A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism and these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, a few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level and these colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains, different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m, there is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain, whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. The highest point in San Francisco, California, is called Mount Davidson, notwithstanding its height of 300 m, Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittows Dictionary of Physical Geography states Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, in addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement, typically 100 or 500 feet. For a while, the US defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, any similar landform lower than this height was considered a hill. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US, using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, and 14% of Africa. As a whole, 24% of the Earths land mass is mountainous, there are three main types of mountains, volcanic and block.
All three types are formed from plate tectonics, when portions of the Earths crust move, compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate, at a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, and forms magma that reaches the surface. When the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain, magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US
Alpnach is a village in the canton of Obwalden in Switzerland. It comprises the villages of Alpnach Dorf and Schoried, Alpnach is first mentioned about 870 as Alpenacho. Alpnach has an area, as of 2006, of 53.8 square kilometers, of this area,32. 1% is used for agricultural purposes, while 54. 1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 5% is settled and the remainder is non-productive, the municipality is located on the heights above two streams, the Large and Small Schliere. During the mid-19th Century the village became a linear village, while in the 20th Century, it expanded into a Haufendorf. It consists of the villages of Alpnach Dorf and Schoried, Alpnach has a population of 5,908. As of 2007,13. 2% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 11. 1%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common, as of 2000 the gender distribution of the population was 50. 8% male and 49. 2% female. As of 2000 there are 1,828 households in Alpnach, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP which received 34. 1% of the vote.
The next three most popular parties were the SVP, the Other and the SPS, in Alpnach about 67. 2% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Alpnach has an unemployment rate of 1. 55%, as of 2005, there were 228 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 91 businesses involved in this sector. 839 people are employed in the sector and there are 81 businesses in this sector. 952 people are employed in the sector, with 144 businesses in this sector. Alpnach is home to the Alpnach Air Base of the Swiss Air Force, the main sights of Alpnach include the worlds steepest rack railway to the mountain Pilatus, a Roman mansion, and a hand-operated print shop. Alpnach in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, Alpnachstad in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating and storage of data with associated attributes. GIS offers better understanding of patterns and relationships of the landscape at different scales, tools inside the GIS allow for manipulation of data for spatial analysis or cartography. A topographical map is the type of map used to depict elevation. In a Geographic Information System, digital models are commonly used to represent the surface of a place. Digital terrain models are another way to represent terrain in GIS, USGS is developing a 3D Elevation Program to keep up with growing needs for high quality topographic data. 3DEP is a collection of enhanced elevation data in the form of high quality LiDAR data over the conterminous United States, there are three bare earth DEM layers in 3DEP which are nationally seamless at the resolution of 1/3,1, and 2 arcseconds. This map is derived from GTOPO30 data that describes the elevation of Earths terrain at intervals of 30 arcseconds and it uses color and shading instead of contour lines to indicate elevation.
Hypsography is the study of the distribution of elevations on the surface of the Earth, the term originates from the Greek word ὕψος hypsos meaning height. Most often it is used only in reference to elevation of land, related to the term hypsometry, the measurement of these elevations of a planets solid surface are taken relative to mean datum, except for Earth which is taken relative to the sea level. In the troposphere, temperatures decrease with altitude and this lapse rate is approximately 6.5 °C/km. S
Engelberg is a village resort and municipality in the canton of Obwalden in Switzerland. Besides the village of Engelberg, the municipality includes the settlements of Grafenort, Obermatt. The municipality of Engelberg is an exclave of Obwalden, surrounded by the cantons of Bern, Engelberg has a population of 4,097. As of 2007,21. 0% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, Engelberg is a major mountain resort in Central Switzerland. In the Middle Ages, Engelberg was known for the quality of its Benedictine monastery. From the 19th Century onwards Engelberg became internationally known as a moutain resort, with its combination of modern snow and sports facilities and alpine location, Engelberg is popular today for both summer and winter tourism. The nearest large city is Lucerne, the official language of Engelberg is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Engelberg is first mentioned as Engilperc in 1122, when the Abbey was first founded there, from 1850, Engelberg became an international vacation resort.
Many hotels were built by the families Cattani and Odermatt, from 1872 to 1874, a new, wider road was built, and the Stansstad-Engelberg electric railway was opened in 1898. Hiking and other mountain sports developed at the end of 19th Century, a funicular railway connects Engelberg to Gerschni and, from there, the second cable car in Switzerland runs onwards to Ober Trüebsee. The decade preceding the First World War was a period of boom conditions, regular conferences in Engelberg came to supplement winter tourism. In 2000, the sector, especially tourism, offered three quarters of the employment of Engelberg. Engelberg is situated within the Uri Alps mountain range, Engelberg has an area of 74.8 square kilometers. Of this area,28. 5% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,3. 1% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The average altitude of Engelberg is 1,020 m, however the village is surrounded by the Alps, creating very steep terrain. The highest point in the borders of the municipality is the Titlis which is 3,239 m, the Engelberg Valley is drained by the Engelberger Aa, a tributary of Lake Lucerne.
The valley is located southwards from the lake, the municipality of Engelberg is served by two stations on the Luzern–Stans–Engelberg line. Engelberg railway station is located in the village and is the terminus of the line, Grafenort station is to the north, one station away
The Brienzer Rothorn is a mountain of the Emmental Alps, in Switzerland. With an elevation of 2,350 metres above sea level, to its west lies the Tannhorn, whilst to its east are Arnihaaggen, Höch Gumme and the Brünig Pass. On its south side it overlooks Lake Brienz, whilst to the north it looks out over the Waldemme valley. Administratively, the summit is shared by the municipalities of Brienz, to the south-west, Schwanden bei Brienz, to the south-east, Giswil to the north-east, and Flühli, to the north-west. Brienz and Schwanden bei Brienz are in the canton of Bern, Giswil is in the canton of Obwalden, the Brienzer Rothorn is the highest point in the canton of Lucerne. The summit can be reached from Brienz by the Brienz Rothorn Bahn and it can be reached from Sörenberg, in Flühli, by a cable car. List of mountains of Switzerland List of mountains of Switzerland accessible by public transport Brienzer Rothorn on Hikr
Giswil is a municipality in the canton of Obwalden in Switzerland. Giswil is first mentioned in the 11th Century as Kisevilare, the municipality is located on the southern end of Lake Sarnen. It consists of the sections of Grossteil, Kleinteil and Diechtersmatt, as well as scattered farm houses. To the south-west, the municipality rises up to the summits of the Giswilerstock, Brienzer Rothorn, the Glaubenbielen Pass crosses to Sörenberg in the Entlebuch region of the canton of Lucerne. Giswil has an area, as of 2006, of 85.9 square kilometers, of this area,35. 9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 53. 3% is forested. Of the rest of the land,2. 2% is settled, Giswil has a population of 3,586. As of 2007,8. 9% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, after a period of poverty and emigration in the late 19th century, where the population stagnated at about 1600 persons, the population increased quite continuously in the 20th century. Most of the population speaks German, with Serbo-Croatian being second most common, as of 2000 the gender distribution of the population was 50. 9% male and 49. 1% female.
As of 2000 there are 1,250 households in Giswil, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 35. 9% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the SPS and the rest of the went to other parties. In Giswil about 68. 2% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, Giswil has an unemployment rate of 1. 24%. As of 2005, there were 329 people employed in the economic sector. 335 people are employed in the sector and there are 53 businesses in this sector. 467 people are employed in the sector, with 84 businesses in this sector. The historical population is given in the table, Giswil is served by Giswil station on the Brünig line. The hourly InterRegio train between Interlaken and Lucerne stops at the station, which is the terminus of the half-hourly Lucerne S-Bahn S5 service from Lucerne, the A8 motorway passes to the south of the town, through the Giswil Tunnel. The main sights of Giswil are, two ruins and the traditional farmhouses in the scattered settlement Grossteil, Giswil has an average of 144.1 days of rain per year and on average receives 1,311 mm of precipitation.
The wettest month is August during which time Giswil receives an average of 168 mm of precipitation, during this month there is precipitation for an average of 14.4 days
Sarnen is the capital of the canton of Obwalden situated on the shores of Lake Sarnen, Switzerland. It has a population of just over 10,000 and is surrounded by countryside, Sarnen is located 20 km south of Lucerne. The official language of Sarnen is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Stone Age and Bronze Age finds show that the Sarnen valley was inhabited from the earliest times, over the years Sarnen developed into an important trading center. Sarnen is situated at an altitude of 473 m on the shore of the Lake Sarner, Lake Sarner covers approximately an area of 7.5 km2. The town is surrounded by chains and a protected bog can be found nearby. The most well-known mountain close to Sarnen is Mount Pilatus with an elevation of 2,132 m, Sarnen has an area, of 73.11 km2. Of this area, about 39. 0% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,6. 0% is settled and 4. 3% is unproductive land. In the 2004/09 survey a total of 260 ha or about 3. 6% of the area was covered with buildings.
Of the agricultural land,46 ha is used for orchards and vineyards,1,554 ha is fields and grasslands and 1,665 ha consists of alpine grazing areas, since 1980/81 the amount of agricultural land has decreased by 172 ha. Over the same period the amount of forested land has increased by 27 ha. Rivers and lakes cover 111 ha in the municipality, the municipality is made up of 5 sections, Stalden, Wilen, Kägiswil and Ramersberg. Sarnen has a population of 10,229, as of 2014,14. 5% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 4 years the population has changed at a rate of 2. 62%, the birth rate in the municipality, in 2014, was 9.2, while the death rate was 6.6 per thousand residents. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common, as of 2000 the gender distribution of the population was 49. 9% male and 50. 1% female. As of 2014, children and teenagers make up 19. 2% of the population, while adults are 62. 1% and seniors make up 18. 7%. In 2015 there were 4,418 single residents,4,619 people who were married or in a partnership,519 widows or widowers and 673 divorced residents.
As of 2000 there are 3,452 households in Sarnen, in 2014 there were 4,338 private households in Sarnen with an average household size of 2.32 persons
Titlis is a mountain of the Uri Alps, located on the border between the cantons of Obwalden and Berne. At 3,238 metres above sea level, it is the highest summit of the north of the Susten Pass. It is mainly accessed from Engelberg on the side and is famous as the site of the worlds first rotating cable car. The cable car system connects Engelberg to the summit of Klein Titlis through the three stages of Gerschnialp, Trübsee and Stand, the last part of cable car way leads above the glacier. At Klein Titlis, it is possible to visit an illuminated glacier cave from an entrance within the cable-car station, the Titlis Cliff Walk, the highest elevation suspension bridge in Europe, opened in December 2012, giving views across the Alps. Titlis straddles the border between Obwalden and Berne, the main summit of Titlis and Klein Titlis are both located between the municipalities of Engelberg on the north and Gadmen on the south. The Titlis massif is located in Nidwalden, where the highest point of that canton is found.
Titlis itself is the highest point in Obwalden and in the valley of Engelberg, east of Titlis is the Grassen, where the borders between the cantons of Obwalden and Uri converge. The geographical centre of Switzerland is situated about 15 kilometers west of the mountain, Titlis is the highest mountain in the portion of the Uri Alps north of the Susten Pass. This part of the range is located between the valleys of the Hasli and the Reuss, thus separating the waters feeding the basins of the Aar, on the north side the valley of Engelberg is drained by the Engelberger Aa, a tributary of the Lake Lucerne. The valley is located southwards from Lake Lucerne, the northern side of the massif is covered by the Titlis Glacier. The south steep and rocky face rises above the Wenden Glacier, the east side overlooks a glacier named Firnalpeligletscher. In earlier times, Titlis was known under the names Wendenstock or Nollen, the Reissend Nollen and the Wendenstöcke are the nearest western neighbours to the mountain, slightly lower than Titlis, but with sharp rugged peaks.
In a document of 1435 the mountain is called Tuttelsberg, referencing to a man named Tutilos, the name, from Tutilos Berg, became Titlisberg and Titlis. The first ascent of Titlis was probably made in the year 1739 and it was done by Ignaz Hess, J. E. Waser and two other men from Engelberg. The first written evidence of an ascent is found in the Engelberger Dokumente and they mention a party of four men that reached the summit in 1744. On 21 January 1904 the first ski ascent of Titlis was made by Joseph Kuster, in March 1967 the cable car to Klein Titlis was inaugurated. In December 2012, the Titlis Cliff Walk opened to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Engelberg-Gerschnialp cableway, Klein Titlis hosts a significant telecommunications site, used for high capacity point-to-point microwave radio links and VHF/UHF repeaters