This is a list of the most-produced aircraft types whose numbers exceed or exceeded 5,000. Any and all types of aircraft qualify, including airplanes, balloons, helicopters, etc. Angelucci, Enzo. World War II Airplanes. 2. Chicago, Illinois: Rand McNally and Company. ISBN 0-528-88171-X. Bull, Stephen. Encyclopedia of Military Technology and Innovation. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 1-57356-557-1. Retrieved 5 April 2015. Francillon, René. McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Since 1920. I. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-428-4. Francillon, René. McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Since 1920. II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-550-0. Fredriksen, John C.. International Warbirds: An Illustrated Guide to World Military Aircraft, 1914-2000. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-364-5. Gordon, Yefim. OKB Yakovlev: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-203-9. Gunston, Bill. Yakovlev Aircraft since 1924. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-872-0.
Jackson, A. J.. De Havilland Aircraft since 1909. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-802-X. Murphy, Justin D.. Military Aircraft, 1919-1945. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-498-1. Peperell, Roger W. Tonbridge, England: Air-Britain. ISBN 0-85130-149-5. Simpson, R. W.. Airlife's General Aviation. Shrewsbury, England: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 1-85310-194-X. Swanborough, Gordon. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-968-5. Wegg, John. General Dynamics Aircraft and their Predecessors. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-833-X. Aircraft production runs
Airpower or air power consists of the application of military aviation, military strategy and strategic theory to the realm of aerial warfare and close air support. Airpower began with the advent of powered flight early in the 20th century. Airpower represents a "complex operating environment, subjected to considerable debate". British doctrine defines airpower as "the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events." The Australian Experience of Air Power defines Airpower as being composed of Control of the Air, Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance, Air Mobility roles. Airpower can be considered a function of air supremacy and numbers. Speaking, a combatant side that has 100% or near 100% control of the skies has air supremacy. A 50/50 split is air parity; because aeroplanes take off from designed airfields on missions involving some hours of cruising, the precise state of air superiority is fluid and less defined vis-a-vis land or sea warfare.
For example, a contested airspace directly above a battlespace bristling with anti-aircraft weapons may be denied to the air forces of both sides. Further, the different situations of a technologically advanced airforce with one flight of high-tech planes or a low-tech force of massive numbers of low-tech planes resulting in high capacity but low long-term survivability demonstrate that'air power' is multi-faceted and complex. Significant contributors to theorizing about air power have been Giulio Douhet, Billy Mitchell, John Boyd and John A. Warden III. At the start of World War I, opinions differed on the value of airships; some early strategists/visionaries after World War I imagined that airpower alone would suffice to bring nations to their knees. The Bombing of Guernica was an early trial that revealed both limitations, but yet another maxim, "no war was won by airpower" was challenged by the NATO victory in Kosovo. Airpower has been used to conduct lightning strategic strikes, to complement land offensives, to instill fear and lower morale to a fleet in being, to create broad-based destruction behind enemy lines.
With airpower, supplies can be transported by cargo planes. Military and civilian aircraft interact in a number of complex ways, including shootdowns of civilian planes, whether mistaken or not. Airpower relates to space power, although militarization of space remains regulated by international treaty. Developed nations have enjoyed a consistent advantage in airpower since the beginning of mechanized flight. Airpower has been wielded decisively in the last hundred years by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, Japan and France, with many client nations using aircraft developed by one or more of these nations. A mass technological base is considered necessary for the development of airpower. Baner, Carl. "Defining Aerospace Power", Air and Space Power Journal, March 11, 1999 online Black, Jeremy. Air Power: A Global History, by leading scholar Budiansky, Stephen. Air Power: The Men, Machines & Ideas That Revolutionized War, from Kitty Hawk to Gulf War II 495p. Scholarly history 1900 to 1999.
Daso, Dik Alan. Hap Arnold and the Evolution of American Airpower excerpt and text search Higham and Mark Parillo, eds; the Influence of Airpower Upon History: Statesmanship and Foreign Policy Since 1903 137 pages. Excerpt and text search Gray, Colin Spencer. Understanding Airpower, AFRI: Maxwell, March 2009. Jordan, David. "Air and Space Warfare", in: Jordan, David et al.: Understanding Modern Warfare, pp. 182–223, ISBN 978-0-521-70038-2. Meilinger, Philip S. Ten Propositions Regarding Airpower online Meilinger, Philip S. ed. The Paths of Heaven: The Evolution of Airpower Theory Mueller, Karl P. Air Power online Neocleous, Mark. "Air power as police power." Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 31.4: 578-593. Stokesbury, James L. A Short History of Air Power Capra, James L. "Fighting with the air: airpower and public sentiment in irregular warfare" online Clodfelter, Mark. The Limits of Air Power: The American Bombing of North Vietnam Faber, Peter. "Competing Theories of Airpower: A Language for Analysis" online Hoffman, Bruce.
British Air Power in Peripheral Conflict, 1919-1976 online. Meilinger, Phillip. "Military Theory: Airpower" in Charles Messenger, ed. Reader's Guide to Military History pp. 376–79 online Vallance, Andrew G. B; the air weapon: doctrines of air power strategy and operational art. US Air University online resources
The AN/APG-65 and AN/APG-73 are designations for a family of all-weather multimode airborne radar systems designed by Hughes Aircraft for the F/A-18 Hornet, used on a variety of fighter aircraft types. The APG-79 is an upgraded AESA version; these I band pulse-Doppler radar systems are designed for both air-to-air and air-to-surface missions. For air-to-air operations they incorporate a variety of search and track-while-scan modes to give the pilot a complete look-down/shoot-down capability. Air-to-surface modes include Doppler beam sharpened sector and patch mapping, medium range synthetic aperture radar and moving ground target track and sea surface search. In the F/A-18, the radar is installed in a slide-out nose rack to facilitate maintenance; the APG-65 was developed in the late 1970s and has been operational since 1983. The radar includes a velocity search, range-while-search, track-while-scan, single target track, gun director and raid assessment operating modes. Although no longer in production, the APG-65 remains in service in F/A-18 Hornet strike fighters of the U.
S. Navy and Marine Corps, the air forces of Canada, Australia and Spain, it has been adapted to upgrade the German and Greek F-4 Phantom aircraft, the AV-8B Harrier II Plus for the U. S. Marine Corps and the Spanish and Italian Navies; the APG-73 is a late 1980s "upgrade of the APG-65 that provides higher throughputs, greater memory capacity, improved reliability, easier maintenance". To reduce production costs, many of the upgraded radar's modules are common with the APG-70 radar; when fitted with a motion-sensing subsystem and stretch waveform generator and special test equipment, the APG-73 can generate high resolution ground maps and make use of'advanced' image correlation algorithms to enhance weapon designation accuracy. Since 1992 the APG-73 has been operational in U. S. Navy and Marine Corps F/A -18 D aircraft. S. Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. A total of 932 APG-73 systems were delivered, with the final delivery in 2006
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred between April 10 and September 19, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. A variety of techniques were used to address fundamental strategies for addressing the spilled oil, which were: to contain oil on the surface and removal. While most of the oil drilled off Louisiana is a lighter crude, the leaking oil was of a heavier blend which contained asphalt-like substances. According to Ed Overton, who heads a federal chemical hazard assessment team for oil spills, this type of oil emulsifies well. Once it becomes emulsified, it no longer evaporates as as regular oil, does not rinse off as cannot be broken down by microbes as and does not burn as well. "That type of mixture removes all the best oil clean-up weapons", Overton said. On May 6, 2010, BP began documenting the daily response efforts on its web site. On 28 April, the US military joined the cleanup operation; the response increased in scale. BP employed remotely operated underwater vehicles, 700 workers, 4 airplanes, 32 vessels.
By 29 April 69 vessels, including skimmers, tugs and recovery vessels, were in use. By May 4, 2010, the USCG estimated that 170 vessels, nearly 7,500 personnel were participating, with an additional 2,000 volunteers assisting. On May 31, 2010, BP set up a call line to take cleanup suggestions which received 92,000 responses by late June, 320 of which were categorized as promising. In summer 2010 47,000 people and 7,000 vessels were involved in the response works. By October 3, 2012, federal response costs amounted $850 million, most of them reimbursed by BP; as of January 2013, 935 response personnel were still involved in response activities in the region. For that time BP's costs for cleanup operations exceeded $14 billion; the response included deploying many miles of containment boom, whose purpose is to either corral the oil, or to block it from a marsh, shrimp/crab/oyster ranch or other ecologically sensitive areas. Booms extend 18–48 inches above and below the water surface and are effective only in calm and slow-moving waters.
More than 100,000 feet of containment booms were deployed to protect the coast and the Mississippi River Delta. By the next day, that nearly doubled to 180,000 feet, with an additional 300,000 feet staged or being deployed. In total, during the crisis 9,100,000 feet one-time use sorbent booms and 4,200,000 feet of containment booms were deployed; some lawmakers have questioned the effectiveness of the booms, claiming that there was not enough boom to protect the shoreline and that the boom was not always installed correctly. Billy Nungesser, president of Plaquemines Parish, said the boom "washes up on the shore with the oil, we have oil in the marsh, we have an oily boom. So we have two problems". According to Naomi Klein, writing for the Guardian, "the ocean's winds and currents have made a mockery of the lightweight booms BP has laid out to absorb the oil." Byron Encalade, president of the Louisiana Oysters Association, told BP that the "oil's gonna go over the booms or underneath the bottom", according to Klein, he was right.
Rick Steiner, a marine biologist who followed the clean-up operations, estimated that "70% or 80% of the booms are doing nothing at all". Local officials along the gulf maintained that there was a scarcity of boom the heavier "ocean boom". BP, in its regional plan, says that boom is not effective in waters with waves more than three to four feet high; the Louisiana barrier island plan is a project initiated by Louisiana to construct barrier islands in the Gulf of Mexico protecting the coast of Louisiana from contamination by crude oil escaping from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. On May 27, 2010, acting on an application by the Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority, the United States Army Corps of Engineers offered an emergency permit to the state to commence work; the berms are 325 feet wide at the base and 25 feet wide at their summits, rising 6 feet above mean high water level. If built, the system would have been 128 miles long. In May, 2010 the federal government issued permits to construct 45 miles.
BP agreed to pay the estimated $360 million initial cost. Critics of the project maintained that it would be expensive and ineffective: involving use of over 100 million yards of dredged material, costing $360 million, taking 6 months to build. Issues include the length of time necessary to construct miles of berm and the anticipated effects of both normal and storm erosion on the structures, it is alleged by critics that the decision to pursue the project was made on a political basis with little input from the scientific experts. After the BP well was capped on July 15, 2010, construction of the berms continued and was still underway in October, 2010; the $360 million project was being financed by BP and being built under the supervision of the Army Corps of Engineers. If completed, no further funding obtained, following modification of the project by the state, there would be a total of 22 miles of berm; as of October, 2010 opposition to the project was growing and Thomas L. Strickland, assistant interior secretary for fish and wildlife and parks had called for re-evaluation of the project.
On November 1, 2010, it was announced by Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal and BP that a revised agreement between them provided that $100 million of the remaining $140 million would be used to convert completed berms into artificial barrier islands by widening them and adding vegetation and the remaining funds used to finish up ongoing berm work. A total of 17 million cubic yards of sand had been d
Sister Frances Dominica Ritchie OBE, DL, FRCN is a British nurse and Anglican Religious Sister, specializing in palliative care. She founded two hospices for ill young people. Born Frances Dorothy Lyon Ritchie in Inverness, Scotland in December 1942, she and her mother lived for three years in Greenock, where her grandfather was a solicitor and a Church of Scotland elder; when her father was demobbed the family moved to Richmond and Roehampton. Her younger brother, David Ritchie, was born when Frances was five years old and he had only one lung. Knowing she wanted to be a nurse she helped to care for him at home and visited him when he was a patient in The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, she was educated at Cheltenham Ladies' College before returning to Great Ormond Street to train as a paediatric nurse. During her training she was seconded to the Middlesex Hospital to do her General Training. Frances joined the All Saints Sisters of the Poor, an Anglican religious community in 1966.
She made vows in 1969 and was made Novice Guardian in 1973. She was elected Mother Superior General in 1977 at the age of 34, a position. Helen House, a hospice for children, was founded in 1982, inspired by two-year-old Helen Worswick. Sister Frances met Helen following surgery to remove a brain tumour, leaving Helen disabled; the friendship which developed between Frances and Helen and her parents proved the inspiration for the world's first children's hospice. More information on the work of Helen House today can be found at the Helen House website. A full account of the history of Helen House can be found in A House Called Helen, written by Helen's mother, Jacqueline Worswick; the hospice was created to offer respite care with or without family members, stepped discharge from hospital and end of life care for children from birth to 16. Practical and emotional support for the whole family for as many years as they needed were integral in the philosophy; the concept has now been replicated on all continents.
Recognising that young people with progressive life-shortening conditions were living much longer than they might once have done, Sister Frances went on to found Douglas House, a "respice" for people between the ages of 16 and 35 with life-shortening conditions. Named after a young man who had stayed many times in Helen House until he died aged 26, the house was opened by the Queen, accompanied by the Duke of Edinburgh in 2004, it is built in the same grounds as Helen House. Sister Frances's involvement with Helen and Douglas House came to and end in 2013 due to unproven allegations of abuse for which she was never charged and which were not associated with the hospices. In 2018, amidst the charity's financial problems, she called for her role as a trustee to be reinstated, so that she could help resolve the problems but this was not granted. Sister Frances is author of a book entitled Just My Reflection... helping families to do things their way when their child dies first published in 1997.
Sister Frances was a guest on the BBC Radio 4 programme Desert Island Discs. Sister Frances is a Deputy Lieutenant of the County of Oxfordshire, has received honorary degrees from four universities, she received the Templeton Project Trust Prize in 1986, was awarded an OBE in 2006 and Women of the Year award in 2007. In 2012 she was given a Lifetime Achievement award by Help the Hospices and the National Garden Scheme, she is a Fellow of The Royal College of Nursing and an Honorary Fellow of The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Sister Frances is Founder of REACT (Rapid Effective Assistance for Children with Terminal illness}, she is the President of FACT (Falsely Accused Carers and other professionals}. She is a trustee of The Porch started by the All Saints Sisters, now a separate charity offering day-long support for homeless and vulnerably-housed people wanting to move forward in their lives, away from street life and addiction. Timesonline.co.uk Sister Frances speaks on "Courage"
Gottfridsberg in Linköping is a central district, west of the Inner City. It consists of the areas Barhäll, old Gottfridsberg, Tornhagen and Åbylund; the area bounded on the south by Malmslättsvägen, to the east by Västra vägen and Bergsvägen, in the north by the railroad and to the west by Rydsskogen. The district has among other things, grocery store, a restaurant, snack bar and bakery. There are social care homes, nursing homes and care homes for people with dementia, schools including kindergarten and secondary education; the area is People's Park and the Cupolen, with events such as dances and exhibitions. The buildings are dominated by apartment buildings with 4 788 apartments, including student residences Flamman and Fjärilen. Small houses are in the areas Barhäll, Fridhem and Tornhagen. In December 2008 there were 7 717 inhabitants in Gottfridsberg, compared with a 1960 population of 11 215 people. During 2010 some expansion of the area, where 63 condominiums built in the neighborhood Omtanken.
Plans are underway for the construction of 250-300 dwellings at People's Park