Titlis is a mountain of the Uri Alps, located on the border between the cantons of Obwalden and Berne. At 3,238 metres above sea level, it is the highest summit of the north of the Susten Pass. It is mainly accessed from Engelberg on the side and is famous as the site of the worlds first rotating cable car. The cable car system connects Engelberg to the summit of Klein Titlis through the three stages of Gerschnialp, Trübsee and Stand, the last part of cable car way leads above the glacier. At Klein Titlis, it is possible to visit an illuminated glacier cave from an entrance within the cable-car station, the Titlis Cliff Walk, the highest elevation suspension bridge in Europe, opened in December 2012, giving views across the Alps. Titlis straddles the border between Obwalden and Berne, the main summit of Titlis and Klein Titlis are both located between the municipalities of Engelberg on the north and Gadmen on the south. The Titlis massif is located in Nidwalden, where the highest point of that canton is found.
Titlis itself is the highest point in Obwalden and in the valley of Engelberg, east of Titlis is the Grassen, where the borders between the cantons of Obwalden and Uri converge. The geographical centre of Switzerland is situated about 15 kilometers west of the mountain, Titlis is the highest mountain in the portion of the Uri Alps north of the Susten Pass. This part of the range is located between the valleys of the Hasli and the Reuss, thus separating the waters feeding the basins of the Aar, on the north side the valley of Engelberg is drained by the Engelberger Aa, a tributary of the Lake Lucerne. The valley is located southwards from Lake Lucerne, the northern side of the massif is covered by the Titlis Glacier. The south steep and rocky face rises above the Wenden Glacier, the east side overlooks a glacier named Firnalpeligletscher. In earlier times, Titlis was known under the names Wendenstock or Nollen, the Reissend Nollen and the Wendenstöcke are the nearest western neighbours to the mountain, slightly lower than Titlis, but with sharp rugged peaks.
In a document of 1435 the mountain is called Tuttelsberg, referencing to a man named Tutilos, the name, from Tutilos Berg, became Titlisberg and Titlis. The first ascent of Titlis was probably made in the year 1739 and it was done by Ignaz Hess, J. E. Waser and two other men from Engelberg. The first written evidence of an ascent is found in the Engelberger Dokumente and they mention a party of four men that reached the summit in 1744. On 21 January 1904 the first ski ascent of Titlis was made by Joseph Kuster, in March 1967 the cable car to Klein Titlis was inaugurated. In December 2012, the Titlis Cliff Walk opened to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Engelberg-Gerschnialp cableway, Klein Titlis hosts a significant telecommunications site, used for high capacity point-to-point microwave radio links and VHF/UHF repeaters
The Rigi is a mountain massif of the Alps, located in Central Switzerland. The whole massif is almost entirely surrounded by the water of three different water bodies, Lake Lucerne, Lake Zug and Lake Lauerz, the Rigi Kulm and other areas, such as the resort of Rigi Kaltbad, are served by Europes oldest mountain railways, the Rigi Railways. The whole area offers activities such as skiing or sledging in the winter. The name Rigi is from Old High German *rigî, from rîga row, furrow, the name is first recorded in 1350 as Riginun. The name was interpreted as Regina montium queen of mountains by Albrecht von Bonstetten, bonstettens interpretation as Regina was influential in the 17th century, and was still repeated in 18th-century travelogues. Karl Zay criticized this latinization, arguing for mons rigidus instead, in the 19th century, many authors repeated either rigidus or regina as the names supposed origin. The two possibilities were adduced as explanation the names grammatical gender alternating between masculine and feminine, brandstetter finally discredited these interpretations and established the origin in Old High German rîga.
There are multiple transport options available to ascend Mt. Rigi, By rack railway from Arth-Goldau and Vitznau. The Vitznau-Rigi-Bahn started operation on May 21,1871 and was the first mountain railway in Europe, on June 4,1875 the Arth-Rigi-Bahn was finished, allowing access from the other side of the mountain. They were electrified in 1937 and 1907 respectively, with the Arth-Rigi-Bahn becoming the first electrified standard gauge rack-railway in the world, both lines go all the way to the summit, Rigi Kulm. By gondola lift from Weggis to Rigi-Kaltbad, by cable-car from the Kräbel station on the Arth-Rigi-Bahn line to Rigi-Scheidegg. There are numerous public grilling stations located near the hiking trails, Rigi is a perfect destination for people practising winter sports and other winter recreation activities. Mt. Rigi has been featured in works of art. Perhaps the most famous paintings of the Rigi were a series by JMW Turner, including The Blue Rigi, mark Twain visited Rigi during his tour of Central Europe in the late 1870s, and wrote about his travels in chapter 28 of his A Tramp Abroad.
There is a Catskills resort called the Rigi Kulm in Abraham Cahans novel The Rise of David Levinsky, the Rigi, a downhill road in Wellington, New Zealand, is named for the mountain and for many years was used as a main thoroughfare for coach riders. Technically, the Rigi is not a part of the Alps and it is mostly composed of molasse and other conglomerate, as opposed to the Bündner schist and flysch of the Alps. ch Rigi Kulm Pictures Rigi Rigi Webcams
Monte Generoso is a mountain of the Lugano Prealps, located on the border between Switzerland and Italy and between Lake Lugano and Lake Como. The western and southern flanks of the lie in the Swiss canton of Ticino. The view from the summit of the mountain encompasses the lakes of Lugano, Varese, to the north are the Alps, stretching from the Matterhorn via the Jungfrau and the Saint-Gotthard Massif to the Bernina Range. To the south are the Lombardy Plains and the Po Valley, with the city of Milan, the summit can be approached by the Monte Generoso Railway, a rack railway that starts from Capolago in Switzerland, and climbs via the western flank of the mountain. The summit station includes a terrace and buffet, a restaurant. A paved path links the summit station to the summit proper, a distance of approximately 350 metres. There is road access from Mendrisio in Switzerland to Bellavista, some 3 kilometres from the summit, hiking trails reach the summit from different starting points, including Bellavista and Mendrisio.
The Monte Generoso Observatory is located adjacent to the summit station. Also nearby is a chapel dating from the 20th century. The area is included in the Federal Inventory of Landscapes and Natural Monuments, the mountain slopes are home to a herd of between 300 and 350 chamois. The artist and author Edward Lear spent summers from 1878 to 1883 on the mountain and his oil painting The Plains of Lombardy from Monte Generoso is in the Ashmolean Museum in the English city of Oxford
The Finsteraarhorn is the highest mountain in the Bernese Alps in Switzerland and the most prominent peak of Switzerland. The Finsteraarhorn is the ninth-highest mountain and third-most prominent peak in the Alps, in 2001 the whole massif and surrounding glaciers were designated as part of the Jungfrau-Aletsch World Heritage Site. Despite being the most elevated and isolated mountain of both the Bernese Alps and the canton of Berne, the Finsteraarhorn is less known and frequented than the nearby Jungfrau and Eiger. This is due to its location in one of the most remote areas in the Alps, to its west lies the Fiescher Glacier, the second longest in the Alps, and to the east lie the Great Aar Glaciers. The smaller Lower Grindelwald Glacier lies north of the massif, the Finsteraarhorn is surrounded by the summits of the Schreckhorn and Lauteraarhorn to the north, the Gross Fiescherhorn, Grünhorn and Gross Wannenhorn to the west and the Oberaarhorn to the east. The summit lies on the border between the cantons of Valais and Berne, politically, it is split between the municipalities of Fieschertal and Guttannen.
The Valais–Berne border is the watershed between the Rhône and Rhine rivers, the Finsteraarhorn is the culminating point of the Rhine drainage basin. The Finsteraarhorn was dethroned by Monte Rosa as the highest summit of Switzerland when Valais joined the Swiss Confederation in 1815, the Finsteraarhorn is the culminating point of the Aarmassif, a geologic crystalline massif which crops out in the eastern Bernese Alps and Urner Alps. The massif belongs to the Helvetic zone and consists of rocks from the European continent, the summit itself is composed of amphibolites. The tectonic uplift of the massif occurred late in the alpine orogeny, the inelastic deformation of rocks led to many fractures and formation of hydrothermal crystals by the deposition of the saturated water flowing inside. The first ascent was long a controversial matter, the first attempt was made on 16 August 1812 by the Aargau merchant Rudolph Meyer, guided by the locals Kaspar Huber, Arnold Abbühl, Joseph Bortes and Aloys Volker.
Bortes and Volker, guiding Meyers father and uncle, had been the first to climb the Jungfrau the previous year. They approached the mountain via the Oberaarjoch, Studer glacier, and south-east ridge, Meyer became exhausted and remained behind after reaching the ridge, perhaps near P.3883. Huber kept him company, while the three other guides went on and purportedly reached the summit after three hours, on 19 August 1828, Franz Joseph Hugi, a geologist from Solothurn, made another attempt with seven local climbers. 4, 080-metre saddle on the north-west ridge, but had to retreat because of bad weather after Hugi, the next year Hugi organized another expedition via the same route. Hugi stayed behind somewhat above the saddle not daring to cross a steep slope, on the way back Hugis ankle played up and Leuthold, Währen and Joseph Zemt took turns carrying him down the glacier. Hugis account makes no mention of evidence of an earlier ascent, in articles of 1881 and 1908, the mountaineers and leading historians of Alpine exploration Gottlieb Studer and W. A. B.
Coolidge, declared to be convinced that the Meyer expedition had been successful, the fifth ascent took place on August 13,1857
The Grand Combin is a mountain in the western Pennine Alps in Switzerland. With its 4,314 metres high summit it is one of the highest peaks in the Alps, the Grand Combin is a large glaciated massif consisting of several summits, among which three are above 4000 metres. The normal route starts from the Panossière Hut, which lies on the side in the Corbassière valley. Despite the fact that no major difficulties exist, a dangerous passage has to be traversed on the north flank. It is a couloir dominated by seracs continuously falling on it, the massif of the Grand Combin lies south of Verbier between the Val dEntremont and Val de Bagnes. The north-western facing side of Grand Combin is entirely covered by eternal snows, the southern and eastern walls are more steep and thus exempt of snow. The topography of the Grand Combin is intricate, between the Val dEntremont and the Val de Bagnes are two high ridges, nearly parallel to each other and to those valleys, which both diverge from a short transverse ridge of great height.
The glacier is surrounded by the peaks of Petit Combin, Combin de Corbassière and Combin de Boveire on the west, Grand Tavé, smaller glaciers lie on the external flanks such as Boveire and Mont Durand Glacier. Two other minor summits over 4,000 metres are located on the ridge, the Grand Combin de Valsorey on the west, all the waters flowing on the region end up in the Dranse river and the Rhone. After Dom, Weisshorn, it is the highest massif of the Alps situated out of the main chain. South of the Grand Combin, the ridge separating the glaciers of Mont Durand and Sonadon reaches the Grande Tête de By a few kilometres away, which is located on the main watershed. The ridge diverges to the south-west and appears to be continuous with the range of the Aiguilles Vertes, or Aiguilles de Valsorey, and that of Mont Vélan. From this branches the lower range, which divides the channel of the Glacier du Mont Durand from the Val dOllomont in the Aosta Valley, the Grand Combin, which yields in height to only a few European mountains, was long one of the least known of Alpine summits.
He was followed in that ascent five years by W. and C. E. Mathews, the first four expeditions on Grand Combin reached only the minor summit east of Grand Combin. The first one was made by mountain guides from the valley on July 20,1857, the first complete ascent of Grand Combin was finally made on July 30,1859 by Charles Sainte-Claire Deville with Daniel and Gaspard Balleys, and Basile Dorsaz. The Grand Combin de Valsoray on the west was reached for the first time on 16 September 1872 by J. H. Isler and they climbed the south south face above the Plateau du Couloir. The itinerary on the south-east ridge was opened on 10 September 1891 by O. Glynne Jones, A. Bovier, Panossière Hut, north side Valsorey Hut, south-west side Bivouac Biaggio Musso, south side Grand Combin. Grand Combin on Hikr Grand Combin on Peakware
Pilatus is a mountain massif overlooking Lucerne in Central Switzerland. It is composed of peaks, of which the highest is named Tomlishorn and is located about 1.3 km to the southeast of the top cable car. The two peaks right next to the stations are called Esel, which lies just east over the railway station, jurisdiction over the massif is divided between the cantons of Obwalden and Lucerne. The main peaks are right on the border between Obwalden and Nidwalden, both peaks next to the top stations and Oberhaupt, can easily be reached by mass tourism. A few different local legends about the origin of the name exist, one claims that Pilatus was named so because Pontius Pilate was buried there, a similar legend is told of Monte Vettore in Italy. Another is that the mountain looks like the belly of a man, Pilate. The name may be derived from pileatus, meaning cloud-topped, numbered amongst those who have reached its summit are Conrad Gessner, Theodore Roosevelt, Arthur Schopenhauer, Queen Victoria and Julia Ward Howe.
The mountain has fortified radar and weather stations on the Oberhaupt summit, not open to the public view, a medieval legend had dragons with healing powers living on the mountain. This legend was the inspiration for Steven Reinekes famous concert band piece, the Chalet School does it again Elinor Brent-Dyer retells the Pilate burial place legend. Mount Pilatus plays a role in the conclusion of Brad Thors fiction novel Lions of Lucerne. pilatus. ch Pictures of Pilatus photography
The Monte Rosa and the lower Gornergrat at 3,090 m. Monte Rosa is one of the high mountains surrounding the 40 km long Matter Valley south of Stalden. On the southwest to west are Liskamm, Zwillinge with Castor and Pollux, the Breithorn and the Matterhorn, on the north are the Weisshorn, there are no convenient mode of subdividing the range. However the natural limits of the district can be defined on the side by the two branches of the Visp torrent. Within the line so traced, exceeding 450 km in length, the direction of the ranges and the depressions offers a marked contrast to that prevailing throughout the adjoining regions of the Alps. Unless in a part of the Italian valleys, the direction here is either parallel or perpendicular to the meridian. The minor ridges on the side of the border are parallel to this latter range, with their corresponding depressions occupied by the glaciers of Gorner. On clear days the mountainous massif of Monte Rosa provides a view from the Po plain, particularly its upper reaches in western Lombardy.
It dominates the horizon, towering between other lesser Alpine peaks as a prominent, multi-pointed, razor-sharp bulge, its permanent glaciers shining under the sun, - John Ball The massif is the border between Switzerland and Italy, though glacial melt has caused some alterations to the border. These changes were ratified by the two countries in 2009 and will continue to be subject to change as melting continues, the entire massif consists mainly of granite and granite gneiss. Rocks in the paragneiss of the Monte Rosa Nappe record eclogite-facies metamorphism, the deformation of the Monte Rosa granites indicates a depth of subduction of about 60 km. They were brought to the surface by uplift, which still continues today. The summit is a sharp, jagged edge of mica schist connected by an arête with the Nordend, being the highest point in Switzerland, Monte Rosa is one of the most extreme places. The average air pressure is about half of that of the sea level, the snow line is located at about 3,000 metres.
The Monte Rosa massif is popular for mountaineering, hiking and snowboarding and it hosts several ski resorts with long pistes. Plateau Rosa, about 3,500 metres high sea level, is a renowned summer ski resort. The Plateau Rosa is connected via aerial tramway to Cervinia and to Zermatt via the Klein Matterhorn, the western fringes of the massif reach the Zermatt ski domain. Gressoney, Alagna Valsesia and Macugnaga are the main mountain, the Tour of Monte Rosa can be effected by trekkers in about 10 days. The circuit follows many ancient trails that have linked the Swiss, the circuit includes larch forests, alpine meadows, balcony trails and a glacial crossing
The Weissmies 4,017 m is a mountain in the Pennine Alps in the canton of Valais in Switzerland near the village of Saas-Fee. It is the easternmost four-thousander of its range, the Weissmies is located on the main Alpine chain, on a massif separating the Saastal valley on the west and Simplon valley on the east. The massif consists of two main summits lying to the north at almost the same altitude, the Lagginhorn and Fletschhorn. The mountain lies between the Lagginjoch to the north and the Zwischbergen Pass to the south, the Weissmies is one of the 10 four-thousanders surrounding the Saastal, facing the Dom on the west, the third highest summit of the Alps. It was first climbed by Jakob Christian Häusser and Peter Josef Zurbriggen in 1855 via the Triftgrat, the east face was climbed first by J. A. Peebles, Mr E. P. Jackson and Margaret Jackson with guides P. Schlegel, U. Rubi and J. Martin on 17 October 1876, the more difficult south face was climbed in 1884 by C. H. Wilson, A. Burgener, J. Furrer.
Two weeks later, W. H. and E. Paine with T. Andenmatten, the approach to the Trift Glacier/south-west ridge route can now be made via lift to Hohsaas, which is located virtually at the edge of the glacier. The ascent from Hohsaas takes about 4 hours and involves slopes to 40 degrees and crevasses, another route starts from the Zwischbergen Pass at the foot of the southern ridge. The normal route to the summit of the Weissmies is, along with that of the Lagginghorn, one the easiest of the four-thousander mountains of the Alps to ascend
The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people
A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. It often has a summit, although in areas with scarp/dip topography a hill may refer to a particular section of flat terrain without a massive summit. The distinction between a hill and a mountain is unclear and largely subjective, but a hill is considered to be less tall. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia defines hill as an upland with a height up to 200 m. Today, a mountain is usually defined in the UK and Ireland as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement, typically 100 feet or 500 feet. In practice, mountains in Scotland are frequently referred to as no matter what their height, as reflected in names such as the Cuillin Hills. In Wales, the distinction is more a term of land use, for a while, the U. S. defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or more tall. Any similar landform lower than this height was considered a hill, the United States Geological Survey, has concluded that these terms do not in fact have technical definitions in the U. S. A hillock is a small hill, other words include knoll and its variant, knowe.
Artificial hills may be referred to by a variety of names, including mound. Various names used to describe types of hill, based on appearance and these include, Drumlin – an elongated whale-shaped hill formed by glacial action. Butte – an isolated hill with steep sides and a flat top. Kuppe – a rounded hill or low mountain, typical of central Europe Tor – a rock found on a hilltop, used to refer to the hill. Puy – used especially in the Auvergne, France, to describe a conical volcanic hill, pingo – a mound of earth-covered ice found in the Arctic and Antarctica. For example, Ancient Rome was built on seven hills, protecting it from invaders, in northern Europe, many ancient monuments are sited in heaps. Some of these are structures, but others appear to have hardly any significance. In Britain, many churches at the tops of hills are thought to have built on the sites of earlier pagan holy places. The National Cathedral in Washington, DC has followed this tradition and was built on the highest hill in that city, Hills provide a major advantage to an army, giving them an elevated firing position and forcing an opposing army to charge uphill to attack them