Punjab, is Pakistans second largest province by area after Balochistan, and its most populous province with an estimated population of 101,391,000 as of 2015. It is bordered by Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, as well as the regions of Islamabad Capital Territory and it shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. The provincial capital of Punjab is the city Lahore, a centre of Pakistan where the countrys cinema industry. Punjab has been inhabited since ancient times, the Indus Valley Civilization, dating to 2600 BCE, was first discovered at Harappa. Punjab features heavily in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahabharata, in 326 BCE, Alexander the Great defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes near Mong, Punjab. The Umayyad empire conquered Punjab in the 8th century CE, Punjab was invaded by Tamerlane and Nader Shah. Punjab reached the height of its splendour during the reign of the Mughal Empire, following a successful rebellion, Sikh-led armies claimed Lahore in 1759.
The administration of the Sikh Empire was based out of Lahore, the province was formed when the Punjab province of British India was divided along religious boundaries in 1947 by the Radcliffe Line after Partition. Punjab is Pakistans most industrialised province with the industrial sector making up 24% of the gross domestic product. Punjab is known in Pakistan for its prosperity, and has the lowest rate of poverty amongst all Pakistani provinces. Punjab is one of South Asias most urbanized regions with approximately 40% of people living in urban areas and its human development index rankings are high relative to the rest of Pakistan. Punjab is known in Pakistan for its relatively liberal social attitudes, the province has been strongly influenced by Sufism, with numerous Sufi shrines spread across Punjab which attract millions of devotees annually. The founder of the Sikh faith, Guru Nanak, was born in the Punjab town of Nankana Sahib near Lahore, Punjab is the site of the Katasraj Temple, which features prominently in Hindu mythology.
Several UNESCO World Heritage Sites are located in Punjab, including the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore Fort, the excavations at Taxila. The region was known to the Greeks as Pentapotamia, meaning the region of five rivers. The word Punjab was formally introduced in the early 17th century CE as an elision of the Persian words panj and āb, thus meaning the five rivers, similar in meaning to the Greek name for the region. The five rivers, namely Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej, flow via the Panjnad River into the Indus River, of the five great rivers of Punjab, four course through Pakistans Punjab province. Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and witnessed centuries of invasions by the Persians, Kushans, Turks
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim, known by his imperial name Jahangir, was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627. Much romance has gathered around his name, and the tale of his relationship with the Mughal courtesan, has been widely adapted into the literature, art. Jahangir was the eldest surviving son of Mughal Emperor Akbar, impatient for power, he revolted in 1599 while Akbar was engaged in the Deccan. These women wielded considerable influence over Akbar and favoured Jahangir as his successor, the first year of Jahangirs reign saw a rebellion organised by his eldest son Khusrau. The rebellion was put down, Khusrau was brought before his father in chains. After subduing and executing nearly 2000 members of the rebellion, Jahangir blinded his renegade son, Jahangir built on his fathers foundations of excellent administration and his reign was characterised by political stability, a strong economy and impressive cultural achievements. The imperial frontiers continued to move forward—in Bengal, Ahmadnagar, Later during his rule, Jahangir was battling his rebellious son Khurram in Hindustan.
The rebellion of Khurram absorbed Jahangirs attention, so in the spring of 1623 he negotiated an end to the conflict. Much of India was politically pacified, Jahangirs dealings with the Hindu rulers of Rajputana were particularly successful, the Hindu rulers all accepted Mughal supremacy and in return were given high ranks in the Mughal aristocracy. Jahangir was fascinated with art and architecture, from a young age he showed a leaning towards painting and had an atelier of his own. His interest in portraiture led to development in this artform. The art of Mughal painting reached great heights under Jahangirs reign and his interest in painting served his scientific interests in nature. Jahangir maintained an aviary and a large zoo, kept a record of every specimen. Jahangir patronised the European and Persian arts and he promoted Persian culture throughout his empire. This was especially so during the period when he came under the influence of his Persian Empress, Nur Jahan and her relatives, amongst the most highly regarded Mughal architecture dating from Jahangirs reign is the famous Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir.
The worlds first seamless celestial globe was built by Mughal scientists under the patronage of Jahangir, like his father, was a proper Sunni Muslim with tolerance, he allowed, for example, the continuation of his fathers tradition of public debate between different religions. The Jesuits were allowed to dispute publicly with Muslim ulema and to preach the Gospel, Jahangir specifically warned his nobles that they should not force Islam on anyone. Jizya was not imposed by Jahangir, edward Terry, an English chaplain in India at the time, saw a ruler under which all Religions are tolerated and their Priests in good esteem
Begum Shahi Mosque
The Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum, commonly referred to as Begum Shahi Mosque, is a mosque situated in the Walled City of Lahore, Pakistan. It is one of Lahores earliest surviving examples of a Mughal-era mosque, the mosque has been encroached upon by several shops, and views of the mosque from the Akbari Gate of the Lahore Fort have been obstructed by illegally constructed tyre shops. In July 2016, the Walled City of Lahore Authority announced that the shops would be removed, the mosque was built during the reign of Mughal Emperor Jahangir in the honour of his mother, Begum Mariyam Zamani, who was known as Maharani Jodha Bai. Mariyam Zamani was wife of Mughal Emperor, the mosque is located inside the old Masti Gate in the Walled City of Lahore. Construction began in 1611 and lasted until 1614, the Mosque of Mariyam Zamani was temporarily turned into a gunpowder factory by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, for which it was known as Barudkhana Wali Masjid. In 1850 the mosque was returned to the Muslims of Lahore who were able to contribute to its renovation, short domes and wide arches represent the earlier Lodi style, while the mosques balconies, side rooms, and embellishment are in the Mughal style.
The mosque features Lahores first five-bay prayer chamber that would be typical of all Mughal mosques such as the Wazir Khan Mosque, the mosques central bay is in the style of the Persian Char Taq, and is flanked by one smaller dome on either side. The mosques prayer chamber is 130.5 feet long, and 34 feet wide, the hall is divided into 5 bays, topped by three arches - the largest of which is over the central bay. The mosque features a courtyard which has a pool for Islamic ritual washing. The interior of the mosque features extensive Mughal fresco work, and would be the model for the elaborate, most frescoes are floral in design, and calligraphy on the walls includes non-Quranic text, and is the first mosque in Lahore to feature this practice. The northern gateway features a Persian inscription which reads, God be thanked through whose grace, under the auspices of His Majesty, the founder of the edifice, the place of salvation, is the Queen Mariyam Zamani. For the completion of this edifice, which resembles paradise, I was thinking about when at last I found it in the words What a fine mosque.
While the inscription over the eastern gateway reads, May the Conqueror of the world, King Nur-ud-Din Muhammad, shine in the world like the sun and moon, views of the mosque have been obstructed by illegally built shops which have encroached upon the mosque. In July 2016, the Walled City of Lahore Authority announced that the shops would be removed, and the mosque conserved and restored
The Mughal emperors were a branch of the Timurid dynasty. From the early 16th century to the early 18th they built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the countries of Bangladesh, India. Their power rapidly dwindled during the 18th century and the last of the emperors was deposed in 1857, with the establishment of the British Raj. The dynasty was of Asian Turco-Mongol origin from a now part of modern-day Uzbekistan. Timur is generally known in the West as Tamerlane the Great and its population at the time has been estimated as between 110 and 150 million, over a territory of more than 3.2 million square kilometres. Ousted from his domains in Central Asia by Uzbek Khan. He established himself in Kabul and pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, baburs forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in 1526. The preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India, the instability of the empire became evident under his son, who was driven out of India and into Persia by rebels.
Humayuns exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing West Asian cultural influence in the Mughal court, the restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayun’s triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards. Humayuns son, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions, and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari river. He created a new class of nobility loyal to him from the aristocracy of Indias social groups, implemented a modern government. At the same time Akbar intensified trade with European trading companies and he left his successors an internally stable state, which was in the midst of its golden age, but before long signs of political weakness would emerge. Akbars son, ruled the empire at its peak, but he was addicted to opium, neglected the affairs of the state, and came under the influence of rival court cliques.
During the reign of Jahangirs son, Shah Jahan, the culture, the maintenance of the court, at this time, began to cost more than the revenue. Shah Jahans eldest son, the liberal Dara Shikoh, became regent in 1658, however, a younger son, allied with the Islamic orthodoxy against his brother, who championed a syncretistic Hindu-Muslim religion and culture, and ascended to the throne. Aurangzeb defeated Dara in 1659 and had him executed, although Shah Jahan fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and had him imprisoned. During Aurangzebs reign, the empire gained political strength once more, Aurangzeb expanded the empire to include almost the whole of South Asia, but at his death in 1707, many parts of the empire were in open revolt. Aurangzebs son, Shah Alam, repealed the religious policies of his father, after his death in 1712, the Mughal dynasty sank into chaos and violent feuds
Lahore is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab. It is the second most populous city in Pakistan and the 32nd most populous city in the world, the city is located in the north-eastern end of Pakistans Punjab province, near the border with the Indian state of Punjab. Lahore is ranked as a world city, and is one of Pakistans wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion as of 2014. Lahore is the cultural centre of the Punjab region, and is the largest Punjabi city in the world. The city has a history, and was once under the rule of the Hindu Shahis, Ghurids. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire, the city was contested between the Maratha Empire and Durrani Empire, became capital of the Sikh Empire, before becoming the capital of the Punjab under British rule. Following the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Lahore became the capital of Pakistans Punjab province, Lahore is one of Pakistans most liberal and cosmopolitan cities. It exerts a strong influence over Pakistan.
Lahore is a centre for Pakistans publishing industry, and remains the foremost centre of Pakistans literary scene. The city is a centre of education in Pakistan. Lahore is home to Pakistans film industry, and is a centre of Qawwali music. The city is much of Pakistans tourist industry, with major attractions including the old Walled City. Lahore is home to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Lahore Fort, the etymology of Lahore is uncertain, but according to legend the city was once known as Lavapura, in honour of Prince Lava of the Hindu epic poem, the Ramayana. Lahore Fort contains a vacant Lava temple, dedicated to the founder of the city. Lahore was called by different names throughout history, to date there is no conclusive evidence as to when it was founded. Lahore is described as a Hindu principality in the Rajput accounts, the founder of Suryavansha, is believed to have migrated out from the city. The Solanki tribe, belonging to Amukhara Pattan, which included the Bhatti Rajputs of Jaisalmer, Lahore appears as the capital of the Punjab for the first time under Anandapala – the Hindu Shahi king who is referred to as the ruler of –after leaving the earlier capital of Waihind.
Few references to Lahore remain from before its capture by Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznavi in the 11th century, the sultan took Lahore after a long siege and battle in which the city was torched and depopulated
Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan)
Trained at British Sandhurst Military College, Ayub Khan fought in World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army. He opted for Pakistan and joined the military establishment as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. From 1953–58, he served in the government as Defence and Home Minister. Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President, relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the agreement between two nations, at home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the countrys economy as Asias fastest-growing economies. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah. Forced to resigning to further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to imposed second martial law, he fought a brief illness.
Ayub Khan was born on 14 May 1907 in Rehana, a village in Haripur District in Hazara region of North-West Frontier Province and he was of the Hindkowan descent that hailed from the Tarin tribe of ethnic Pashtuns settled in Hazara region. He was the first child of the wife of Mir Dad. For his basic education, he was enrolled in a school in Sarai Saleh and he used to go to school on a mules back and was shifted to a school in Haripur, where he started living with his grandmother. He was admitted to study at the famed Aligarh Muslim University where he performed excellently, Ayub Khan was fluent in Urdu and his regional Hindko dialect as well as Pashto. Ayub Khans performance at the Sandhurst Military Academy in the United Kingdom was excellent, earning him many awards and scholarships by his British superiors. He was commissioned as 2nd Lt. on 2 February 1928 in the 1/14th Punjab Regiment of British Indian Army— it is now known as the 5th battalion of the Punjab Regiment of Pakistan Army. Amongst those who passed out with him was the army chief of the Indian Army.
He was promoted to lieutenant on 2 May 1930 and to army captain on 2 February 1937. On 19 May 1941, he was promoted to Major in the British Indian Army, during World War II, he was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel in 1942 and was posted to participate in first phase of Burma Front in 1942–43. At the time of his joining, the Indian Army sent the military seniority list to Pakistans Ministry of Defence where he was the 10th ranking officer in terms of seniority with Service No. Upon promoted as two-star assignment, he was elevated as Major-General and commanded the 14th Army Division as its GOC, stationed in Dacca, Prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan approved the relief papers of Lieutenant General Sir Douglas Gracey on 16 January 1951 after his term was completed
Bahawalpur, is a city located in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Bahawalpur is the 12th largest city in Pakistan with a population of 798,509. The city lies near the ancient Derawar Fort in the Cholistan Desert near the border with India, Bahawalpur was once the capital of the former princely state of Bahawalpur ruled by Nawabs. The Nawabs of Bahawalpur were regarded as part of the Rajputana States, the Nawabs bestowed Bahawalpur with several monuments, such as the palaces of Noor Mahal, Sadiq Ghar Palace, and Darbar Mahal. Bahawalpur was founded in 1748, in a region near the city of Uch. The princely state of Bahawalpur was founded in 1802 by Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan II after the break-up of the Durrani Empire, and was based in the city. Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan III signed a treaty with the British on 22 February 1833, guaranteeing the independence of the Nawab and the autonomy of Bahawalpur as a princely state. The city and princely state acceded to Pakistan on 7 October 1947 when Nawab Sadiq Muhammad Khan Abbasi V Bahadur joined Pakistan at the time of the independence of Pakistan in 1947.
Following independence, the citys minority Hindu and Sikh communities largely migrated to India en masse, while Muslim refugees from India settled in the city and surrounding region. Bahawalpur lies immediately south of the Sutlej River, and is the site of the 4,250 foot long Empress Bridge - the only bridge over the Sutlej in Pakistan. The city is situated 90 km from Multan,420 km from Lahore,122 km from Burewala,90 km from Vehari,270 km from Faisalabad and about 700 km from the national capital, the region is primarily arid desert with low annual rainfall totals. Regions to the west of the city are fertile alluvial tracts irrigated by the Sultej River, east of Bahawalpur is the Pat, or Bar - a tract of land at considerably higher altitude than the adjoining valley. Farther east, the Cholistan, is a desert tract, bounded on the north and west by the Hakra depression with mound ruins of old settlements along its high banks. The citys climate is hot and dry. In the summer the temperature reaches the high 40s during the day, the average temperature in summer is 33 °C, and 18 °C in winter.
The average rainfall is 20 to 25 cm annually, the main crops for which Bahawalpur is recognised are cotton, wheat, sunflower seeds, rape/mustard seed and rice. Bahawalpur mangoes, citrus and guavas are some of the fruits exported out of the country, vegetables include onions, cauliflower and carrots. In 2007, the population was estimated to have risen to 798,509 from 403,408 in 1998
The Badshahi Mosque is a Mughal era mosque in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab. The mosque is located west of Lahore Fort along the outskirts of the Walled City of Lahore, the mosque is widely considered to be one of Lahores most iconic landmarks. Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by Emperor Aurangzeb in 1671, with construction of the mosque lasting for two years until 1673, the mosque is an important example of Mughal architecture, with an exterior that is decorated with carved red sandstone with marble inlay. Upon completion, it became worlds largest mosque and remained so for 313 years until the expansion of Prophets Mosque and it remains the largest and most recent of the grand imperial mosques of the Mughal-era, and is the second-largest mosque in Pakistan. After the fall of the Mughal Empire, the mosque was used as a garrison by the Sikh Empire and the British Empire, the mosque is located adjacent to the Walled City of Lahore, Pakistan. The mosque is located next to the Roshnai Gate, one of the original thirteen gates of Lahore.
Also located near the entrance is the tomb of Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan. Lahore was considered a center as it protected the empire from potential invaders from the west. The city was made a capital by the earlier Emperor, Akbar. The sixth Mughal emperor, chose Lahore for as the site for his new imperial mosque, the mosque was built to commemorate military campaigns against the Maratha king Shivaji Bhonsle, although construction of the mosque exhausted the Mughal treasury and weakened the Mughal state. As a symbol of the importance, it was built directly across from the Lahore Fort and its Alamgiri Gate. Aurangzeb had the mosque built in order to commemorate his campaigns against the Maratha leader Shivaji Bhonsle. After only two years of construction, the mosque was opened in 1673, on 7 July 1799, the Sikh army of Ranjit Singh took control of Lahore. In 1818, he built an edifice in the Hazuri Bagh facing the mosque, known as the Hazuri Bagh Baradari. Marble slabs for the baradari may have been plundered by the Sikhs from other monuments in Lahore, in one of these bombardments, the forts Diwan-e-Aam was destroyed, but was subsequently rebuilt by the British.
During this time, Henri de la Rouche, a French cavalry officer employed in the army of Sher Singh, in 1848, the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh was built for the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh at a site immediately adjacent to the mosque after his death. In 1849 the British seized control of Lahore from the Sikh Empire, during the British Raj, the mosque and the adjoining fort continued to be used as a military garrison. The 80 cells built into the surrounding the its vast courtyard were demolished by the British after the Freedom Fight of 1857
Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan. Gilgit-Baltistan is part of the Kashmir region that is disputed by India and Pakistan, along with Azad Kashmir, Aksai Chin, the Shaksgam Valley, and Jammu, the territory of present-day Gilgit-Baltistan became a separate administrative unit in 1970 under the name Northern Areas. It was formed by the amalgamation of the former Gilgit Agency, the Baltistan district and several small former princely states, scholars state that the real power rests with the governor and not with chief minister or elected assembly. The population of Gilgit-Baltistan wants to be merged into Pakistan as a fifth province. Gilgit-Baltistan covers an area of over 72,971 km² and is highly mountainous and it had an estimated population of 1,800,000 in 2015. Gilgit-Baltistan is home to five of the eight-thousanders and to more than fifty peaks above 7,000 metres, three of the worlds longest glaciers outside the polar regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan.
Tourism is mostly in trekking and mountaineering, and this industry is growing in importance, the rock carvings found in various places in Gilgit-Baltistan, especially those found in the Passu village of Hunza, suggest a human presence since 2000 BC. Within the next few centuries after human settlement in the Tibetan plateau, this region became inhabited by Tibetans, today Baltistan bears similarity to Ladakh physically and culturally. Dards are found mainly in the western areas and these people are the Shina-speaking peoples of Gilgit, Chilas and Diamir while in Hunza and in the upper regions Burushaski and Khowar speakers dominate. The Dards find mention in the works of Herodotus, Megasthenes, Ptolemy, in the 1st century the people of these regions were followers of the Bon religion while in the 2nd century they followed Buddhism. Between 399 and 414, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian visited Gilgit-Baltistan, between 627 and 645, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang travelled through this region.
From 644 to 655, Navasurendrādityanandi was King of Palola, in 706/707, Jayamaṅgalavikramādityanandi became king of Palola. It is said that in the year 717, a delegation of a ruler of great Palola, named Su-fu-she-li-ji-li-ni according to the transcription of Chinese characters, in 719, Su-fu-she-li-ji-li-ni, King of Palola, sent a second delegation to the Chinese Imperial court. By at least 719/720, Ladakh was part of the Tibetan Empire, by that time uddhism iwa practiced in Baltistan and Sanskrit was the written language. It is unknown if Baltistan temporarily w sPruled under alolo. at that time 7In 20, thl deegation of Sou-lin-to i che, King of Palola, the Emperor gives the ruler of Cashmere, Tchen-fo-lo-pi-li, the title of King of Cashmere. By 721/722 Baltistan had become part of the Tibetan Empire, during 721-722 the conquest of Little Palola or Bru-zha by the Tibetan army failed. Mo-ching-mang had become the King of Palola by this time which was visited by the Korean Buddhist pilgrim Hyecho between 723-728, in 737/738, Tibetan troops under the leadership of Minister sKyes-bzang ldong-tsab conquered Little Palola.
By 747 the Chinese army under the leadership of the ethnic-Korean commander Gao Xianzhi reconquered Palola, Turkic tribes practicing Zoroastrianism arrived in Gilgit during the 7th century, and founded the Trakhan dynasty in Gilgit
Khaplu is the administrative capital of the Ghanche District of Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. Lying 103 km east of the town of Skardu, it was the second-largest kingdom in old Baltistan of Yabgo dynasty and it guarded the trade route to Ladakh along the Shyok River. Khaplu Valley is 103 kilometres from Skardu and two hours by jeep and it is a sprawling village located at the confluence of the Indus and the Shyok Rivers in Pakistan. Skardu is a base for trekking into the Hushe valley which leads to Masherbrum mountains, many famous mountains, such as Masherbrum, K-6, K-7, Sherpi Kangh, Sia Kangri, Saltoro Kangri and Siachen etc. are located there. The first mention of the small kingdom called Khápula is in Mirza Haidars famous work Tarikh-i-Rashidi. The author lists Khaplu district of Balti, Khaplu was due to close political and family ties with the royal family of Ladakh, in this neighboring country in the 17th and 18th century proven to be very well known. Khaplu probably first visited by Europeans by Captain Claude Martin Wade, william Moorcroft & George Trebeck described Khaplu as follows, Kafalun is a province west of Nobra, on the left bank of the Shayuk.
Godfrey Thomas Vigne has Khaplu 1835-1838, relying in particular on the mountain fortress. Alexander Cunningham, who did not visit Baltistan, published in 1854 a brief description of Khaplu. Thomas Thomson traveled in November 1847 and briefly described a place of beauty for Tibet. Knight reported on his visit to Khaplu, This fair spot what Kapalu, the richest district in Baltistan, jane E. Duncan reached Khaplu in 1904 and held there for three weeks. A detailed report on their stay in Khaplu is well worth reading, de Filippi, who reached Khaplu 1913, characterized the site as follows, It is, the loveliest oasis in all the region. Further information on Khaplu was on a report by Arthur Neve. Recent descriptions can be found in the guidebooks Arora, pp. 211f, Lonely Planet, pp. 306f and Beek, the area around the mouth of the river in the Thalle Shayok formed the western border of the kingdom. In eastern Hushe / Saltoro Tal was in Haldi another fortress, most important defense system was viewed as militarily impregnable fortress in the town of Khar Thortsi Khaplu Khaplu has been called many names like Shyok Valley and Little Tibet.
In Khaplu there are historical places like the beautiful Chaqchan Mosque. Raja Palace is a building and the last and best Tibetan-style palace in Pakistan. Khaplu Khanqah is attributed to Mir Mukhtar Akhyar and was built in 1712 AD/1124 AH, Khaplu is a scenic place for hiking like Khaplu Braq, Khaplu Thung and Hanjoor, kholi, Ehli
Walled City of Lahore
The Walled City of Lahore, known as the Old City, or Androon Shehr, is the section of Lahore, Punjab, in Pakistan, that was fortified by a city wall during the Mughal era. It is located in the part of the city. The origins of the original Lahore are unspecific, according to carbon dating evidence of archaeological findings in the Lahore Fort, the time period may start as early as 2,000 BCE. Lahore had many names throughout its history, Mohallah Maulian represents one of the two most probable sites of the original Lahore. Sootar Mandi inside Lahori Gate, had been called Mohallah Chaileywala Hammam located in Machli Hatta Gulzar, just off Chowk Chalka. The curve of Koocha Pir Bola merges with Waachowali Bazaar, the Lahori Bazaar merges with Chowk Lahori Mandi, along Lahori Bazaar, a short distance from Chowk Chakla, the street opens slightly, revealing a half-buried archway of pucca bricks and mud. The mud fort may have built by Malik Ayaz, the first Muslim governor of Lahore. Lahori Gate served as the entrance to Ayazs mud fort.
Chowk Sootar Mandi constituted one important center of Kacha Kot, the lay of the streets suggest the boundaries. At the time of Mughal Emperor Akbar, the wall of the Walled City of Lahore stood, on the western side. On the eastern side to the left of Shahalam Gate, curved eastwards, thus the Lahore of the kacha kot era has continued to expand in three major leaps of expansion, each with an almost 400-year gap. The eras of Raja Jaipal of Akbar and of Maharaja Ranjit Singh mark the high points of that expansion, the story of kacha kot has been determined by those factors. The oldest buildings in the entire Walled City exist in this area, a huge hammam may have stood during the kacha kot period. The tomb of Pir Bola still exists, little remains of the original mud fort. The Walled City of Lahore covers an area of 256 ha with a population of 200,000, the city walls were destroyed shortly after the British annexed the Punjab in 1849 and were replaced with gardens, some of which exist today. The Circular Road links the old city to the urban network, access to the Walled City is still gained through the 13 ancient gates, or their emplacements.
Historic buildings are no exception, and some have been encroached upon, the few old houses in the city are usually two or three stories tall, with brick façades, flat roofs, richly carved wooden balconies and overhanging windows. All of these survived until the 19th century