Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
The Wildhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the border between the Swiss cantons of Bern and Valais. At 3,248 metres above sea level, it is the highest summit of the Bernese Alps west of the Gemmi Pass and it forms a large glaciated massif, about 10 km wide, extending between the Sanetsch Pass and the Rawil Pass. Along with the Muverans, the Diablerets and the Wildstrubel, the Wildhorn is one the four distinct mountain massifs of the Bernese Alps that lie west of the Gemmi Pass. The massif of the Wildhorn is at the centre between the valleys of the Saane and the Rhone. It comprises several distinct summits, including the Arpelistock, Le Sérac, the Geltenhorn, the Sex Noir, the Sex Rouge, the Schnidehorn, the main crest is between the glaciers named Tungelgletscher and Glacier du Wildhorn. South of the summit is the almost equally high summit of Mont Pucel. The Wildhorn is surrounded by large mountain lakes, the Lac de Sénin, the Lauenensee, the Iffigsee, the Lac de Tseuzier. The Tungelgletscher, on the north-east face, was measured as 1.9 km in length in 1973, the Wildhorn lies approximately halfway between Gstaad and Lenk, its summit being in the municipalities of Lauenen, Savièse and Ayent.
The nearest settlements are Lauenen, Anzère and Gsteig bei Gstaad, the highest place in the massif that can be easily reached is the Pas de Maimbré station, which is connected to Anzère by a gondola lift. Forests are found up to 1,800 metres on the north side, glaciers reach significantly lower locations on the north side. The ascent of the Wildhorn involves either glacier crossings or technical climbs, the Swiss Alpine Club maintains the Wildhornhütte shelter in the Iffigtal, above the Iffigsee, on the northern slopes of the mountain. The easiest ascent starts from there, another hut, the Cabane des Audannes is located near the Lac des Audannes on the south side. More challenging ascents commence from the Geltenhütte, above the Col du Brochet, the first ascent was made by Gottlieb Samuel Studer in September 1843. List of most isolated mountains of Switzerland Media related to Wildhorn at Wikimedia Commons The Wildhorn on SummitPost Wildhorn Geltenhütte website Wildhornhütte website Tour du Wildhorn website
The Bernese Alps are a mountain range of the Alps, located in western Switzerland. The highest mountain in the range, the Finsteraarhorn, is the highest point in the canton of Bern, the Bernese Alps are drained by the river Aare and its tributary the Saane in the north, the Rhône in the south, and the Reuss in the east. The principal ridge, a chain that runs 100 kilometres from west to east, whose highest peak is the Finsteraarhorn, except for the westernmost part, it is the watershed between the Rhine and the Rhone. This chain is not centered inside the range but lies close to the Rhone on the south, there the mountains progressively become lower and disappear into the hilly Swiss Plateau. The main chain west of Gemmi Pass consists mainly of a few large prominent summits slightly above 3,000 metres, on the eastern part, the main chain became suddenly wider and the peaks reach over 4,000 metres, in the most glaciated part of the Alps. To the south the same portion of the range is divided from the still higher parallel range whose summits are the Aletschhorn and the Bietschhorn by the Lötschental.
To this again succeeds the deep trench through which the part of the Aletsch Glacier flows down to the Rhone. Since strangers first began to visit the Alps, the names of Grindelwald, but unlike many other Alpine regions, which have been left to be explored by strangers, this region has been long visited by Swiss travellers and men of science. Among them were the brother Meyer of Aarau and Franz Joseph Hugi and they have explored most of the mountain ranges not very difficult of access, further than this, have attained most of the higher summits. The works of Desor and Gottlieb Studer have been followed by other publications that bear testimony to Swiss mountaineering activity. The Jungfrau-Aletsch area is located in the eastern Bernese Alps in the most glaciated region of the Alps and it was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001 and further expanded in 2007. Its name comes from the Aletsch Glacier and the two summits of the Jungfrau and Bietschhorn, which some of the most impressive features of the site.
The actual site includes other large glacier valleys such as the Fiescher Glacier and the Aar Glaciers
Canton of Glarus
The Canton of Glarus is a canton in east central Switzerland. The population speaks a variety of Alemannic German, the majority of the population identifies as Christian, about evenly split between the Protestant and Catholic denominations. From the 9th century, the area around Glarus was owned by Säckingen Abbey, the Alemanni began to settle in the valley from the early 8th century. The Alemannic German language took hold only gradually, and was dominant by the 11th century, by 1288, the Habsburgs had claimed all the abbeys rights. Glarus joined the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1352 as one of the eight cantons of the period of 1353–1481. The first recorded Landsgemeinde of Glarus took place in 1387, habsburgian attempts to reconquer the valley were repelled in the Battle of Näfels of 1388. A banner depicting Saint Fridolin was used to rally the people of Glarus at that battle, the County of Werdenberg was annexed to Glarus in 1517. Between 1506 and 1516 the reformer Huldrych Zwingli was priest in Glarus, but Glarus remained Catholic and this, did not end the struggles between the Protestants and the Catholics in the area.
To secure peace it was decided that each party should have its own assembly in 1623, between 1798 and 1803 Glarus was part of the Canton of Linth as established by Napoleon. In 1836 the constitution was adapted to unite the assemblies and establish a single Landsgemeinde, in the early 1840s, after several years of failed crops and as food became scarce, much of the canton found itself deep in poverty. With more workers than available jobs, emigration to the United States of America was seen as a solution, the Glarus Emigration Society was established in 1844, which offered loans to help residents purchase land in the New World. Many of the emigrants went to the state of Wisconsin. On May 6,2007 Glarus became the first Swiss canton to lower the age to 16. The canton of Glarus is dominated by the valley of the Linth River. Most of the area is mountainous, the highest peak in the Glarus Alps is the Tödi at 3,614 meters Other mountains include the Hausstock and the Glärnisch. The canton contains part of a thrust fault that was declared a geologic UNESCO world heritage site, under the name Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona, famous outcrops in the Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona include those at Lochsite near Glarus and in a mountain cliff called Tschingelhörner between Elm and Flims.
There is a lake called Walensee on the north. The total area of the canton of Glarus is 685 square kilometers, forestry is an important branch of industry in the canton
GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating and storage of data with associated attributes. GIS offers better understanding of patterns and relationships of the landscape at different scales, tools inside the GIS allow for manipulation of data for spatial analysis or cartography. A topographical map is the type of map used to depict elevation. In a Geographic Information System, digital models are commonly used to represent the surface of a place. Digital terrain models are another way to represent terrain in GIS, USGS is developing a 3D Elevation Program to keep up with growing needs for high quality topographic data. 3DEP is a collection of enhanced elevation data in the form of high quality LiDAR data over the conterminous United States, there are three bare earth DEM layers in 3DEP which are nationally seamless at the resolution of 1/3,1, and 2 arcseconds. This map is derived from GTOPO30 data that describes the elevation of Earths terrain at intervals of 30 arcseconds and it uses color and shading instead of contour lines to indicate elevation.
Hypsography is the study of the distribution of elevations on the surface of the Earth, the term originates from the Greek word ὕψος hypsos meaning height. Most often it is used only in reference to elevation of land, related to the term hypsometry, the measurement of these elevations of a planets solid surface are taken relative to mean datum, except for Earth which is taken relative to the sea level. In the troposphere, temperatures decrease with altitude and this lapse rate is approximately 6.5 °C/km. S
The Glarus Alps are a mountain range in central Switzerland. They are bordered by the Uri Alps and the Schwyz Alps to the west, the Lepontine Alps to the south, the eastern part of the Glarus Alps contains a major thrust fault which was declared a geologic UNESCO world heritage site. The Glarus Alps extend well beyond the canton of Glarus, including parts of the cantons of Uri, Graubünden, and St Gallen. The main chain of the Glarus Alps can be divided into six groups, separated from each other by passes. The westernmost of these is the Crispalt, a range including many peaks of nearly equal height. The highest of these are the Piz Giuv and Piz Nair, the name Crispalt is given to a southern, but secondary, peak of Piz Giuv, measuring 3,070 m. West of the group is the Rienzenstock, while a northern outlyer culminates in the Bristen. East of the Crispalt, the Kreuzli or Chrüxli Pass separates this from the higher mass of the Oberalpstock. Here occurs a partial break in the continuity of the chain, two glacier passes lead over this part of the chain — one to west, over the Brunnigletscher to the Maderanertal, the other to the north-east, over the Sand Glacier, to the Linthal.
The Tödi, the highest of the range and of north-eastern Switzerland, is attended by numerous secondary peaks that arise from the extensive snow-fields surrounding the central mountain, a less important branch encloses the Biferten Glacier, and terminates in the Selbsanft, south of Tierfehd. Towards the valley of the Vorderrhein a high promontory stretches nearly due south from the peaks of the Tödi. Another considerable ramification of the same mass terminates farther to the east in the peak of the Cavistrau. The Kisten Pass separates the Tödi group from the Hausstock, whose summit attains 3,158 m, the Hausstock is cut off from the rather lower but more extended mass of the Vorab by the Panixer Pass. Numerous summits, of which the Vorab proper and Piz Grisch are the most important, approach very near, but do not quite attain to 10,000 feet. Main glaciers, Hüfi Glacier Limmern Glacier Biferten Glacier Vorab Glacier The chief passes of the Tödi Range, from the Oberalp Pass to the Klausen Pass, Note, road status as of 1911.
Swiss Alps This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Swisstopo maps Swiss official cartography, on-line version, map. geo. admin. ch Media related to Glarus Alps at Wikimedia Commons The Glarus Alps on SummitPost
The Lepontine Alps are a mountain range in the north-western part of the Alps. They are located in Switzerland and Italy, the Simplon rail tunnel the Gotthard rail and Gotthard road tunnels and the San Bernardino road tunnel are important transport arteries. The eastern portion of the Lepontine Alps, from the St Gotthard Pass to the Splügen Pass, is named the Adula Alps. The designation Lepontine Alps, derived from the Latin name of the Val Leventina, has long been somewhat vaguely applied to the Alpine ranges that enclose it, the most important of these valleys is the Val Leventina, or the Upper valley of the Ticino. This has been known from a remote antiquity because it leads to the Pass of St Gotthard, the Lepontine Alps are drained by the rivers Rhône in the west, Reuss in the north, Rhine in the east and Ticino and Toce in the south