Beaulieu Abbey, grid reference SU389026, was a Cistercian abbey in Hampshire, England. It was founded in 1203–1204 by King John and populated by 30 monks sent from the abbey of Cîteaux in France, the mother house of the Cistercian order; the Medieval Latin name of the monastery was monasterium Belli loci Regis. Other spellings of the English name which occur are Bewley and Beaulie; the first Abbot of Beaulieu was Hugh, who stood high in the king's favour served in important diplomatic missions and was to become Bishop of Carlisle. The king granted the new abbey a rich endowment, including numerous manors spread across southern England, land in the New Forest, large amounts of money, building materials, 120 cows, 12 bulls, a golden chalice, an annual tun of wine. John's son and successor, King Henry III was generous to Beaulieu, with the result that the abbey became wealthy, though it was far from the richest English Cistercian house. Monks from Beaulieu founded four daughter houses, Netley Abbey, Hailes Abbey, Newenham Abbey and St Mary Graces Abbey.
The abbey's buildings were of a scale and magnificence reflecting its status as an important royal foundation. The church was a vast cruciform structure in early gothic style and influenced by French churches of the order those of Cîteaux and Clairvaux; the church had a semi-circular apse with 11 radiating chapels. The building took more than four decades to complete and was dedicated in 1246, in the presence of King Henry III and his queen, of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, of many prelates and nobles. South of the church stood a cloister, ranged around which were the chapter house, kitchens and quarters for the monks, lay brothers and the abbot. A separate infirmary complex lay to the east of the main buildings, connected to them by a passage; the abbey was surrounded by workshops, farm buildings, guesthouses, a mill, extensive gardens and fishponds. Fortified gatehouses controlled entry to the monastic enclosure, defended by a wall. A water gate allowed access to ships in the river. Pope Innocent III constituted Beaulieu an "exempt abbey", meaning that the abbot had to answer to no local bishop but only to the Pope himself.
Beaulieu was invested by the same Pope with special privileges of sanctuary, much stronger than usual and covering not only the abbey itself but all the 23.5 hectare precinct around as included in the original grant made by King John. As Beaulieu was the only abbey in its region with such large and enforced sanctuary rights, it soon became a refuge for fugitives, both ordinary criminals and debtors and political enemies of the government. Among these latter were Anne Neville, wife of Warwick the Kingmaker, who sought sanctuary after the Battle of Barnet. Twenty-six years Perkin Warbeck fled to Beaulieu from the pursuing armies of Henry VII. In 1535 the abbey's income was assessed in the Valor Ecclesiasticus, Henry VIII's general survey of church finances prior to the plunder, at £428 gross, £326 net. According to the terms of the first Suppression Act, Henry's initial move in the Dissolution of the Monasteries, this meant that it escaped immediate confiscation, though the clouds were gathering.
The last abbot of Beaulieu was Abbot Thomas Stevens, elected in 1536, abbot of the dissolved abbey of Netley, across Southampton Water. Though Beaulieu managed to survive until April 1538, at that point it was forced to surrender to the government. Many of the monks were granted the abbot receiving 100 marks per year. Abbot Thomas ended his days as treasurer of Salisbury Cathedral, he died in 1550. At the dissolution of the monastery in 1538, the Commissioners for the Dissolution reported to the government that thirty-two sanctuary-men, who were here for debt, felony, or murder, were living in houses in the monastic precincts with their wives and families; when the abbey was dissolved there was some debate about what to do with them, however, in the end it was decided, after pleading by the former abbot and certain government officials, to allow the debtors to live in their houses on the abbey grounds permanently. Pardons were given to some including one Thomas Jeynes, a murderer. After Beaulieu fell there was much competition amongst courtiers to gain ownership of the abbey and its valuable estates, but Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton, won the struggle and King Henry granted him the abbey itself and 3,441 hectares of the Beaulieu lands.
As soon as he took over, Wriothesley set about building himself a house on the site. He demolished the church, as was common practice but, instead of converting the buildings around the cloister into a home he chose the great gatehouse as the core of his mansion; this survives – much extended – as the modern country house at Beaulieu known as Palace House. Lord Southampton preserved the monks' refectory, which he gave to the people of Beaulieu village to be their parish church, a function it still serves today; the west range of the abbey, known as the Domus, was saved. The rest of the abbey was allowed to fall into ruin. Although a great deal was destroyed at the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries, there is still much to see; the groundplan of the 102-metre-long church can be seen on the lawns. The position of the altar is marked by flanking trees; the Domus, once the lay brothers' refectory and
Barking is a suburban town in East London and the administrative centre of the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham. It is 10 miles east of Charing Cross, it was an ancient parish in the county of Essex. Its economic history is characterised by a shift from fishing and farming to market gardening and industrial development south of the River Thames; the railway station opened in 1854 and has been served by the London Underground since 1908. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Barking expanded and increased in population due to the development of the London County Council estate at Becontree in the 1920s, became a municipal borough in 1931, part of Greater London in 1965. In addition to an extensive and low-density residential area, the town centre forms a large retail and commercial district a focus for regeneration; the former industrial lands to the south are being redeveloped as Barking Riverside. Its name came from Anglo-Saxon Berecingas, meaning either "the settlement of the followers or descendants of a man called Bereca" or "the settlement by the birch trees".
In AD 735 the town was Berecingum and was known to mean "dwellers among the birch trees". By AD 1086, it had become Berchingae. In British slang "Barking" is short for "barking mad", Barking is sometimes cited as the origin of the phrase, attributed to the alleged existence of a medieval insane asylum attached to Barking Abbey. However, the phrase first appeared in the 20th century. A more derivation is from comparing an insane person to a mad dog. Barking was a large ancient parish of 12,307 acres in the Becontree hundred of Essex, it was divided into the wards of Chadwell, Ilford and Town. A local board was formed for Town ward in 1882 and it was extended to cover Ripple ward in 1885. In 1888 Ilford and Chadwell were split off as a new parish of Ilford, leaving a residual parish of 3,814 acres; the parish became Barking Town Urban District in 1894 and the local board became an urban district council. The urban district was incorporated as the Municipal Borough of Barking in 1931, it was abolished in 1965 and split, with the majority merged with the former area of the Municipal Borough of Dagenham to form the London Borough of Barking.
The part west of the River Roding, which included part of Beckton, became part of the London Borough of Newham. In 1980 the borough was renamed Dagenham. Barking's population was 48,340 in 2011; the manor of Barking was the site of Barking Abbey, a nunnery founded in 666 by Eorcenwald, Bishop of London, destroyed by the Danes and reconstructed in 970 by King Edgar. The celebrated writer Marie de France may have been abbess of the nunnery in the late 12th century. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536, Barking Abbey was demolished; the parish church is an example of Norman architecture. A charter issued between 1175 and 1179 confirms the ancient market right; the market has since been revived. St Margaret's Church is a grade I listed building in the Abbey Green area of the Town Centre, dating back to the 13th century, it is built within the grounds of Barking Abbey, a former royal monastery, whose ruins are recognisable for its restored Grade-II* Listed Curfew Tower, which features on the coat of arms of the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham.
Eastbury Manor House in Barking is a Grade I listed 16th century Elizabethan manor house and museum run by the National Trust. Fishing was the most important industry from the 14th century until the mid-19th. Salt water fishing began before 1320, when too fine nets were seized by City authorities, but expanded from the 16th century. Fisher Street was named after the fishing community there. From about 1775 welled and dry smacks were used as cod boats, rigged as gaff cutters. Fishermen sailed as far as Iceland in the summer, they served Billingsgate Fish Market in the City of London, moored in Barking Pool. Scymgeour Hewett, born on 7 December 1797, founded the Short Blue Fleet based in Barking, using smacks out of Barking and east coast ports. Around 1870 this fleet changed to gaff ketches that stayed out at sea for months, using ice for preservation of fish produced by flooding local fields in winter. Fleeting involved fish being ferried from fishing smacks to gaff cutters by little wooden ferry-boats.
The rowers had to stand. Rowers refused to wear their bulky cork lifejackets. At first the fast 50-foot gaff cutters with great booms projecting beyond the sterns raced the fish to port to get the best prices; until about 1870 the trade was in live fish, using welled smacks in which the central section of the hull, between two watertight bulkheads, was pierced to create a'well' in which seawater could circulate. Cod caught live were lowered into this well, with their swim bladders pierced, remained alive until the vessel returned to port, when they were transferred to semi-submerged'chests,' cages, which kept them alive until they were ready for sale. At this point they were pulled out and killed with a blow on the head before being despatched to market, where because of their freshness they commanded a high price. People who practised this method of fishing were known as'codbangers.'By 1850 there some 220 smacks, employin
Battle, East Sussex
Battle is a small town and civil parish in the local government district of Rother in East Sussex, England. It lies 55 miles south-south-east 32 miles east of Brighton and 24 miles east of Lewes. Nearby are Hastings to the south-east and Bexhill-on-Sea to the south, it was the site of the Battle of Hastings, where William, Duke of Normandy, defeated King Harold II to become William I in 1066. It lies in the designated High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the parish population was 6,048 according to the 2001 census, increasing to 6,673 with the 2011 Census. It has two senior schools: Battle Abbey. Battle Abbey was founded to commemorate the battle, dedicated in 1095; the high altar of the Abbey church was reputedly on the spot. The Abbey gateway is still the dominant feature of the south end of the main street, although little remains of the rest of the Abbey buildings; the remaining cloisters, part of the west range, were leased to Battle Abbey School shortly after World War I, the school remains in occupancy to this day.
The abbey at Battle has been known for centuries as Battle Abbey. It and the abbey church were dedicated to St Martin, sometimes known as the "Apostle of the Gauls"; the town of Battle was built around the Abbey, developed a reputation for the quality of the gunpowder produced in the area. In the mid-18th century, the town supported five watchmakers in the High Street. Today, Battle is known as a tourist destination; the local Battel Bonfire Boyes is claimed to be the oldest of the Sussex Bonfire Societies. The importance of Bonfire Night in Battle is. Most of the area was wooded, which provided oak and other timbers for Navy shipyards, power for making cannons and gunpowder. Battle was the birthplace in 1799 of Eliza Acton, author of the pioneering Modern Cookery for Private Families This continued to sell well for the rest of the century, its lists of ingredients, cooking times and other innovations provided a model for the cookery section of the best-selling Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management.
Battle was a refuge in World War I, tunnels still exist, leading from various fields and cellars to Battle Abbey itself. However, they are now closed; the first gunpowder mill in Battle was built in 1676 when John Hammond was granted permission to build a mill on land owned by the Abbey. A gunpowder works was located in Powdermill Lane – the remains of which have been converted into a hotel. In 1722 Daniel Defoe described the town as being "remarkable for little now, but for making the finest gun-powder, the best in Europe"; the Duke of Cleveland refused to renew the licence in 1847 after many mishaps, including one occasion in 1798 on which more than 15 tonnes of gunpowder were left in the oven for too long and exploded. Battle is governed at the lowest level by Battle Town Council, consisting of 17 elected councillors who meet on the third Tuesday of each month; the council is responsible for street lighting and recreational areas. It provides a local voice to the county councils, it is split into four wards: Marley, Netherfield and Watch Oak, of which Marley was the only one contested in the 2007 election.
The vacant seats in the remaining wards have since been filled by co-option. Rother District council provides the next level of government with services such as refuse collection, planning consent, leisure amenities and council tax collection; the parish of Battle falls within three wards. The main town of Battle makes up Battle town ward; the south-eastern area of the parish, which includes the village of Telham, lies within Crowhurst ward. The north-western area, which includes the village of Netherfield, lies within Darwell ward. Crowhurst ward provides a single councillor, the other two wards provide two councillors to Rother District council. In the May 2007 election, Battle town ward elected two Liberal Democrats, Darwell ward elected one Conservative and one independent councillor. Crowhurst ward was won by the Conservative candidate; the electoral ward for this area had a population at the 2011 census of 5,312. East Sussex County Council is the third tier of government, providing education and highway maintenance.
Battle falls within the Crowhurst ward. Kathryn Margaret Field, Liberal Democrat, was elected in the May 2005 election with 48.8% of the vote. The UK Parliament constituency for Battle is Battle. Gregory Barker was re-elected in May 2010 elections. At European level, Battle is represented by the South-East region, which holds ten seats in the European Parliament; the June 2004 election returned four Conservatives, two Liberal Democrats, two UK Independence, one Labour and one Green, none of whom lives in East Sussex. Telham Hill is about one mile south-east of Senlac Hill, in East Sussex, England, it was from Telham Hill that William the Conqueror's army first caught sight of the English army forming up on Senlac Hill, for the battle of Hastings, 14 October 1066. In the 19th century it was owned and farmed by Samuel Carter as part of his Quarry Hill estate. There are three Sites of Special Scientific Interest within the parish. Blackhorse Quarry, a site of palaeontological interest which has produced many fossil bones and teeth including Iguanodon and crocodiles.
Hemingfold Meadow is a site of biological interest consisting of two meadows with nationally rare grassland species. Darwell Wood is within the parish, another site of biological importance as an example of hornbeam coppice with oak standards. Battle is linked to Hastings an
Somerset is a county in South West England which borders Gloucestershire and Bristol to the north, Wiltshire to the east, Dorset to the south-east and Devon to the south-west. It is bounded to the north and west by the Severn Estuary and the Bristol Channel, its coastline facing southeastern Wales, its traditional border with Gloucestershire is the River Avon. Somerset's county town is Taunton. Somerset is a rural county of rolling hills, the Blackdown Hills, Mendip Hills, Quantock Hills and Exmoor National Park, large flat expanses of land including the Somerset Levels. There is evidence of human occupation from Paleolithic times, of subsequent settlement by the Celts and Anglo-Saxons; the county played a significant part in Alfred the Great's rise to power, the English Civil War and the Monmouth Rebellion. The city of Bath is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Somerset's name derives from Old English Sumorsǣte, short for Sumortūnsǣte, meaning "the people living at or dependent on Sumortūn"; the first known use of Somersæte is in the law code of King Ine, the Saxon King of Wessex from 688 to 726, making Somerset along with Hampshire and Dorset one of the oldest extant units of local government in the world.
An alternative suggestion is the name derives from Seo-mere-saetan meaning "settlers by the sea lakes". The Old English name is used in the motto of the county, Sumorsǣte ealle, meaning "all the people of Somerset". Adopted as the motto in 1911, the phrase is taken from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Somerset was a part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex, the phrase refers to the wholehearted support the people of Somerset gave to King Alfred in his struggle to save Wessex from Viking invaders. Somerset settlement names are Anglo-Saxon in origin, but numerous place names include Brittonic Celtic elements, such as the rivers Frome and Avon, names of hills. For example, an Anglo-Saxon charter of 682 refers to Creechborough Hill as "the hill the British call Cructan and the Anglo-Saxons call Crychbeorh"; some modern names are Brythonic in origin, such as Tarnock, while others have both Saxon and Brythonic elements, such as Pen Hill. The caves of the Mendip Hills were settled during the Palaeolithic period, contain extensive archaeological sites such as those at Cheddar Gorge.
Bones from Gough's Cave have been dated to 12,000 BC, a complete skeleton, known as Cheddar Man, dates from 7150 BC. Examples of cave art have been found in Aveline's Hole; some caves continued to be occupied until modern times, including Wookey Hole. The Somerset Levels—specifically dry points at Glastonbury and Brent Knoll— have a long history of settlement, are known to have been settled by Mesolithic hunters. Travel in the area was facilitated by the construction of one of the world's oldest known engineered roadways, the Sweet Track, which dates from 3807 BC or 3806 BC; the exact age of the henge monument at Stanton Drew stone circles is unknown, but it is believed to be Neolithic. There are numerous Iron Age hill forts, some of which, like Cadbury Castle and Ham Hill, were reoccupied in the Early Middle Ages. On the authority of the future emperor Vespasian, as part of the ongoing expansion of the Roman presence in Britain, the Second Legion Augusta invaded Somerset from the south-east in AD 47.
The county remained part of the Roman Empire until around AD 409, when the Roman occupation of Britain came to an end. A variety of Roman remains have been found, including Pagans Hill Roman temple in Chew Stoke,Low Ham Roman Villa and the Roman Baths that gave their name to the city of Bath. After the Romans left, Britain was invaded by Anglo-Saxon peoples. By AD 600 they had established control over much of what is now England, but Somerset was still in native British hands; the British held back Saxon advance into the south-west for some time longer, but by the early eighth century King Ine of Wessex had pushed the boundaries of the West Saxon kingdom far enough west to include Somerset. The Saxon royal palace in Cheddar was used several times in the 10th century to host the Witenagemot. After the Norman Conquest, the county was divided into 700 fiefs, large areas were owned by the crown, with fortifications such as Dunster Castle used for control and defence. Somerset contains HM Prison Shepton Mallet, England's oldest prison still in use prior to its closure in 2013, having opened in 1610.
In the English Civil War Somerset was Parliamentarian, with key engagements being the Sieges of Taunton and the Battle of Langport. In 1685 the Monmouth Rebellion was played out in neighbouring Dorset; the rebels landed at Lyme Regis and travelled north, hoping to capture Bristol and Bath, but they were defeated in the Battle of Sedgemoor at Westonzoyland, the last pitched battle fought in England. Arthur Wellesley took Duke of Wellington from the town of Wellington; the Industrial Revolution in the Midlands and Northern England spelled the end for most of Somerset's cottage industries. Farming continued to flourish and the Bath and West of England Society for the Encouragement of Agriculture, Arts and Commerce was founded in 1777 to improve farming methods. Despite this, 20 years John Billingsley conducted a survey of the county's agriculture in 1795 and found that agricultural methods could still be improved. Coal mining was an important industry in north Somerset during the 18th and 19th centuries, by 1800 it was prominent in Radstock.
The Somerset Coalfield reached its peak production by the 1920s, but all the pits have now been closed, the last in 1973. Most of the surface
Bath Abbey is an Anglican parish church and former Benedictine monastery in Bath, England. Founded in the 7th century, it was reorganised in the 10th century and rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries, it is one of the largest examples of Perpendicular Gothic architecture in the West Country. The cathedral was consolidated to Wells Cathedral in 1539 after the abbey was dissolved in the Dissolution of the Monasteries, but the name of the diocese has remained unchanged; the church is cruciform in plan, able to seat 1,200. An active place of worship, it hosts civic ceremonies and lectures. There is a heritage museum in the vaults; the abbey is a Grade I listed building noted for its fan vaulting. It contains war memorials for the local population and monuments to several notable people, in the form of wall and floor plaques and commemorative stained glass; the church has a peal of ten bells. The west front includes sculptures of angels climbing to heaven on two stone ladders. In 675 AD, King of the Hwicce, granted the Abbess Berta 100 hides near Bath for the establishment of a convent.
This religious house became a monastery under the patronage of the Bishop of Worcester. King Offa of Mercia wrested "that most famous monastery at Bath" from the bishop in 781. William of Malmesbury tells that Offa rebuilt the monastic church, which may have occupied the site of an earlier pagan temple, to such a standard that King Eadwig was moved to describe it as being "marvellously built". Monasticism in England had declined by that time, but Eadwig's brother Edgar began its revival on his accession to the throne in 959, he encouraged monks to adopt the Rule of Saint Benedict, introduced at Bath under Abbot Ælfheah. Bath was ravaged in the power struggle between the sons of William the Conqueror following his death in 1087; the victor, William II Rufus, granted the city to a royal physician, John of Tours, who became Bishop of Wells and Abbot of Bath. Shortly after his consecration John bought Bath Abbey's grounds from the king, as well as the city of Bath itself. Whether John paid Rufus for the city or whether he was given it as a gift by the king is unclear.
The abbey had lost its abbot, Ælfsige, according to Domesday Book was the owner of large estates in and near the city. By acquiring Bath, John acquired the mint, in the city. In 1090 he transferred the seat, or administration, of the bishopric to Bath Abbey in an attempt to increase the revenues of his see. Bath was a rich abbey, Wells had always been a poor diocese. By taking over the abbey, John increased his episcopal revenues. William of Malmesbury portrays the moving of the episcopal seat as motivated by a desire for the lands of the abbey, but it was part of a pattern at the time of moving cathedral seats from small villages to larger towns; when John moved his episcopal seat, he took over the abbey of Bath as his cathedral chapter, turning his diocese into a bishopric served by monks instead of the canons at Wells who had served the diocese. John rebuilt the monastic church at Bath, damaged during one of Robert de Mowbray's rebellions. Permission was given to move the see of Somerset from Wells – a comparatively small settlement – to the walled city of Bath.
When this was effected in 1090, John became the first Bishop of Bath, St Peter's was raised to cathedral status. As the roles of bishop and abbot had been combined, the monastery became a priory, run by its prior. With the elevation of the abbey to cathedral status, it was felt that a larger, more up-to-date building was required. John of Tours planned a new cathedral on a grand scale, dedicated to Saint Peter and Saint Paul, but only the ambulatory was complete when he died in December 1122, he was buried in the cathedral. The most renowned scholar monk based in the abbey was Adelard of Bath; the half-finished cathedral was devastated by fire in 1137, but work continued under Godfrey, the new bishop, until about 1156. It was consecrated; the specific date is not known however it was between 1148 and 1161. In 1197, Reginald Fitz Jocelin's successor, Savaric FitzGeldewin, with the approval of Pope Celestine III moved his seat to Glastonbury Abbey, but the monks there would not accept their new Bishop of Glastonbury and the title of Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury was used until the Glastonbury claim was abandoned in 1219.
Savaric's successor, Jocelin of Wells, again moved the bishop's seat to Bath Abbey, with the title Bishop of Bath. Following his death the monks of Bath unsuccessfully attempted to regain authority over Wells. There were 40 monks on the roll in 1206. Joint cathedral status was awarded by Pope Innocent IV to Bath and Wells in 1245. Roger of Salisbury was appointed the first Bishop of Bath and Wells, having been Bishop of Bath for a year previously. Bishops preferred Wells, the canons of which had petitioned various popes down the years for Wells to regain cathedral status. Bath Cathedral fell into disrepair. In 1485 the priory had 22 monks; when Oliver King, Bishop of Bath and Wells 1495–1503, visited Bath in 1499 he was shocked to find this famous church in ruins. He described lax discipline, idleness and a group of monks "all too eager to succumb to the temptations of the flesh". King took a year to consid
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled, his disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is known as "the father of the Royal Navy". Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering into England the theory of the divine right of kings. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, he expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were used to quell dissent, those accused were executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder.
He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in Henry's administration, he was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert into royal revenue the money, paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly and unsuccessful continental wars with King Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. At home, he oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 and following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 he was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland, his contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive and accomplished king.
He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne". He was an composer; as he aged, Henry became obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is characterised in his life as a lustful, egotistical and insecure king, he was succeeded by the issue of his third marriage to Jane Seymour. Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales, he was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, he was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York and a month or so made Warden of the Scottish Marches.
In May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. The reason for all the appointments to a small child was so his father could keep personal control of lucrative positions and not share them with established families. Henry was given a first-rate education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French, learning at least some Italian. Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king. In November 1501, Henry played a considerable part in the ceremonies surrounding his brother's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile; as Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. He was further honoured, on 9 February 1506, by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I who made him a Knight of the Golden Fleece. In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, just 20 weeks after his marriage to Catherine.
Arthur's death thrust all his duties upon the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, the new Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in February 1503. Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was supervised and did not appear in public; as a result, he ascended the throne "untrained in the exacting art of kingship". Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering his second son in marriage to Arthur's widow Catherine. Both Isabella and Henry VII were keen on the idea, which had arisen shortly after Arthur's death. On 23 June 1503, a treaty was signed for their marriage, they were betrothed two days later. A papal dispensation was only needed for the "impediment of public honesty" if the marriage had not been consummated as Catherine and her duenna claimed, but Henry VII and the Spanish ambassador set out instead to obtain a dispensation for "affinity", which took account of the possibility of consummation.
Cohabitation was not possible. Isabella's death in 1504, the ensuing problems of succession in Castile, complicated matters, her father preferred her to stay in England, but Henry VII's relations with Ferdinand had deteriorated. Catherine was therefore left in limbo for some time, culminating in Prince Henry's rejection of the marriage as soon he was able, at the age of 14. Ferdinand's solution was to make his daugh
The Benedictines the Order of Saint Benedict, are a monastic Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. They are sometimes called the Black Monks, in reference to the colour of the members' religious habits. Despite being called an order, the Benedictines do not operate under a single hierarchy but are instead organised as a collection of independent monastic communities, with each community within the order maintaining its own autonomy. Unlike other religious orders, the Benedictines do not have a superior general or motherhouse with universal jurisdiction. Instead, the order is represented internationally by the Benedictine Confederation, an organisation, set up in 1893 to represent the order's shared interests; the monastery at Subiaco in Italy, established by Saint Benedict of Nursia c. 529, was the first of the dozen monasteries he founded. He founded the Abbey of Monte Cassino. There is no evidence, that he intended to found an order and the Rule of Saint Benedict presupposes the autonomy of each community.
When Monte Cassino was sacked by the Lombards about the year 580, the monks fled to Rome, it seems probable that this constituted an important factor in the diffusion of a knowledge of Benedictine monasticism. It was from the monastery of St. Andrew in Rome that Augustine, the prior, his forty companions set forth in 595 on their mission for the evangelization of England. At various stopping places during the journey, the monks left behind them traditions concerning their rule and form of life, also some copies of the Rule. Lérins Abbey, for instance, founded by Honoratus in 375 received its first knowledge of the Benedictine Rule from the visit of St. Augustine and his companions in 596. Gregory of Tours says that at Ainay Abbey, in the sixth century, the monks "followed the rules of Basil, Cassian and other fathers and using whatever seemed proper to the conditions of time and place", doubtless the same liberty was taken with the Benedictine Rule when it reached them. In Gaul and Switzerland, it supplemented the much stricter Irish or Celtic Rule introduced by Columbanus and others.
In many monasteries it entirely displaced the earlier codes. By the ninth century, the Benedictine had become the standard form of monastic life throughout the whole of Western Europe, excepting Scotland and Ireland, where the Celtic observance still prevailed for another century or two. Through the work of Benedict of Aniane, it became the rule of choice for monasteries throughout the Carolingian empire. Monastic scriptoria flourished from the ninth through the twelfth centuries. Sacred Scripture was always at the heart of every monastic scriptorium; as a general rule those of the monks who possessed skill as writers made this their chief, if not their sole active work. An anonymous writer of the ninth or tenth century speaks of six hours a day as the usual task of a scribe, which would absorb all the time available for active work in the day of a medieval monk. In the Middle Ages monasteries were founded by the nobility. Cluny Abbey was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine in 910; the abbey was noted for its strict adherence to the Rule of St. Benedict.
The abbot of Cluny was the superior of all the daughter houses, through appointed priors. One of the earliest reforms of Benedictine practice was that initiated in 980 by Romuald, who founded the Camaldolese community; the dominance of the Benedictine monastic way of life began to decline towards the end of the twelfth century, which saw the rise of the Franciscans and Dominicans. Benedictines took a fourth vow of "stability". Not being bound by location, the mendicants were better able to respond to an "urban" environment; this decline was further exacerbated by the practice of appointing a commendatory abbot, a lay person, appointed by a noble to oversee and to protect the goods of the monastery. Oftentimes, this resulted in the appropriation of the assets of monasteries at the expense of the community which they were intended to support; the English Benedictine Congregation is the oldest of the nineteen Benedictine congregations. Augustine of Canterbury and his monks established the first English Benedictine monastery at Canterbury soon after their arrival in 597.
Other foundations followed. Through the influence of Wilfrid, Benedict Biscop, Dunstan, the Benedictine Rule spread with extraordinary rapidity, in the North it was adopted in most of the monasteries, founded by the Celtic missionaries from Iona. Many of the episcopal sees of England were founded and governed by the Benedictines, no fewer than nine of the old cathedrals were served by the black monks of the priories attached to them. Monasteries served as places of refuge for the weak and homeless; the monks studied the healing properties of plants and minerals to alleviate the sufferings of the sick. Germany was evangelized by English Benedictines. Willibrord and Boniface preached there in the seventh and eighth centuries and founded several abbeys. In the English Reformation, all monasteries were dissolved and their lands confiscated by the Crown, forcing their Catholic members to flee into exile on the Continent. During the 19th century they were able to return to England, including to Selby Abbey in Yorkshire, one of the few great monastic churches to survive the Dissolution.
St. Mildred's Priory, on the Isle of Thanet, was built in 1027 on the site of an abbey founded in 670 by the daughter of the first Christian King of Kent; the priory is home to a community of Benedictine nuns. Five of