World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
SM U-35 (Germany)
SM U-35 was a German U 31-class U-boat which operated in the Mediterranean Sea during World War I. It ended up being the most successful U-boat participating in the war, sinking 224 ships for a total of 539,741 gross register tons, her longest serving captain was Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière. Under his command, U-35 sank 195 ships, making him the most successful submarine commander in history. German Type U 31 submarines were double-hulled ocean-going submarines similar to Type 23 and Type 27 subs in dimensions and differed only in propulsion and speed, they were considered good high sea boats with average manoeuvrability and good surface steering. U-35 had an overall length of 64.70 m, her pressure hull was 52.36 m long. The boat's beam was 6.32 m, while the pressure hull measured 4.05 m. Type 31s had a draught of 3.56 m with a total height of 7.68–8.04 m. The boats displaced a total of 971 tonnes. U-35 was fitted with two Germania 6-cylinder two-stroke diesel engines with a total of 1,850 metric horsepower for use on the surface and two Siemens-Schuckert double-acting electric motors with a total of 1,200 PS for underwater use.
These engines powered two shafts each with a 1.60 m propeller, which gave the boat a top surface speed of 16.4 knots, 9.7 knots when submerged. Cruising range was 8,790 nautical miles at 8 knots on the surface, 80 nmi at 5 knots under water. Diving depth was 50 m; the U-boat was armed with four 50 cm torpedo tubes, two fitted in the bow and two in the stern, carried 6 torpedoes. Additionally U-35 was equipped in 1915 with one 8.8 cm Uk L/30 deck gun, replaced with a 10.5 cm gun in 1916/17. The boat's complement was 31 enlisted. U-35's keel was laid on 20 December 1912 at the Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft shipyard in Kiel, its delivery date was supposed to be 1 March 1914, but it was delayed due to development problems with its diesel engines. U-35 entered service on 3 November 1914, under the command of Kapitänleutnant Waldemar Kophamel; the lead engineer was Hans Fechter. It sailed with the II Flottille, stationed in Heligoland. U-35 completed its first two deployments in reconnaissance actions in the North Sea.
In its following three actions, U-35 sunk 17 merchant ships, for a total of 25,716 GRT. It was paired with U-34 after a battle near Cattaro and sunk three merchant ships for a total of 4,067 GRT. U-35 made two more voyages and destroyed 15 more merchant ships totaling 59,409 GRT; these included on 23 October 1915 the British transport Marquette in the Aegean Sea. She was carrying an Ammunition Column of the 29th Division. On 9 November 1915, U-35 sank the SS Californian, a cargo ship best known for its inaction during the sinking of the RMS Titanic on 15 April 1912, despite being the closest ship in the area. On 18 November 1915, Kptlt. de la Perière took command of U-35. He led 15 missions in the Mediterranean, sank 189 merchant ships for a total of 446,708 GRT. Additionally, U-35 sank the British gunboat HMS Primula on 29 February 1916 and the French gunboat Rigel on 2 October 1916. On 26 February 1916, she torpedoed and sank the Armed merchant cruiser La Provence, carrying 1,800 French troops, near Cerigo Island with a loss of 990 men.
U-35's fourteenth patrol under de la Perière stands as the most successful submarine patrol of all time. During that period, 54 merchant ships totaling 90,350 GRT were sunk, she sank on 4 October 1916, the French transport ship SS Gallia, leading to the death of between 600 and 1,800 men. Kptlt. Ernst von Voigt took command of U-35 on 17 March 1918, he undertook two patrols, an enemy engagement and a redeployment cruise, between 7 September and 9 October 1918, but both were promptly broken off because of engine damage. On 14 October 1918, Kptlt. Heino von Heimburg took U-35 was transferred to Kiel. After World War I ended, U-35 was transferred to England and docked in Blyth from 1919 to 1920 broken up. Photos of cruises of German submarine U-54 in 1916-1918. Great photo quality, comments in German. A 44 min. film from 1917 about a cruise of the German submarine U-35. A German propaganda film without dead or wounded. In 6 parts. Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boats: U 35". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net.
Room 40: original documents and maps about World War I German submarine warfare and British Room 40 Intelligence from The National Archives, Richmond, UK
Captain Christian August Max Ahlmann Valentiner was a German U-boat commander during World War I. He was the third highest-scoring U-boat commander of the war, was awarded the Pour le Mérite for his achievements, he was listed as a war criminal by the Allies, for killing hundreds of civilians by sinking the passenger liner Persia without warning on December 30, 1915, contrary to international law. The eldest of the four children of Otto Friedrich Valentiner and Mathilde Julie Valentiner, Valentiner was born in Tondern, Province of Schleswig-Holstein. In 1882, the family moved to Ketting on Als where his father held a job as a priest for two years moving to Sonderburg. Valentiner started his time in school in Ketting Augustenburg and in Sonderburg on Reimers school. At the age of 18, he joined the Imperial German Navy of the German Empire on April 1, 1902, as a Seekadett on the school ship Moltke. On August 15, 1902, he saved a ship's boy from drowning in Swinemünde's harbor, received his first of many decorations, the Rettungsmedaille.
In 1903, Valentiner joined the naval school where he attended many courses in diving, his preferred topic. He ended his training on the Hansa. On May 14, 1903, he saved an able seaman in Heligoland harbour from the waves and certain death, was awarded the Order of the Crown Medal for his courage and valour in action. On September 29, 1905, he was promoted to Leutnant zur See and in 1907 he became an officer on SMS Braunschweig, he was promoted again on March 1908, to Oberleutnant zur See. From 1908 to 1910, Valentiner was company commander for 1. Matrosen-Artillerie-Abteilung in Kiel. In 1911, Valentiner became an officer on the U-boat salvage ship SMS Vulkan. In this job, on January 17, 1911, he saved all 30 men of U-3 by getting them out via a torpedo tube after it sank in Kiel Harbour due to an unclosed valve in the ventilation shaft. Among the saved crew was Otto Weddigen the commander of U-9, Paul Clarrendorf, the commander of U-boot-Abnahme-Kommando in Kiel which enlisted U-boat crews. Valentiner received the Order of the Crown 4th class for the life-saving mission.
On July 1, 1911, Valentiner took command of the new U-boat U-10. On board he showed incredible skill and boldness and on training manoeuvres he sank several ships with drill torpedoes without being sighted, his performance changed the German vision of U-boat warfare. On March 22, 1914, Valentiner was promoted to Kapitänleutnant and nine days he became a teacher at the U-boat school in Kiel, a position he held until the outbreak of World War I on August 4, 1914, when the United Kingdom declared war on the German Empire; when World War I broke out, Valentiner took command of U-3, the U-boat on which he three years earlier saved 30 men from dying. His orders were to sink Russian warships in the Baltic Sea, but he failed, blamed the old U-boat which did not have the capabilities of the newer boats in the Kaiserliche Marine. Valentiner returned to base without any successes and was relieved from his command on October 27, 1914, he was sent to Berlin to explain the problems with the older U-boats. The prince sent him away.
When Valentiner returned to Kiel he was quite surprised to learn that he was to take command of the newest U-boat, U-38. He was allowed to choose his own officers from the U-boat school. From December 5, 1914, to September 15, 1917, Valentiner was stationed by 2. U-Halbflottille/U-Flottille Pola at the Austrian base of Cattaro, in Montenegro. All German U-boat activities in the eastern Mediterranean Sea took place from here; until the end of March 1915, U-38 had several problems with its diesel engine, repairs were required. Training of the new crew took place between repairs near the British east coast, which were considered the most safe and simple for training. After March, U-38 started to patrol in the eastern Mediterranean Sea and on December 30, 1915, U-38 and Valentiner sank the British passenger ship Persia without any warning. Of the 519 aboard, 343 perished; the action was controversial since it broke naval international law and the Rules of Prize Warfare. The action took place under Germany’s policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, but broke the Imperial German Navy’s own restriction on attacking passenger liners, the Arabic pledge.
After the attack, Valentiner was placed on the Allies list of war criminals. At home, he was awarded with the Knight's Cross with Swords of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern on May 14, 1916. On December 3, 1916, Valentiner took U-38 into the Funchal harbor on Madeira and sank three enemy ships. For this accomplishment, he became the sixth U-boat commander awarded the Pour le Mérite, on December 26. On September 15, 1917, Valentiner left U-38 and Cattaro and returned to Kiel to take command of the new U-157. Kapitänleutnant Rabe von Pappenhein was to have taken this command, but for unknown reasons, this was changed. With U-157, Valentiner undertook the longest cruise of the war, from November 27, 1917, to April 15, 1918, a total of 139 days; this cruise came to be his last. In total, he sank 150 ships with a tonnage of about 300,000 tons. Valentiner returned to the U-boat school to teach new submariners his techniques, his experience and advice were taken into account in the construction of the new boat U-143, faster and had a much improved dive time, but it was never finished.
Valentiner was accused of "cruel and inhuman treatment of crews" in fifteen different incidents involving French and Italian ships. The Allies demanded all war criminals be extradited, but most resigned and disappeared for a while, including Valentiner, he went first to Berlin, was deleted
Wilhelm Franz Canaris was a German admiral and chief of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944. A supporter of Adolf Hitler, by 1939 he had turned against the Nazis as he felt Germany would lose another major war. During World War II he was among the military officers involved in the clandestine opposition to Nazi Germany leadership, he was executed in Flossenbürg concentration camp for high treason as the Nazi regime was collapsing. Canaris was born on 1 January 1887 in Aplerbeck in Westphalia, the son of Carl Canaris, a wealthy industrialist, his wife, Auguste. Canaris believed that his family was related to the 19th century Greek admiral, freedom fighter, politician Constantine Kanaris, a belief that influenced his decision to join the Imperial German Navy. While on a visit to Corfu, he was given a portrait of the Greek hero that he always kept in his office. However, according to Richard Bassett, a genealogical investigation in 1938 revealed that his family was of Northern Italian descent called Canarisi, had lived in Germany since the 17th century.
His grandfather had converted from Catholicism to Lutheranism. In 1905, at the age of seventeen, Canaris joined the Imperial Navy and by the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 was serving as an intelligence officer on board the SMS Dresden, a light cruiser he had been assigned to in December 1911; this was the only warship that managed to evade the Royal Navy for a prolonged period during the Battle of the Falkland Islands of December 1914 due to Canaris' skilful evasion tactics. After the Battle of Más a Tierra, the immobilized Dresden anchored in Cumberland Bay, Robinson Crusoe Island and contacted Chile with regard to internment. While in the bay, Royal Navy ships shelled the Dresden; the crew scuttled the ship. Most of the crew was interned in Chile in March 1915, but in August 1915, Canaris escaped by using his fluency in Spanish. With the help of some German merchants he was able to return to Germany in October 1915. On the way, he called including Plymouth in Great Britain. Canaris was given intelligence work as a result of having come to the attention of German naval intelligence.
German plans to establish intelligence operations in the Mediterranean were under way and Canaris seemed a good fit for this role. He was sent to Spain, where in Madrid his task was to provide clandestine reconnaissance over enemy shipping movements and to establish a supply service for the U-boats in naval warfare in the Mediterranean during World War I. After being assigned to the Inspectorate of Submarines by the Naval Staff on 24 October 1916, he took up training for duty as a U-boat commander and graduated from Submarine School on 11 September 1917, he ended the war as a U-boat commander from late 1917 in the Mediterranean and was credited with a number of sinkings coming to the attention of the Kaiser. As a result of his exploits in Spain, he was awarded the Iron Cross First Class. Canaris spoke six languages with fluency, one of, English; as a naval officer of the old school, he had great respect for Great Britain's Royal Navy, despite the rivalry between the two nations. During the German Revolution of 1918–19, Canaris helped organise the formation of Freikorps paramilitary units in order to suppress the Communist revolutionary movements that were attempting to spread the ideals of the Russian Revolution into central European nations.
He was a member of the military court that tried those involved in the assassination of the leftist revolutionaries Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. During this period, he was appointed to the adjutancy of defence minister Gustav Noske. In 1919, he married Erika Waag the child of an industrialist, with whom he had two children. In the spring of 1924, Canaris was sent to Osaka, Japan, to supervise a secret U-boat construction program in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles; when that project was shelved by Vice Admiral Adolf Zenker in favor of a more cooperative relationship with the British, Canaris began making deals, aided by the son of a powerful German shipping magnate, Captain Walter Lohmann — they negotiated with Spanish merchants, German industrialists, some Argentinian venture capitalists, the Spanish navy so the Germans could continue their clandestine naval activities. For Canaris, he made some enemies within Germany during the course of his secret business and intelligence negotiations as a consequence of the bankruptcy incurred by the film-maker Phoebus Film in his dealings with Lohmann.
The former involvement with the "Liebknecht affair" re-emerged and placed Canaris in an unfavourable light, which ended up costing him his position in Spain. Instead, he was sent to Wilhelmshaven. From his new post, Canaris haplessly discovered that Lohmann's "investments" had cost upwards of twenty-six billion marks in total losses. At some time in 1928, Canaris was removed from his intelligence post and began two years of conventional naval service aboard the pre-Dreadnought battleship Schlesien, becoming captain of the vessel on 1 December 1932. Just two months Adolf Hitler became Germany's new Chancellor. Enthused by this development, Canaris was known to give lectures about the virtues of Nazism to his crew aboard the Schlesien. Detached from the previous government of Weimar whose Republican principles never appealed to Canaris, he looked to the Nazi Party to shape the future. Two things stood out for Canaris about the Nazis.
German submarine U-103 (1940)
German submarine U-103 was a Type IXB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine that operated during World War II. She was one of the most successful boats in the entire war, sinking over 237,000 gross register tons of Allied shipping in 11 patrols, in a career lasting more than four years. U-103 was laid down on 6 September 1939 at DeSchiMAG AG Weser in Bremen as yard number 966, she was launched on 12 April 1940 and commissioned on 5 July under the command of Korvettenkapitän Victor Schütze. After her warm-up, she was deployed into the North Atlantic in September 1940 and saw overwhelming success, sinking 45 ships and damaging three other vessels. German Type IXB submarines were larger than the original German Type IX submarines designated IXA. U-103 had a displacement of 1,051 tonnes when at 1,178 tonnes while submerged; the U-boat had a total length of 76.50 m, a pressure hull length of 58.75 m, a beam of 6.76 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.70 m. The submarine was powered by two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged four-stroke, nine-cylinder diesel engines producing a total of 4,400 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert 2 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 1,000 metric horsepower for use while submerged.
She had two 1.92 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.3 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 64 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-103 was fitted with six 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, 22 torpedoes, one 10.5 cm SK C/32 naval gun, 180 rounds, a 3.7 cm SK C/30 as well as a 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of forty-eight; the boat entered the Atlantic via the gap between the Shetland Islands. Her first victory was sinking Nina Borthen in mid-ocean on 6 October. After being hit by a torpedo, the ship developed a list; the ship was hit by two more projectiles, which caused a list. Another torpedo hit broke the vessel in two and she sank. There were no survivors. A steady stream of victories followed; the Nora went down on 13 October. U-103 docked on 19 October. U-103's second foray commenced with her being unsuccessfully attacked by the Flower-class corvette HMS Rhododendron northwest of Ireland on 11 November 1940.
She added to her score: Daydawn on the 21st, Victoria on the same day. There was a slight pause before the attacks continued: the Calabria on 8 December and Empire Jaguar the next day; the submarine returned to Lorient on 19 December. The list of sunk and damaged ships grew; the Arthur F. Corwin was damaged by U-103 13 February 1941 and sunk by U-96 that same day. U-96 went on to sink Edwy R. Brown and Benjamin Franklin. A change of operational area saw; this patrol was notable, because at 103 days, it was her longest. She sank Polyana 41 nmi southwest of the Cape Verde Islands on 24 April 1941; the ship went down in one minute, there were no survivors. The tally increased: Samsø, Wray Castle and Dunkwa were all sent to the bottom in the first week of May; when Dunkwa met her end, it was noticed. U-103 sank another eight ships in the vicinity of the'dark continent' before returning to Lorient on 12 July. Patrol number five was modest in terms of ships sunk.'Only' two vessels went under. The boat's sixth patrol centred around the eastern US coast.
She sank W. L. Stead about 90 nmi off the Delaware River on 2 February 1942; the torpedo hit set the ship on fire but wave action soon extinguished it. Using her deck gun, U-103 fired 83 rounds, reigniting the fire, she fired a further two torpedoes, the second missed, but the third caused the tanker's cargo to explode, sending flames 500 ft into the air. U-103 sank San Gil on 4 February, India Arrow on the 5th and China Arrow on the same date, her seventh patrol began with her departure from Lorient on 15 April 1942. She sank Stanbank northeast of Bermuda on 5 May. Moving into the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, she caused more mayhem among the unprotected merchant ships in May. In all, she destroyed nine vessels on this voyage. U-103 returned to Lorient on 22 June. Two more ships went to watery graves - Tasmania north of Madeira on 31 October 1942 and Henry Stanley in mid-Atlantic northwest of the Azores on 6 December; the Henry Stanley's master was taken prisoner and was sent to the POW camp for merchant seamen at Milag Nord.
U-103 damaged Horata north of the Azores on 13 December. The boat experienced something, novel on her ninth sally - she sank no ships. Despite scourin
German submarine U-123 (1940)
German submarine U-123 was a Type IXB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine that operated during World War II. After that conflict, she became the French submarine Blaison until she was decommissioned on 18 August 1959. U-123 was laid down on 15 April 1939 at the AG Weser yard in Bremen as yard number 955, she was launched on 2 March 1940 and commissioned on 30 May, with Kapitänleutnant Karl-Heinz Moehle in command. He was relieved on 19 May 1941 by Kptlt. Reinhard Hardegen, relieved in turn on 1 August 1942 by his watch officer, Oberleutnant zur See Horst von Schroeter, he remained in command until the boat was decommissioned in 1944. German Type IXB submarines were larger than the original German Type IX submarines designated IXA. U-123 had a displacement of 1,051 tonnes when at 1,178 tonnes while submerged; the U-boat had a total length of 76.50 m, a pressure hull length of 58.75 m, a beam of 6.76 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.70 m. The submarine was powered by two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged four-stroke, nine-cylinder diesel engines producing a total of 4,400 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert 2 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 1,000 metric horsepower for use while submerged.
She had two 1.92 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.3 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 64 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-123 was fitted with six 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, 22 torpedoes, one 10.5 cm SK C/32 naval gun, 180 rounds, a 3.7 cm SK C/30 as well as a 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of forty-eight. U-123 conducted 12 war patrols, sinking 45 ships, totalling 227,174 gross register tons and damaging six others, totaling 53,568 GRT. Among them were four neutral Swedish merchantmen: SS Anten, MV Korsholm, SS Nanking and MV Venezuela. U-123's first patrol began with her departure from Kiel on 21 September 1940, her route took her across the North Sea, through the gap between the Faroe and Shetland Islands and into the Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland. She sank six ships in October, including Shekatika, hit with no less than five torpedoes before she went to the bottom east southeast of Rockall.
Her partial load of pit-props floated free before she went down. The boat docked at Lorient in occupied France on 23 October. U-123 returned to the same general area for her second patrol as for her first, she was almost as successful, sending another five merchantmen to the bottom. The voyage was marred on 17 November 1940. A week after a successful attack, the boat was damaged in collision with an unknown object, she returned to Lorient on 28 November. Her score rose sinking another four ships. One, was sunk after a nine-hour chase about 330 nmi west of Rockall. There were no survivors. Venturing further west of Ireland on her fourth sortie, the boat sank one ship, Venezuela on 17 April 1941; this was another vessel. There were no survivors. Having set-out from Lorient on 10 April, she returned to the same port on 11 May. Patrol number five was conducted in the Atlantic, but in the vicinity of the Azores and the Canary Islands, her first victim this time out was a 4,300 ton neutral registered in Portugal.
She went down on 20 June 1941. Following her sinking with torpedoes and gunfire, it was realised. On her return to Lorient, U-123's war diary was altered on the order of U-boat headquarters; the U-boat sank four other ships between 27 June and 4 July, but was depth charged for 11 hours on 27 June and only escaped by diving to 654 ft. She was unsuccessfully attacked by convoy escorts west of Portugal on 12 August, although she sustained moderate damage. Despite criss-crossing the Atlantic, U-123 found the pickings rather thin, she did manage to damage the armed merchant cruiser HMS Aurania on 21 October 1941 and take one crewman prisoner; the ship had been travelling behind Convoy SL-89 with five other AMCs. The vessel was hit by two torpedoes but empty drums in the holds kept her afloat. A 25 degree list was reduced to 15 degrees; the ship continued her voyage, albeit at reduced speed. U-123 took part in the opening of Unternehmen Paukenschlag called the "Second Happy Time" in January 1942, she began by sinking the cargo ship Cyclops about 125 nmi southeast of Cape Sable, Nova Scotia on the 12th.
Moving down the coast, she sank Norness, Norvana, City of Atlanta and the Latvian Ciltvaira. She was credited with sinking San Jose on 17 January, although this ship was lost in a collision; the Malay was only damaged because Hardegen had under-estimated her size and chose to use the deck gun rather than a torpedo. In a reference to American unpreparedness, he commented after sinking Norvana: These are some pretty buoys we are leaving for the Yankees in the harbor approaches as replacement for the lightships. U-123 was attacked by an aircraft off New York City
Heino von Heimburg
Heino von Heimburg was a German U-boat commander in the Kaiserliche Marine during World War I and served as Vizeadmiral in the Kriegsmarine during World War II. On 10 June 1915, Heimburg, in command of UB-15 sank the Italian submarine Medusa off Porto di Piave Vecchia in the northern Adriatic. On 6 July 1915, Heimburg, in command of UB-14 with a crew of 14, torpedoed and sank the Italian armoured cruiser Amalfi while operating under the Austrian flag off Venice. On 16 July, Heimburg sailed for the Dardanelles; this was at a time when the range of submarines was limited, unlike today. To reach Bodrum, UB-14 had to be towed a considerable part of the distance by an Austrian destroyer. So, her engine broke down off Crete and her compass became defective. Despite these problems she arrived safely at Bodrum on 24 July. On arrival she recharged the batteries of the UC-14 which had arrived four days earlier with engine problems. A maintenance team had to travel from Constantinople to carry out necessary repairs to both submarines.
At the time this journey was not easy being made by train and by camel. On 12 August, Heimburg sailed from Bodrum for the known steamer route between Alexandria and the Dardanelles. After leaving, Heimburg's first sighting was a lit hospital ship seen that evening, not attacked. On 13 August he first sighted the liner Soudan in service as a hospital ship, he sighted the RMS Royal Edward sailing unescorted for Madras. He fired one torpedo from under a mile away. Royal Edward sank in position 36°13′N 25°51′E 6 miles west from Kandeliusa in the Aegean Sea; the after deck was awash in three minutes and the ship had sunk with her bows in the air in six minutes. 132 members of her crew and maybe 1000 soldiers died. The survivors were picked up by two French destroyers and some trawlers. Heimburg and UB-14 did not stay on to harass the rescue effort, but headed back to Bodrum with some technical problems where she arrived on the morning of the 15 August. In August Heimburg and UB-14 sank the Australian troopship Southland bound for Gallipoli.
Thirty men were killed and the remaining troops and crew were rescued by nearby ships. A skeleton crew of volunteers managed to beach it in Moudros harbour. On 4 September, the British submarine E7 became entangled in enemy torpedo nets off Nagara Point in the Dardanelles. All attempts to free the submarine failed. However, they had caught the attention of Heimburg in harbour with UB-14, undergoing repairs at nearby Çanakkale, he visited the spot in a small skiff. E7 was forced to the surface and her crew scuttled it before they were taken as prisoners of war. On 5 November, Heimburg with UB-14 torpedoed and sank the British submarine E20 and after taking command of UC-22 he torpedoed and sank the French submarine Ariane on 19 June 1917. On 11 August, Heino von Heimburg was awarded the Pour le Mérite. While interviewing German veterans of the U-boats, American journalist Lowell Thomas was introduced to Heimburg by Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière. Heimburg's interview about his wartime service appeared in Thomas' 1928 book Raiders of the Deep.
At the beginning of World War II, Heimburg was a judge at the Reichskriegsgericht. Until 1943, when he was retired, Heimburg served in Bremen. In 1944 he was selected to sit on a Nazi special court. Despite the fact that he was now retired, in March 1945 Heimburg was apprehended by the Soviets and died in a POW camp near Stalingrad in 1945. Iron Cross of 1914, 1st and 2nd class Knight's Cross of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern with Swords U-boat War Badge Pour le Mérite Knight's Cross Second Class of the House and Merit Order of Peter Frederick Louis with Swords Friedrich August Cross, 1st class Knight's Cross of the Order of Leopold Order of the Iron Crown, 3rd class with War Decoration Silver Imtiyaz Medal with Sword Gold Liakat Medal with Sword Knight's Cross of the Order of Military Merit with Crown Hildebrand, Hans. H — O. Deutschlands Admirale: 1849-1945: die militärischen Werdegänge der See-, Ingenieur-, Sanitäts-, Waffen- und Verwaltungsoffiziere im Admiralsrang. 2. Osnabrück: Biblio-Verl.
ISBN 3764814993. Axishistory.com webpage - Forum about the most decorated soldiers of the Wehrmacht including Heino von Heimburg raundswarmemorials.org webpage - History of RMS Royal Edward militaryhistoryonline.com Article mentioning sinking of SS Southland