This is a list of monarchs of Wessex until 927AD. For monarchs, see the List of English monarchs. While the details of the monarchs are confirmed by a number of sources, the earlier ones are in many cases obscure; the names are given in modern English form followed by the names and titles in contemporary Old English and Latin, the prevalent "official" languages of the time in England. This was a period in which spellings varied even within a document. A number of variations of the details below exist. Among these are the preference between the runic character thorn and the letter eth, both of which are pronounced /th/ and were interchangeable, they were used indiscriminately unlike in modern Icelandic. Thorn tended to be more used in the eth in the North. Separate letters th were preferred in the earliest period in Northern texts, returned to dominate by the Middle English period onward; the character ⁊ was used as the ampersand in contemporary Anglo-Saxon writings. The era pre-dates the emergence of some forms of writing accepted today.
W was rendered VV, but the runic character wynn was a common way of writing the /w/ sound. Again the West Saxons preferred the character derived from a rune, the Angles/Engle preferred the Latin-derived lettering VV, consistent with the thorn versus eth usage pattern. Except in manuscripts, runic letters were an Anglian phenomenon; the early Engle restricted the use of runes to monuments, whereas the Saxons adopted wynn and thorn for sounds which did not have a Latin equivalent. Otherwise they were not used in Wessex; the chart shows their descent from the traditional first king of Wessex, down to the children of Alfred the Great. A continuation of the tree into the 10th and 11th centuries can be found at English monarchs family tree; the tree is based on the late 9th-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, Asser's Life of King Alfred. These sources are all related and were compiled at a similar date, incorporate a desire in their writers to associate the royal household with the authority of being a continuation of a unified line of kingship descended from a single original founder.
One earlier pedigree survives, which traces the ancestry of King Ine back to Cerdic. This first appears in a 10th-century manuscript copy of the "Anglian collection" of Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies; the manuscript is thought to have been made at Glastonbury in the 930s during the reign of King Æthelstan, but the material may well date back to the earliest reconstructable version of the collection, c. 796. Compared to the texts, this pedigree gives an ancestry for Ceolwald as son of Cuthwulf son of Cuthwine which in the 9th-century texts sometimes seems confused. Many of the links shown are disputed. Egbert, who became King of Wessex in 802, was of Kentish origin, his ancestry back to Cerdic may have been invented to legitimize his claim to the throne of Wessex. There are a number of discrepancies between different sources. List of Wessex consorts List of English monarchs Governors of Roman Britain List of legendary kings of Britain Barbara Yorke, Wessex in the early Middle Ages, A & C Black, ISBN 071851856X.
Robert Tang Ching, GBM, SBS, JP is a retired Hong Kong judge. He served as a permanent judge of the Court of Final Appeal, before that, the vice-president of the Court of Appeal in Hong Kong. Following his retirement, he was appointed a non-permanent judge of the Court of Final Appeal. Born in Shanghai, Robert Tang received his education in England. In 1969, he graduated from the University of Birmingham. Tang began his legal career as a barrister at Gray's Inn in England in 1969, he was called to the Bar in Hong Kong in 1970, the Bar of Victoria, Australia in 1984, the New York Bar in 1986. Tang was appointed as Queen's Counsel in 1986. In 1992, he was admitted as a barrister in Singapore. From 1988 to 1990 he was Chairman of the Hong Kong Bar Association. During his time in private practice, he was eminently successful and was described by his former pupil and current Chief Justice Geoffrey Ma to have had arguably "the most successful practice” in the profession. Tang served as a Deputy District Judge in 1982 and as a Deputy High Court Judge in 1986.
He was appointed as a Recorder of the High Court in 1995 and appointed a judge of the High Court in April 2004. He became a Justice of Appeal of the Court of Appeal of Hong Kong on 3 January 2005 and was appointed as the Vice-President of the Court of Appeal of Hong Kong on 1 November 2006, he was appointed a non-permanent judge of the Court of Final Appeal on 1 September 2010. He became a permanent judge of the Court on 25 October 2012. On 21 March 2018, the judiciary announced that Tang would be appointed as a non-permanent judge following his retirement. Tang is married to Cissy K. S. Lam and has two children and Charles Tang. In 2004, Tang was awarded the Silver Bauhinia Star for his judicial service in Hong Kong. Robert C. Tang's personal website
Charles Bachman Moore, Jr. was an American physicist and meteorologist, known for his research atmospheric physics and his work with gas balloons. He was born in Tennessee. Moore attended college at Georgia Institute of Technology in 1940. During World War II, he served as a weather equipment officer for the U. S. Army Air Corps in the China-Burma-India theater, in occupied China. Moore returned to Georgia Tech after the war, received a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering in 1947. Moore was recruited as a project engineer for Project Mogul in 1947 by New York University geophysicist Athelstan Spilhaus, who headed the Balloon Group within the project. Project Mogul, led by Dr. James Peoples and his assistant Albert P. Crary, made use of Moore's work in materials science allowing the construction of balloons which could better withstand cold temperatures and safely rise to greater altitudes. A balloon that Moore helped launch in New Mexico on June 4, 1947, was identified as the source of the debris found on the Foster ranch which led to UFO conspiracy theories and claims surrounding the Roswell incident.
In 1953, Moore joined the Arthur D. Little Corporation and worked with Bernard Vonnegut to develop techniques for vaporizing sodium and calcium from rockets for high-altitude studies of winds and sodium in the upper atmosphere, they collaborated on over 50 publications related to atmospheric electricity. Moore worked at the General Mills Aeronautical Research Laboratory throughout the 1950s, participating in a number of projects sponsored by the Office of Naval Research aimed at developing both military and intelligence applications for balloons, including attempts to drop anti-Soviet leaflets from balloons and the use of balloons for surveillance purposes. Moore was known for his 1959 expedition to the stratosphere with Malcolm Ross, in which they performed the first spectrographic analysis of the planet Venus, free of interference from the Earth's atmosphere, thereby proving the existence of water on that planet. In 1969, Moore became the chairman of Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research and expanded the lab's facilities.
Moore was a professor of atmospheric physics at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro for several years, nominally retired in 1985. Moore has received a number of academic honors. New Mexico Tech, Distinguished Research Award, 1984 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1997 Lifetime Achievement Award Royal Meteorological Society fellowship American Meteorological Society fellowship American Association for the Advancement of Science fellowship American Geophysical Union fellowship TIME.com's 1959 article on Moore's Venus observation Eos' article remembering geophysicist Charles Bachman Moore
Desmanthus bicornutus is a species of flowering plant in the legume family native to northern and central Mexico and the southwestern United States. It is an "abundant roadside weed across its native range." It is known by the common names ruby bundleflower, two-horn bundleflower, in Mexican Spanish malvilla de laguna. A small, upright-standing shrub that grows to about 3 meters in height, Desmanthus bicornutus has a woody base. Young stems are a deep red color; the compound bipinnate leaves are between 18 cm long. Desmanthus bicornutus blooms in condensed spikes of 25-60 flowers; these flowers may be functionally male, or sterile. It bears up to a dozen edible linear pods on fruiting stalks up to 5 cm long. Pods are 5.5 mm wide. Immature pods are red but these turn to a dark brown as they mature. Desmanthus bicornutus grows in the states of Baja California Sur, Chihuahua and Sonora in Northern Mexico as well as the central states of Colima, Jalisco, Michoacán, Veracruz. In the United States, D. bicornutus grows only in the state of Arizona.
This plant favors rocky, or sandy soils in its native range. At higher elevations, D. bicornutus can be found in grasslands. At lower elevations, this plant is found near canyons and waterways. Though occurring over an area with a wide annual rainfall range, D. bicornutus is found in areas with intense dry seasons of up to ten months duration. This species dies back to its base during winter or dry season and refoliates when conditions become favorable again, it will regrow in environments ravaged by wildfire. In Guerrero, Mexico, D. bicornutus beans are used in the making of salsa. As a component of grasslands in northern Mexico and southern Arizona, D. bicornutus benefits the grazing of livestock and is tolerant of defoliation caused by heavy grazing. D. Bicornutus has been grown experimentally in Australia. Although it grows abundantly as a weed in its native area and may be a potential invasive species, 14-year-old experimental plots of D. bicornutus in western Queensland have not overgrown their boundaries.
A few cultivars of D. bicornutus have been developed by Texas A&M University. Gardiner C. P. and Burt R. L.. Performance characteristics of Desmanthus virgatus in two contrasting tropical environments. Tropical Grasslands, 29, 183-187. Hopkinson, J. M. and English, B. H.. Germination and hardseededness in Desmanthus. Tropical Grasslands, 38, 1-16. Luckow, M.. Monograph of Desmanthus. Systematic Botany Monographs. Vol. 38. The American Society of Plant Taxonomists. Ocumpaugh, W. R. et al.. Registration of "BeeTam 06". Crop Science, 44. Pengelly, B. C. and Liu, C. J. Genetic relationships and variation in the tropical mimosoid legume Desmanthus assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 48, 91-99
The Dawsahak people, Idaksahak are pastoralist Berbers centered on Menaka and Inékar town in Menaka Cercle and Talataye in Ansongo Cercle of the Gao Region of northeastern Mali. They speak the Northern Songhai language Tadaksahak. Many speak Western Tawallammat Tamajaq language, the Tuareg language of southern Gao. Daoussahak appears to be the most common transliteration of the collective name among French and English academics; the Idaksahak are a former dependent faction of local Tuareg Iwellemmeden serving as maraboutic and livestock minders for higher caste Tuareg factions. Despite this history, they predated the Tuareg in the region, the Songhay Empire, from which they took their language, they are still sometimes referred to as a tewsit of the Iwellemmeden Tuareg. The Idaksahak, like the related Igdalan "were among the first Berbers to migrate to sub-Saharan Africa, sometime between the 8th and 9th centuries" and were among the first Muslim groups in the area; the Daoussahak remained detached from, sometimes in conflict with, French colonial rule as late as the 1950s.
They were among the first of the rebels who rose against the Malian government in the 1963-64 rebellion, an insurgency, met with brutal suppression across the north of the country. Daoussahak men formed armed groups during the 1990s rebellion; the Popular Liberation Front of Azawad and the splinter group the National Liberation Front of Azawad contained fighters drawn from the Daoussahak, the being majority Daoussahak. Daoussahak livestock raiding and conflict with rival Fula pastoralists and farmers continues today, with occasional armed conflict over land, grazing and animals periodically spilling over into the Ouallam Department of Niger, they now include both sedentary pastoralists and town dwellers, as well as seasonally nomadic pastoralists, herding cattle and camels from Mali through southern Algeria and northwest Niger. Transhumance patterns continue to take them northeast into the area of Niger inhabited by the Igdalen related Isawaghan: sedentary Northern Songhay speakers of Ingal Niger.
The Idaksahak have a history of transhumance patterns to the southeast, taking them into what is now the Ouallam area of Niger. The Malian population of Idaksahak is estimated at 30,000. Idaksahak share with Tuareg a three part caste system of "free masters", "craftspeople" and the "captives/slaves". One study suggested. While culturally similar, Igdalan do not intermarry with Tuareg, while Idaksahak intermarry with both communities; the name i-dáksahak means "sons of Issac". The Idaksahak are Muslim, although many maintain pre-Islamic practices. In Menaka and Ansongo, the Idaksahak live amongst populations of the Igdalan, the Kel Essouk Tuareg, Ihatan Songhay, Berberiche Arab factions. Tadaksahak language Tuareg Regula Christiansen-Bolli A Grammar of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay Language of Mali. Leiden University Centre for Linguistics.. Cyffer, Norbert. Michael J Rueck. Northern Songhay languages in Mali and Niger, a sociolinguistic survey. In Trends in Nilo-Saharan linguistics: proceedings of the 7th Nilo-Saharan linguistics conference, Austria, 2–6 September 1998.
Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag. Idaksahak: a community blog from an Idaksahak community group in Mali
The Des Moines Public Library is a historic building in downtown Des Moines, United States, built in 1903. It was individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977, became a contributing property in the Civic Center Historic District in 1988; the building ceased to be a library in 2006 and now houses the Norman E. Borlaug | World Food Prize Hall of Laureates for the World Food Prize; the Des Moines Library Association was formed in 1866 in the basement of a Methodist church. It was supported through private contributions and public charity until 1882 when its services were taken over by the city of Des Moines because of precarious finances. In 1898, the city bought property on the Des Moines River for $35,000; the cornerstone for the library building was laid in 1900 and it was opened in October 1903. In the 1920s, the library became the home of the Cumming School of Art, it was the birthplace of the Library Bill of Rights in 1938 when the library was under the direction of Forrest Spaulding.
It was meant to fight against “growing intolerance, suppression of free speech and censorship affecting the rights of minorities and individuals.” The Boys and Girls Department opened in 1937 and the Music Department began in the 1950s. In the 1990s, it was determined that the library building was too small and lacked the necessary technology capacity. London architect David Chipperfield was chosen to design a new library on Grand Avenue, it opened on April 8, 2006; the building was acquired by The World Food Prize for its use. The building was renamed in honor of Cresco, Iowa native Norman Borlaug, who founded the award which recognizes those who have made contributions in all fields involved in the world food supply. Gensler Architecture and Planning, RDG Planning & Design and Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architecture are involved in renovating the building, it will serve as a museum to recognize great achievements in agriculture, a convocation center that will hold the World Food Prize International Symposium, a home for the Global Youth Institute, an educational facility that will feature interactive displays on hunger and food security and a conference center and community hall.
Des Moines architects Gutterson & Smith designed the Beaux Arts style building. It was constructed of salmon pink, Minnesota limestone. A mural was painted on the ground floor of the library by Harry Donald Jones, it was a project of the Works Progress Administration. The mural covers 1,091 square feet and portrays the development of Des Moines from pre-historic times to the 20th century; the building featured a fountain and stone steps, which were removed in 1955. Media related to World Food Prize Hall of Laureates at Wikimedia Commons