Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the largest of the states of Italy before the Italian unification. It was formed as a union of the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples, which collectively had long been called the "Two Sicilies"; the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies lasted from 1815 until 1860, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia to form the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The capitals of the Two Sicilies were in Palermo; the kingdom extended over the island of Sicily. Jordan Lancaster notes that the integration of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies into the Kingdom of Italy changed the status of Naples forever: "Abject poverty meant that, throughout Naples and Southern Italy, thousands decided to leave in search of a better future." Many went to the new world. The kingdom was agricultural, like the other Italian states; the name "Two Sicilies" originated from the partition of the medieval Kingdom of Sicily. Until 1285, the island of Sicily and the Mezzogiorno were constituent parts of the Kingdom of Sicily.
As a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers, the King of Sicily lost the Island of Sicily to the Crown of Aragon, but remained ruler over the peninsular part of the realm. Although his territory became known unofficially as the Kingdom of Naples, he and his successors never gave up the title "King of Sicily" and still referred to their realm as the "Kingdom of Sicily". At the same time, the Aragonese rulers of the Island of Sicily called their realm the "Kingdom of Sicily". Thus, there were two kingdoms called "Sicily": hence, the Two Sicilies; the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies resulted from the re-unification of the Kingdom of Sicily with the Kingdom of Naples, by King Alfonso V of Aragon in 1442. The two states had functioned as separate realms since the War of the Sicilian Vespers in 1282. At the death of King Alfonso in 1458, the kingdom again became divided between his brother John II of Aragon, who kept the island of Sicily, his illegitimate son Ferdinand, who became King of Naples. In 1501, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, son of John II, conquered Naples and reunified the two kingdoms under the authority of the newly united Spanish throne.
The Kings of Spain bore the title King of Both Sicilies or King of Sicily and of the Two Coasts of the Strait until the War of the Spanish Succession. At the end of that war, the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 granted Sicily to the Duke of Savoy until the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714 left Naples to the Emperor Charles VI. In 1720 the Emperor and Savoy exchanged Sicily for Sardinia, thus reuniting Sicily. In 1734, Duke of Parma, son of Philip V of Spain, took the Sicilian crown from the Austrians and became Charles VII & V, giving Parma to his younger brother, Philip. In 1759, Charles became King Carlos III of Spain and resigned Sicily and Naples to his younger son, who became Ferdinand III of Sicily and Ferdinand IV of Naples crowned Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies in 1816. Apart from an interruption under Napoleon, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies remained under the Bourbon line continually until 1860. In January 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte, in the name of the French Republic, captured Naples and proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic, a French client state, as successor to the kingdom.
King Ferdinand fled from Naples to Sicily until June of that year. In 1806, Napoleon, by French Emperor, again dethroned King Ferdinand and appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as King of Naples. In the Edict of Bayonne of 1808 Napoleon moved Joseph to Spain and appointed their brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, as King of the Two Sicilies, though this only meant control of the mainland portion of the kingdom. Throughout this Napoleonic interruption, King Ferdinand remained in Sicily, with Palermo as his capital; the Congress of Vienna restored King Ferdinand in 1815. He established a concordat with the Papal States, which had a claim to the land. Several rebellions took place on the island of Sicily against King Ferdinand II, but the end of the kingdom came only with the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860, led by Garibaldi – an icon of Italian unification – with the support of the House of Savoy and their Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia; the expedition resulted in a striking series of defeats for the Sicilian armies facing the growing troops of Garibaldi.
After the capture of Palermo and Sicily, Garibaldi disembarked in Calabria and moved towards Naples, while in the meantime the Piedmontese invaded the Kingdom from the Marche. The last battles took place at Volturnus in 1860 and at the siege of Gaeta, where King Francis II had sought shelter, hoping for French help, which never came; the last towns to resist Garibaldi's expedition and Civitella del Tronto, capitulated on 13 March 1861 and on 20 March 1861 respectively. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies dissolved and the new Kingdom of Italy, founded in the same year annexed its territory; the fall of the Sicilian aristocracy in the face of Garibaldi's invasion forms the subject of the novel The Leopard by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa and its film adaptation. A monarchy over the areas which would become known as the Two Sicilies existed as one single kingdom, including a peninsular and an insular part, dating from the Middle Ages; the Norman king Roger II formed the Kingdom of Sicily by combining the County of Sicily with the southern part of the Italian Peninsula (then known as the Duchy of
Strait of Messina
The Strait of Messina, is a narrow strait between the eastern tip of Sicily and the western tip of Calabria in the south of Italy. It connects the Tyrrhenian Sea to the north with the Ionian Sea to the south, within the central Mediterranean. At its narrowest point, between Torre Faro and Villa San Giovanni, it is 3.1 km wide. At the town of Messina it is 5.1 km wide. The strait's maximum depth is about 250 m; the strait has strong tidal currents. A natural whirlpool in the northern portion of the strait has been linked to the Greek legend of Scylla and Charybdis. In some circumstances, the mirage of Fata Morgana can be observed when looking at Sicily from Calabria. With its bottleneck shape, it is a compulsory point of transit of the migration of many bird species. In 1957, a 220 kV overhead power line was built across the Strait of Messina, its pylons are among the highest in the world. This power line has since been replaced by a submarine power cable, but the pylons remain and are protected as historical monuments.
The Strait of Messina is a focal point in the migrations of birds every year, who cross the strait to reach their breeding grounds in northern Europe. Due to this form of bottleneck more than 300 species are recorded in the area, a major European hot spot for raptors, with a record of 35.000 in a spring. Among them the European honey buzzard and the marsh harrier are the most frequent, species like Bonelli's eagle and Egyptian vulture are less frequent but regular. In the coastal salt lakes of the Strait of Messina species like glossy ibis and black-winged stilt stop to rest; the site is favorable for observing storks. The Monte Dinnammare and the other Peloritani mountains overlooking the Strait are a natural theatre for birdwatching. Due to its unique hydrogeological conditions the Strait of Messina has high levels of biodiversity and multiple endemic species. In its waters there is a strong presence of deep sea fish like the Sloane's viperfish which, due to the particular and peculiar currents of the strait, are found stranded on the shore at sunrise.
The strait is an important point of migration of many species of fish in the Mediterranean Sea. A ferry service connects Messina on Sicily with the mainland at Villa San Giovanni, which lies several kilometers north of the large city of Reggio Calabria. There is a hydrofoil service between Messina and Reggio Calabria. For decades, the possibility of building a bridge across the Messina Strait has been under discussion. In 2006, under Prime Minister Romano Prodi the project was cancelled. On 6 March 2009, however, as part of a massive new public works program, Silvio Berlusconi's government announced that plans to construct the Messina Bridge had been revived, pledging €1.3 billion as a contribution to its estimated cost of €6.1 billion Some 3.3 km long and 60 m wide, the bridge would be supported by two 382 m pillars, each higher than the Empire State Building, accommodate six freeway lanes, a railway, two walkways. Supporters perceive a boost for tourism to the island. Opponents see it as an ecological disaster, a structure at risk due to strong winds and earthquakes, a boon for Sicilian and Calabrian organized crime.
Berlusconi claimed in 2009 that work would be completed by 2016 although in February 2013, the project was cancelled again. Between Scylla and Charybdis Fabio Spadi "The Bridge on the Strait of Messina:'Lowering' the Right of Innocent Passage?" International and Comparative Law Quarterly 50: 411 ff. "From Rome to Sicily: Plane or Train?" Expert Travel Advice, The New York Times, Feb. 7, 2008 The New York Times
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies, with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia and some parts of Lazio as well. The Italian National Institute of Statistics employs the term "South Italy" to identify one of the five statistical regions in its reportings without Sicily and Sardinia, which form a distinct statistical region denominated "Insular Italy"; these same subdivisions are at the bottom of the Italian First level NUTS of the European Union and the Italian constituencies for the European Parliament. The term Mezzogiorno first came into use in the 18th century and is an Italian rendition of meridies; the term was popularised by Giuseppe Garibaldi and it came into vogue after the Italian unification. In a similar manner, Southern France is colloquially known as le Midi. Southern Italy is thought to comprise the administrative regions that correspond to the geopolitical extent of the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, starting from Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily.
The island of Sardinia, although being culturally and less related to the aforementioned regions than any of them is to each other, is included as part of the Mezzogiorno for statistical and economical purposes. Southern Italy forms the lower part of the Italian "boot", containing the ankle, the toe, the arch, the heel and Abruzzo along with Sicily, removed from Calabria by the narrow Strait of Messina. Separating the "heel" and the "boot" is the Gulf of Taranto, named after the city of Taranto, at an angle between the heel and the boot itself, it is an arm of the Ionian Sea. The island of Sardinia, to the west of the Italian peninsula and right below the French island of Corsica, might be included. On the eastern coast is the Adriatic Sea, leading into the rest of the Mediterranean through the Strait of Otranto. On the Adriatic, south of the "spur" of the boot, the peninsula of Monte Gargano. Along the northern coast of the Salernitan Gulf and on the south of the Sorrentine Peninsula runs the Amalfi Coast.
Off the tip of the peninsula is the isle of Capri. The climate is Mediterranean, except at the highest elevations and the semi-arid eastern stretches in Apulia, along the Ionian Sea in Calabria and the southern stretches of Sicily; the largest city of Southern Italy is Naples, a name from the Greek that it has maintained for millennia. Bari, Reggio Calabria and Salerno are the next largest cities in the area; the region is geologically active and seismic: the 1980 Irpinia earthquake killed 2,914 people, injured more than 10,000 and left 300,000 homeless.. In the 8th and 7th centuries BCE, for various reasons, including demographic crisis, the search for new commercial outlets and ports, expulsion from their homeland, Greeks began to settle in Southern Italy. During this period, Greek colonies were established in places as separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Eastern Libya and Massalia, they included the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy, Magna Graecia, since it was so densely inhabited by the Greeks.
The ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or Apulia and Calabria—Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. With this colonisation, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites and its traditions of the independent polis. An original Hellenic civilization soon developed interacting with the native Italic and Latin civilisations; the most important cultural transplant was the Chalcidean/Cumaean variety of the Greek alphabet, adopted by the Etruscans. Many of the new Hellenic cities became rich and powerful, like Neapolis, Syrakousai and Sybaris. Other cities in Magna Graecia included Tarentum, Epizephyrian Locri, Croton, Elea, Syessa and others. After Pyrrhus of Epirus failed in his attempt to stop the spread of Roman hegemony in 282 BCE, the south fell under Roman domination and remained in such a position well into the barbarian invasions, it was held by the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Rome in the West and the Lombards failed to consolidate it, though the centr
The Sicilian Vespers was a successful rebellion on the island of Sicily that broke out at Easter 1282 against the rule of the French-born king Charles I, who had ruled the Kingdom of Sicily since 1266. Within six weeks 13,000 French men and women were slain by the rebels, the government of King Charles lost control of the island, it was the beginning of the War of the Sicilian Vespers. The rising had its origin in the struggle of investiture between the pope and the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperors for control of Italy the Church's private demesne known as the Papal States; these lay between Hohenstaufen lands in northern Italy and the Hohenstaufen Kingdom of Sicily in the south. In 1245 Pope Innocent IV excommunicated Frederick II and declared him deposed, roused opposition against him in Germany and Italy; when Frederick died in 1250, his dominion was inherited by Conrad IV of Germany. A period of turmoil followed Conrad's death in 1254, the Kingdom of Sicily was seized by Manfred, King of Sicily, Frederick's illegitimate son, who reigned from 1258 to 1266.
Manfred had no involvement in German politics, where the interregnum lasted longer and there was no emperor until 1274. He first styled himself as vicar of Conrad's son. However, following a false rumor that Conradin was dead, Manfred had himself crowned king, he wished for a reconciliation with the papacy, which may have explained his support for the landless Baldwin II, Latin Emperor. However, Pope Urban IV and Pope Clement IV were not prepared to recognize Manfred as lawful ruler of Sicily and first excommunicated him sought to depose him by force of arms. After abortive attempts to enlist England as the champion of the Papacy against Manfred, Urban IV settled on Charles I of Naples as his candidate for the Sicilian throne. Charles invaded Italy and defeated and killed Manfred in 1266 at the Battle of Benevento, becoming King of Sicily. In 1268 Conradin, who had meanwhile come of age, invaded Italy to press his claim to the throne, but he was defeated at the Battle of Tagliacozzo and executed afterwards.
Charles was now undisputed master of the Kingdom of Sicily. Charles regarded his Sicilian territories as a springboard for his Mediterranean ambitions, which included the overthrow of Michael VIII Palaiologos of the Byzantine Empire and the capture of Constantinople. Once the richest city in the western world, Constantinople was attacked and plundered during the Fourth Crusade and further subjugated, reduced in population and stripped of its art and treasures for the next 57 years under the rule of the Latin Empire. With the Byzantine recapture of the city in 1261, Michael VIII Palaiologos continued to rebuild what was left of the economically strategic city as an important trade route to Europe. Unrest simmered in Sicily because of its subordinate role in Charles' empire--its nobles had no share in the government of their own island and were not compensated by lucrative posts abroad, as were Charles' French, Provençal and Neapolitan subjects; as Steven Runciman put it, " saw themselves now being ruled to enable an alien tyrant make conquests from which they would have no benefit" The unrest was fomented by Byzantine agents to thwart Charles' projected invasion and by King Peter III of Aragon, Manfred's son-in-law, who saw his wife Constance as rightful heir to the Sicilian throne.
The event takes its name from an insurrection which began at the start of Vespers, the sunset prayer marking the beginning of the night vigil on Easter Monday, 30 March 1282, at the Church of the Holy Spirit just outside Palermo. Beginning on that night, thousands of Sicily's French inhabitants were massacred within six weeks; the events that started the uprising are not known for certain, but the various retellings have common elements. According to Steven Runciman, the Sicilians at the church were engaged in holiday festivities and a group of French officials came by to join in and began to drink. A sergeant named Drouet dragged a young married woman from the crowd, pestering her with his advances, her husband attacked Drouet with a knife, killing him. When the other Frenchmen tried to avenge their comrade, the Sicilian crowd fell upon them, killing them all. At that moment all the church bells in Palermo began to ring for Vespers. Runciman describes the mood of the night: To the sound of the bells messengers ran through the city calling on the men of Palermo to rise against the oppressor.
At once the streets were filled with angry armed men, crying "Death to the French". Every Frenchman they met was struck down, they poured into the inns frequented by the French and the houses where they dwelt, sparing neither man, woman nor child. Sicilian girls who had married Frenchmen perished with their husbands; the rioters broke into Franciscan convents. Anyone who failed the test was slain… By the next morning some two thousand French men and women lay dead. According to Leonardo Bruni, the Palermitans were holding a festival outside the city when the French came up to check for weapons, on that pretext began to fondle the breasts of their women; this began a riot. The French were attacked, first with rocks weapons, all were killed; the news spread to other cities leading to revolt throughout Sicily. "By the time the furio
Beatrice of Rethel
Beatrice of Rethel was a French noblewoman and Queen of Sicily as the third wife of Roger II. Beatrice was born in 1130 or 1135, the eldest daughter and one of the nine children of Guitier of Rethel and Beatrix of Namur, her father was Count of Rethel from 1158 to 1171. In 1151, Beatrice married Roger II of Sicily, she was queen for three years, until Roger's death on 26 February 1154. Beatrice was a little over three weeks pregnant at the time of his death, their only child, was born the following November. Beatrice survived her husband by thirty-one years but there is no record of her having married again, her daughter, became Holy Roman Empress in 1191 and Queen of Sicily in 1194. Houben, Hubert. Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler Between East and West. Translated by Loud, G. A.. Cambridge University Press. Metcalfe, Alex. Muslims of Medieval Italy. Edinburgh University Press. Schipa, Michaelangelo. "Italy and Sicily under Frederick II". In Tanner, J. R.. N; the Cambridge Medieval History. Vol. IV. Cambridge University Press.
Stürner, Wolfgang. Friedrich II.: Die Königsherrschaft in Sizilien und Deutschland 1194-1220. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Ullmann, Walter. A Short History of the Papacy in the Middle Ages. Routledge
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476; the title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.
Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role; the exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii, the notion that he—the sovereign ruler—held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome, was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although controlled by dynasties; the German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", he would be crowned emperor by the Pope. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, duchies, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, other domains.
The power of the emperor was limited, while the various princes, lords and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by emperor Napoleon I the month before. In various languages the Holy Roman Empire was known as: Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Italian: Sacro Romano Impero, Czech: Svatá říše římská, Polish: Święte imperium rzymskie, Slovene: Sveto rimsko cesarstvo, Dutch: Heilige Roomse Rijk, French: Saint-Empire romain. Before 1157, the realm was referred to as the Roman Empire; the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa: the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy. The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from 1254 onward.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, a form first used in a document in 1474. The new title was adopted because the Empire had lost most of its Italian and Burgundian territories to the south and west by the late 15th century, but to emphasize the new importance of the German Imperial Estates in ruling the Empire due to the Imperial Reform. By the end of the 18th century, the term "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" had fallen out of official use. Besides, contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has stated in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claim of many textbooks, the name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as to omit the national suffix as include it. This, or the shortened "Roman Empire of the German Nation", is used in Germany to refer to the Holy Roman Empire. In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body, called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."
As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians, under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region. By the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks, gained the sanction of the Pope; the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768, Pepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm, he incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands. In 797, the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VI was removed from the throne by his mother Irene who declared herself Empress; as the Church regarded a male Roman Emperor as the head of Christendom, Pope
Pope Innocent II
Pope Innocent II, born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143. His election was controversial and the first eight years of his reign were marked by a struggle for recognition against the supporters of Antipope Anacletus II, he reached an understanding with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor who supported him against Anacletus and whom he crowned King of the Romans. Innocent went on to preside over the Second Lateran council. Papareschi came from a Roman family of the rione Trastevere, he was one of the clergy in personal attendance on the Antipope Clement III. Pope Urban II made him a cardinal deacon in 1088. In this capacity, he accompanied Pope Gelasius II, he was selected by Pope Callixtus II for various important and difficult missions, such as the one to Worms for the conclusion of the Concordat of Worms, the peace accord made with Holy Roman Emperor Henry V in 1122, the one to France in 1123 that made peace with King Louis VI. In 1130, as Pope Honorius II lay dying, the cardinals decided to entrust the election to a commission of eight men led by papal chancellor Haimeric, who had his candidate Cardinal Gregory Papareschi hastily elected as Pope Innocent II.
He was consecrated on 14 February, the day after Honorius' death. The other cardinals announced that Innocent had not been canonically elected and chose Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni, a Roman whose family were the enemy of Haimeric's supporters, the Frangipani. Anacletus' mixed group of supporters were powerful enough to take control of Rome while Innocent was forced to flee north. Based on a simple majority of the entire college of cardinals, Anacletus was the canonically elected pope, Innocent was the anti-Pope. However, the legislation of Pope Nicholas II pre-empted the choice of the majority of the cardinal priests and cardinal deacons; this rule was changed by the Second Lateran council of 1139. Anacletus had control of Rome, so Innocent II took ship for Pisa, thence sailed by way of Genoa to France, where the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux secured his cordial recognition by the clergy and the court. In October of the same year he was duly acknowledged by Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III and his bishops at the synod of Würzburg.
In January 1131, he had a favourable interview with Henry I of England, in August 1132 Lothar III undertook an expedition to Italy for the double purpose of setting aside Anacletus as antipope and of being crowned by Innocent. Anacletus and his supporters being in secure control of St. Peter's Basilica, the coronation took place in the Lateran Church, but otherwise the expedition proved abortive. At the investiture of Lothair as Emperor he gained the territories belonging to Matilda of Tuscany in return for an annuity to be paid to the pope, in consequence of which the curial party based the contention that the Emperor was a vassal of the Papal see. A second expedition by Lothar III in 1136 was not more decisive in its results, the protracted struggle between the rival pontiffs was terminated only by the death of Anacletus II on 25 January 1138. Innocent took as cardinal-nephew first his nephew, Gregorio Papareschi, whom he elevated to cardinal in 1134, his brother Pietro Papareschi, whom he elevated to cardinal in 1142.
Another nephew, Cinzio Papareschi, was a cardinal, raised to the cardinalate in 1158, after Innocent's death. By the Second Lateran council of 1139, at which King Roger II of Sicily, Innocent II's most uncompromising foe, was excommunicated, peace was at last restored to the Church. Aside from the complete rebuilding of the ancient church of Santa Maria in Trastevere, which boldly features Ionic capitals from former colonnades in the Baths of Caracalla and other richly detailed spolia from Roman monuments, the remaining years of this Pope's life were as barren of permanent political results as the first had been, his efforts to undo the mischief wrought in Rome by the long schism were entirely neutralized by a quarrel with his erstwhile supporter, Louis VII of France over the candidate for archbishop of Bourges, in the course of which that kingdom was laid under an interdict to press for the papal candidate, by a struggle with the town of Tivoli in which he became involved. As a result, Roman factions that wished Tivoli annihilated took up arms against Innocent.
It was in 1139 that, in the Omne Datum Optimum, Innocent II declared that the Knights Templar—a religious and military organization twenty-one years old—should in the future be answerable only to the papacy. This was a keystone in the Templars' increasing power and wealth, helped to bring about their violent suppression in October 1307. Can. 29 of the Second Lateran Council under Pope Innocent II in 1139 banned the use of crossbows, as well as slings and bows, against Christians. On 22 July 1139, at Galluccio, Roger II's son Roger III, Duke of Apulia, ambushed the papal troops with a thousand knights and captured Innocent. On 25 July 1139, Innocent was forced to acknowledge the kingship and possessions of Roger with the Treaty of Mignano. In 1143, Innocent refused to recognise the Treaty of Mignano with Roger of Sicily, who sent Robert of Selby to march on papal Benevento; the terms agreed upon at Mignano were recognised. Innocent II died on 24 September 1143 and was succeeded by Pope Celestine II.
The doctrinal questions which he was called on to decide were those that condemned the opinions of Pierre Abélard and of Arnold of Brescia. In 1143, as the Pope lay dying, the Commune of Rome, to resist papal power, began deliberations that reinstated the Roman Senate the following year; the Po