Canton of Bern
The canton of Bern is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. Located in west-central Switzerland, it borders the canton of Jura, to the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and Vaud. To the south lies the canton of Valais, east of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Obwalden and Aargau. The canton of Bern is bilingual and has a population of 1,017,483, as of 2007, the population included 119,930 foreigners. The cantonal capital, the capital of Switzerland, is Bern. Bern joined the Swiss Confederation in 1353 and was between 1803 and 1814 one of the six directorial cantons of the Napoleonic Swiss Confederation and these caves were used at various times during the last ice age. The first open-air settlement in the area is an upper paleolithic settlement at Moosbühl in Moosseedorf, during the warmer climate of the mesolithic period, increasing forest cover restricted the movement of hunters and gatherers. Their temporary settlements were built along lake and marsh edges, which remained free of trees due to fluctuations in water level, important mesolithic sites in the Canton are at Pieterlenmoos and Burgäschisee lake along with alpine valleys at Diemtig and Simmental.
During the neolithic period, there were a number of settlements on the shores of Lake Biel, several of these sites are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. One of the best explored neolithic sites is at Twann, in the Twannbach delta there were about 25 Cortaillod culture and Horgen culture villages that existed between 3800 and 2950 BC. One of the oldest examples of bread from Switzerland, a sourdough from 3560–3530 BC, simple copper objects were already in use in the 4th millennium BC, including a copper pin from Lattrigen from 3170 BC and a knife blade from Twann. Shortly before 2000 BC bronze production entered the area and brought about a surge in development, settlements began to spread into the pre-Alpine and Alpine areas. The area between Lake Thun and the Niedersimmental were densely settled, Late Bronze Age settlements along Lake Biel have yielded up a wealth of items. During the early Iron Age changes in climate forced them to settlements along many waterways and in the valley floors and move to the plateaus.
With increased trade contacts across the Alps, the influence of the Mediterranean grew in the area. Evidence of this include a hydria which was discovered in Grächwil. Burial rituals and social classes became more developed during this time, the so-called princely graves became more common, many of the burial mounds were over 30 m in diameter and 4 m high and richly outfitted with grave goods. In a grave mound in Bützberg the first burial in the mound was followed by burials
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, known as tracks. It is referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a flat surface. Tracks usually consist of rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger. The operation is carried out by a company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway system or produce their own power. Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system, Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. The oldest, man-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC, with Periander, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, Rail transport blossomed after the British development of the steam locomotive as a viable source of power in the 19th centuries.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships. The change from canals to railways allowed for markets in which prices varied very little from city to city. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and the first tramways, starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan, other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. The history of the growth and restoration to use of transport can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used.
The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre Diolkos wagonway, trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element. The Diolkos operated for over 600 years, Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany
The Eggishorn is a mountain of the Bernese Alps, located north of Fiesch in the Swiss canton of Valais. A cable car station is located on a summit named Fiescherhorli,500 metres south of the main peak. The Eggishorn lies within the Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn region, which has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, on its northern flank is the Aletsch Glacier. From the summit the view extends to the Lepontine and Pennine Alps, list of mountains of Switzerland accessible by public transport Eggishorn on Summitpost Eggishorn on Hikr Eggishorn, the mountain of views Fiesch Eggishorn cable car
The Gornergrat is a rocky ridge of the Pennine Alps, overlooking the Gorner Glacier south-east of Zermatt in Switzerland. It can be reached from Zermatt by the Gornergrat rack railway and it is located about three kilometers east of Zermatt in the Swiss canton of Valais. This is the last stop of the Gornergrat train, opened in 1898, at the terminus on the south-western tip of the ridge is a hotel. The station forms part of the Zermatt ski area, at the west side of the Gorner Ridge, nearby the Rotenboden railway station is the peak Riffelhorn. Gornergratbahn Riffelalptram List of mountains of Switzerland accessible by public transport Media related to Gornergrat at Wikimedia Commons
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
An aerial lift is a means of cable transport in which cabins, gondolas or open chairs are hauled above the ground by means of one or more cables. Aerial lift systems are employed in mountainous territory where roads are relatively difficult to build and use. Aerial lift systems are easy to move, and are and have been used to cross rivers. In more recent times, the cost-effectiveness and flexibility of aerial lifts has seen an increase of gondola lift being integrated into public transport systems. The grip of a tramway is fixed onto the propulsion rope. Aerial trams used for transport include the Roosevelt Island Tramway. A gondola lift is a type of lift, often called a cable car. It consists of a loop of cable that is strung between two stations, sometimes over intermediate supporting towers. The cable is driven by a bullwheel in a terminal, which is connected to an engine or electric motor and they are often considered continuous systems since they feature a haul rope which continuously moves and circulates around two terminal stations.
Depending on the combination of cables used for support and/or haulage and the type of grip, because of the proliferation of such systems in the Alpine regions of Europe, the French language name of Télécabine is used in an English language context. Gondola lifts are used for urban transportation. Examples include the Singapore Cable Car, Ngong Ping Skyrail, Metrocable, Mi Teleférico, gondola lifts should not be confused with aerial tramways as the latter solely operates with fixed grips and simply shuttles back and forth between two end terminals. A ropeway conveyor or material ropeway is essentially a subtype of gondola lift, ropeway conveyors are typically found around large mining concerns, and can be of considerable length. The COMILOG Cableway, which ran from Moanda in Gabon to Mbinda in the Republic of the Congo, was over 75 km in length, the Norsjö aerial tramway in Sweden had a length of 96 kilometers. A funitel is a type of lift, generally used to transport skiers. The name funitel is a portmanteau between the French words funiculaire and telepherique, funitels have not only been used as a means to transport skiers, there is one used to transport finished cars between different areas of a factory.
Recently and more funitels have been added to ski areas, when used to transport skiers, funitels are a fast way to get to a higher altitude. Funitels combine a short time between successive cabins with a high capacity per cabin, funitels are able to tolerate higher wind speeds than classic gondola lifts because they are fastened to two steel cables instead of one
The Schilthorn is a summit in Europe, in the Bernese Alps of Switzerland. It overlooks the valley of Lauterbrunnen in the Bernese Oberland, and is the highest mountain in the range lying north of the Sefinenfurgge Pass, the Schilthorn lies above the village of Mürren, from where a cable car leads to its summit. Administratively, the summit is within the municipality of Lauterbrunnen, although the slopes are within the municipality of Reichenbach im Kandertal. Both municipalities are in the canton of Bern, the summit has a panoramic view which spans from the Titlis, Jungfrau, Mönch, over the Bernese Alps and the Jura mountains up to the Vosges Mountains and the Black Forest. Mont Blanc is just visible, to get to the Schilthorn from the valley floor, a series of cable cars must be taken. The cable cars begin in Stechelberg leaving to Gimmelwald and onto Mürren, from Mürren another cable car is taken to Birg, which is the final change before the Schilthorn. This cable airway is the longest and was the most technically challenging airway to be built, the other way up is to take the cable car from Lauterbrunnen to Grütschalp and a train to Mürren, from where the cable car must be taken.
Between Birg and the summit, the car passes over Grauseeli. It is possible to hike to the peak, along the myriad of small, the hike to the top takes roughly five hours from Gimmelwald for a fit walker. The panoramic revolving restaurant at the summit, Piz Gloria, was featured in the 1969 James Bond movie On Her Majestys Secret Service, a black ski run featured in the film starts at the summit and leads down to the Engetal below Birg. The restaurant revolves a full 360 degrees in 55 minutes, slightly faster than the hand of a clock. A number of scenes in the film were photographed by cameraman John Jordan hanging below a speeding helicopter, Jordan had previously lost a foot to a helicopter rotor while filming the previous Bond movie You Only Live Twice. Within a year and fitted with a limb, Jordan lost his footing. During the winter the Schilthorn is the start for the world longest downhill ski race, the Inferno. During the summer the Inferno Triathlon finishes at the summit after a run up from the Lauterbrunnen valley
The Unterrothon is a mountain of the Swiss Pennine Alps, overlooking Zermatt in the canton of Valais. It is located west of the Oberrothorn, on the north of the Findel Glacier. The summit can be reached by car via Sunnegga and Blauherd. The Rothorn paradise is one of the ski areas located around Zermatt. List of mountains of Switzerland accessible by public transport Unterrothorn on Hikr
The Klein Matterhorn is a peak of the Pennine Alps, overlooking Zermatt in the Swiss canton of Valais. At 3,883 metres above sea level, it is the highest place in Europe that can be reached by aerial tramway, as well as by any other means of transport. The Klein Matterhorn is part of the Breithorn massif and overlooks on its side the almost equally high flat glacier named Breithorn Plateau. The name Klein Matterhorn is a reference to its larger neighbour, the Matterhorn. Even before the license application was filed, the building promoter had to negotiate with the Swiss Alpine Club. These discussions resulted in two large natural reserve zones, the third area was designated as a tourist zone. Licensing was further delayed until 1969 by the citizens of Zermatt filing a complaint to the council of the Canton of Valais. In December 1970, the Swiss government finally gave permission for the cable way, eventually, on 17 December 1973, the Federal Council rejected objections and granted a construction license.
The next major obstacle proved to be the recruitment of a force to build the lift system. At altitudes of 3000 to 4000m above sea level, worker productivity would be reduced by up to 50% compared to normal levels, and workers would be required to live for weeks on end within the camps. The construction of cable car started in August 1976 at all three construction sites, the valley terminal, the three tower sites and the mountain terminal. Creation of the terminal was a difficult undertaking. Some 2000 cubic metres of concrete were used in the station, all of which had to be transported there by helicopter in specially insulated tanks, mixed with warm water. Weather conditions at the site in high mountain terrain were extreme, temperatures falling to minus 40 °C, snowfalls. It took several weeks to cover the distance of 3,600 meters, with an altitude of almost 1,000 meters. On December 1978, all four track cables were installed, the Cable car was built by Von Roll LTD Bern Switzerland. The Klein Matterhorn is at the end of a cable car journey from Zermatt, via Furi.
The last station lies at a height of 3,820 metres, a tunnel connects it with the Breithorn Plateau on the south side