naples
Joanna II was Queen of Naples from 1414 to her death, upon which the senior Angevin line of Naples became extinct. As a mere formality, she used the title of Queen of Jerusalem, Joanna was born at Zara, Dalmatia on 25 June 1373, as the daughter of Charles III of Naples and Margaret of Durazzo. In 1414, she succeeded her brother Ladislaus to the throne of Naples, at that date she was 41 years old and was already the widow of her cousin Hedwigs rejected fiancé, William and she married twice, but had no children. Joanna married her first husband, Duke of Austria in Vienna in the autumn of 1401 when she was 28 years of age and he had been rejected as a husband by her cousin, Hedwig of Poland. Joanna did not have any children by William, who died in 1406 after five years of marriage and it was sometime after his death, that she acquired a lover by the name of Pandolfello Alopo, whom she appointed Grand Chamberlain. Alopo was the first in what would become a series of lovers and he caused the downfall of the influential condottiero and grand constable Muzio Sforza, provoking much jealousy.
In early 1415, she became fiancee to John of Aragon, a son of King Ferdinand I of Aragon, the betrothal was annulled shortly after, which left Joanna free to choose another husband. On 10 August 1415, she married a second time, to James of Bourbon, Count of La Marche, the marriage contract stipulated that upon his marriage to Joanna, James would be granted the title of Prince of Taranto. Not having received the title, he had Alopo killed and forced Joanna to name him King of Naples. In an attempt to complete power, James imprisoned Joanna in her own apartments in the royal palace, however. In 1416, a riot exploded in Naples, and James was compelled to back his French administrators. In this period, Joanna began her relationship with Sergianni Caracciolo, on 28 August 1417, she reconquered Rome, and the following year, James left Naples for France. With James now powerless, Joanna could finally celebrate her coronation on 28 October 1419, her relationship with Naples nominal feudal suzerain, Pope Martin V, soon worsened.
Upon the advice of Caracciolo, she denied Martin economic aid to rebuild the papal army, in response, the Pope called in Louis III of Anjou, son of the rival of King Ladislaus and himself still a pretender to the Neapolitan throne. In 1420, Louis invaded Campania, but the Pope, trying to gain advantage from the menace posed to Joanna. Joanna rejected the ambiguous papal proposal calling for help from the brother of her erstwhile betrothed, Alfonso entered Naples in July 1421. Louis lost the support of the Pope, but at the time the relationship between Joanna and Alfonso worsened. In May 1423, Alfonso had Caracciolo arrested and besieged Joannas residence, an agreement was obtained, Sergianni was freed, and fled to Aversa with Joanna
Kingdom of Naples
It continued to be officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily, although it no longer included the island of Sicily. For much of its existence, the realm was contested between French and Spanish dynasties, in 1816, it was reunified with the island kingdom of Sicily once again to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Following the rebellion in 1282, King Charles I of Sicily was forced to leave the island of Sicily by Peter III of Aragons troops, however, maintained his possessions on the mainland, customarily known as the Kingdom of Naples, after its capital city. Charles and his Angevin successors maintained a claim to Sicily, warring against the Aragonese until 1373, joans reign was contested by Louis the Great, the Angevin King of Hungary, who captured the kingdom several times. Queen Joan I played a part in the demise of the first Kingdom of Naples. This led to Joan Is murder at the hands of the Prince of Durazzo in 1382, the two competing Angevin lines contested each other for the possession of the Kingdom of Naples over the following decades.
René of Anjou temporarily united the claims of junior and senior Angevin lines, in 1442, Alfonso V conquered the Kingdom of Naples and unified Sicily and Naples once again as dependencies of Aragon. At his death in 1458, the kingdom was again separated and Naples was inherited by Ferrante, Alfonsos illegitimate son. Charles VIII expelled Alfonso II of Naples from Naples in 1495, Ferrantino was restored to the throne, but died in 1496, and was succeeded by his uncle, Frederick IV. Charles VIIIs successor, Louis XII reiterated the French claim, in 1501, he occupied Naples and partitioned the kingdom with Ferdinand of Aragon, who abandoned his cousin King Frederick. The deal soon fell through and Aragon and France resumed their war over the kingdom, the Spanish troops occupying Calabria and Apulia, led by Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordova did not respect the new agreement, and expelled all Frenchmen from the area. The peace treaties that continued were never definitive, but they established at least that the title of King of Naples was reserved for Ferdinands grandson, the future Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
Ferdinand nevertheless continued in possession of the kingdom, being considered as the heir of his uncle Alfonso I of Naples. The French finally abandoned their claims to Naples by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559, in the Treaty of London, five cities on coast of Tuscany were designated the Stato dei Presidi, and part of the Kingdom of Naples. After the War of the Spanish Succession in the early 18th century, under the terms of the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714, Naples was given to Charles VI, the Holy Roman Emperor. He gained control of Sicily in 1720, but Austrian rule did not last long, when Charles inherited the Spanish throne from his older half-brother in 1759, he left Naples and Sicily to his younger son, Ferdinand IV. Despite the two Kingdoms being in a union under the Habsburg and Bourbon dynasts, they remained constitutionally separate. Being a member of the House of Bourbon, Ferdinand IV was an opponent of the French Revolution and Napoleon
Joanna I of Naples
Joanna I was Queen of Naples and Countess of Provence and Forcalquier from 1343 until her death. She reigned as Princess of Achaea and claimed the crowns of Jerusalem, during her long reign she was involved in numerous conflicts both internal and external. Most sources indicate that she was born in March 1328, although some indicate 1326 as the year of her birth, Joanna was the fourth but eldest surviving child of Charles, Duke of Calabria, and Marie of Valois. Two years later, on 23 October 1331, Marie of Valois died during a pilgrimage to Bari, with the death of the Duke of Calabria, King Robert faced the serious problem of his succession, he had to choose between his eldest granddaughter or his nephews. Because the descendants of his older brother Charles had already bypassed in favour of himself. As heir presumptive to the throne of Naples, she received homage on 4 November 1330, through his father he had a claim to Naples, which could be argued to be superior to that of Robert and consequently to that of Joanna.
The marriage contract between Joanna and Andrew was signed on 8 November 1332, and they were married at Santa Chiara Basilica on 26 September 1333. In the ceremony, Andrew was created Duke of Calabria and began to live in Naples, in the event of Joannas death without children, the crown would fall to her younger sister Maria and not to him. Faced with the ineffectiveness of the Council, the Pope, in his capacity as overlord, decided to impose his rule by sending a Legate. Philip I, Prince of Taranto, the Kings younger brother, Duke of Durazzo son of John, Duke of Durazzo, the Kings youngest brother, husband of Agnes de Périgord, sister of Cardinal Hélie de Talleyrand-Périgord). The Durazzo branch took major importance with the marriage between Charles of Durazzo and Maria, Countess of Alba and the Queens sister, on 21 April 1343, through this union, the Duke of Durazzo was placed first in line to the throne. When Joanna reached her majority, it was necessary to proceed with her official coronation, in accordance with the will of her grandfather, she opposed the coronation of her husband, long pressed for by his Hungarian relatives.
Pope Clement VI, as overlord of the Kingdom of Naples, Joanna was crowned by the Pope as Queen of Naples on 28 August 1344. Andrew was present in the ceremony and received the title of King, angered with this, he began to claim a part in the government and the right to be properly crowned. Fearing for his life, Andrew wrote to his mother Elizabeth that he would soon flee Naples and she intervened, and made a state visit, at that same time, she allegedly bribed the Pope to revert his previous decision and permit Andrews coronation. She gave a ring to her son, which was supposed to him from death by blade or poison. Joanna lost an important ally when her stepgrandmother withdrew into a monastery, due to her letters to the pope, the pope agreed that though Andrew would be crowned, only her coronation would be Blessed by God. When Joanna fell ill in the summer of 1344, Andrew caused great controversy when he released the Pipini brothers and they had been locked up by King Robert the Wise after having been convicted for murder, pillage and several other offences
Margaret of Durazzo
Margaret of Durazzo was Queen of Naples and Hungary and Princess of Achaea as the spouse of Charles III of Naples, and regent of Naples during the minority of her son. In February,1369, Margaret married her paternal first cousin Charles of Durazzo and he was a son of Louis of Durazzo, another son of John, Duke of Durazzo and his second wife Agnes de Périgord. The bride was twenty-two years old and the groom twenty-four and they had three children, Mary of Durazzo. Charles managed to depose her maternal aunt Queen Joanna I of Naples in 1382 and he succeeded her and Margaret became his queen consort. Charles succeeded James of Baux as Prince of Achaea in 1383 with Margaret still as his consort, by becoming the senior Angevin male, Charles was offered the Crown of Hungary. Margaret did not support the idea of deposing Queen Mary of Hungary, nonetheless, he successfully deposed Mary in December 1385 and himself crowned. She was daughter of his deceased cousin Louis I of Hungary, Marys formidable mother Elizabeth arranged his assassination at Visegrád on 24 February 1386.
Margaret became a queen dowager and the regent of Naples as the guardian of her minor son and she survived her husband by twenty-six years but never remarried. Their son Ladislaus succeeded to the throne of the Kingdom of Naples while Mary of Hungary was restored to her throne, Margaret insisted that her husbands death be revenged and Elizabeth was murdered. The heads of her defenders were sent to console Margaret, in the last years of her life, the queen dowager retired first to Salerno and to Acquamela, where she died of plague in 1412. She had become a devout Catholic and a member of a Franciscan Third Order in her last years and requested to be buried as such, a listing of descendants of Charles I of Sicily
Louis I, Duke of Anjou
Louis I was the second son of John II of France and the founder of the Angevin branch of the French royal house. Bonne of Bohemia gave birth to him at the Château de Vincennes and his father appointed him Count of Anjou and Count of Maine in 1356, and raised him to the title Duke of Anjou in 1360 and Duke of Touraine in 1370. In 1382, as the son of Joan I, he succeeded to the counties of Provence. He inherited from her a claim to the kingdoms of Naples and he was already a veteran of the Hundred Years War against the English when he led an army into Italy to claim his Neapolitan inheritance. He died on the march and his claims and titles fell to his son and namesake, Louis II, Louis was present at the Battle of Poitiers, in the battalion commanded by his brother Charles, the Dauphin. They hardly fought and the group escaped in the middle of the confrontation. Although humiliating, their flight allowed them to capture by the English. King John II and Louis younger brother Philip were not so fortunate and were captured by the English, commanded by Edward and their ransom and peace conditions between France and England were agreed in the Treaty of Brétigny, signed in 1360.
Amongst the complicated items of the treaty was a clause that determined the surrender of 40 high-born hostages as guarantee for the payment of the kings ransom, already Duke of Anjou, was in this group and sailed to England in October 1360. However, France was not in good condition and further installments of the debt were delayed. As consequence, Louis was in English custody for more than the expected six months. He tried to negotiate his freedom in a negotiation with Edward III of England and. On his return to France, he met his fathers disapproval for his unknightly behavior, from 1380 to 1382 Louis served as regent for his nephew, King Charles VI of France. In 1382 Louis left France in the year to claim the throne of Naples following the death of Queen Joanna I. She had adopted him to succeed her, as she was childless and did not wish to leave her inheritance to any of her close relatives and he was able to succeed her as count of Provence and Forcalquier. The expedition, counting to some 40,000 troops, was however unsuccessful, amadeus fell ill and died in Molise on 1 March 1383 and his troops abandoned the field.
Louis asked for help from his nephew in France, who sent him an army under Enguerrand of Coucy. The latter was able to conquer Arezzo and invade the Kingdom of Naples and he soon sold Arezzo to Florence and returned to France
Louis VIII of France
Louis VIII the Lion was King of France from 1223 to 1226. He claimed the title King of England from 1216 to 1217, Louis VIII was born in Paris, the son of King Philip II of France and Isabelle of Hainaut, from whom he inherited the County of Artois. While Louis VIII only briefly reigned as king of France, he was a leader in his years as crown prince. During the First Barons War of 1215-17 against King John of England, after his victory at the Battle of Roche-au-Moine in 1214, he invaded southern England and was proclaimed King of England by rebellious barons in London on the 2 June 1216. He was never crowned and renounced his claim after being excommunicated and repelled, in 1217, Louis started the conquest of Guyenne, leaving only a small region around Bordeaux to Henry III of England. Louiss short reign was marked by an intervention using royal forces into the Albigensian Crusade in southern France that decisively moved the conflict towards a conclusion and he died in 1226 and was succeeded by his son Louis IX.
In summer 1195, a marriage between Louis and Eleanor of Brittany, niece of Richard I of England, was suggested for an alliance between Philip II and Richard, but it failed and this led to a sudden deterioration in relations between Richard and Philip. On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England, the marriage could only be concluded after prolonged negotiations between King Philip II of France and Blanches uncle John. In 1214, King John of England began his campaign to reclaim the Duchy of Normandy from Philip II. John was optimistic, as he had built up alliances with Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, Count Renaud of Boulogne. Johns plan was to split Philips forces by pushing north-east from Poitou towards Paris, while Otto and Ferdinand, supported by the Earl of Salisbury, marched south-west from Flanders. Whereas Philip II took personal command of the front against the emperor and his allies. The first part of the campaign went well for the English, with John outmanoeuvring the forces under the command of Prince Louis, John besieged the castle of Roche-au-Moine, a key stronghold, forcing Louis to give battle against Johns larger army.
The local Angevin nobles refused to advance with the king, left at something of a disadvantage, shortly afterwards, Philip won the hard-fought Battle of Bouvines in the north against Otto and Johns other allies, bringing an end to Johns hopes of retaking Normandy. In 1215, the English barons rebelled against the unpopular King John in the First Barons War, the barons offered the throne to Prince Louis, who landed unopposed on the Isle of Thanet in eastern Kent, England, at the head of an army on 21 May 1216. There was little resistance when the prince entered London, and Louis was proclaimed king at Old St Pauls Cathedral with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Even though he was not crowned, many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland on behalf of his English possessions, on 14 June 1216, Louis captured Winchester and soon controlled over half of the English kingdom. But just when it seemed that England was his, King Johns death in October 1216 caused many of the barons to desert Louis in favour of Johns nine-year-old son
King of Hungary
The King of Hungary was the head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1918. Before 1000 AD, Hungary was not recognized as a kingdom, the first King of Hungary, Stephen I. was crowned on 25 December 1000 with the crown Pope Sylvester II had sent him and with the consent of Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor. Following King Stephen Is coronation, all the monarchs of Hungary used the title King, from the 13th century a certain process was established to confirm the legitimacy of the King. This meant a level of protection to the integrity of the Kingdom such as that for example stealing the Holy Crown of Hungary was no longer enough to become legitimate King. The King Charles I of Hungary was crowned in May 1301 with a crown in Esztergom by the Archbishop of this city. In this time the Holy Crown wasnt used and he was crowned in Buda by the archbishop of Esztergom, however his third coronation was finally in 1310, in the city of Székesfehérvár, with the Holy Crown and effectuated by the archbishop of Esztergom.
Then the Kings coronation was considered absolutely legitimate, a similar situation occurred with the Matthias Corvinus, when he negotiated to get back the Holy Crown which was in the possession of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. Then after obtaining it he was legitimately crowned, as in all the traditional monarchies, the heir descended through the male line from a previous King of Hungary. In accordance with Hungarian tradition, this right passed to younger brothers, before passing to the son of the previous King. The founder of the first Hungarian royal house was Árpád, who led his people into the Carpathian Basin in 895 and his descendants, who ruled for more than 400 years, included Saint Stephen I, Saint Ladislaus I, Andrew II, and Béla IV. The same happened with John Zápolya, who was elected in 1526 after the death of Louis II in the battle of Mohács. After this, the House of Habsburg inherited the throne, over the centuries, the Kings of Hungary acquired or claimed the crowns of several neighboring countries, and they began to use the royal titles connected to those countries.
The title Apostolic King was confirmed by Pope Clement XIII in 1758, the title of King of Slavonia referred to the territories between the Drava and the Sava Rivers. That title was first used by Ladislaus I and it was Ladislaus I who adopted the title King of Croatia in 1091. Coloman added the phrase King of Dalmatia to the style in 1105. The title King of Rama, referring to the claim to Bosnia, was first used by Béla II in 1136 and it was Emeric who adopted the title King of Serbia. The phrase King of Galicia was used to indicate the supremacy over Halych, while the title King of Lodomeria referred to Volhynia, in 1233, Béla IV began to use the title King of Cumania which expressed the rule over the territories settled by the Cumans at that time. The phrase King of Bulgaria was added to the style by Stephen V