The Rheinwaldhorn is the highest point in the Swiss canton of Ticino at 3,402 metres above sea level. It lies on the border between the cantons of Graubünden and Ticino, in the Adula massif, part of the St. Gotthard massif of the Lepontine Alps in southern Switzerland, the mountain is known under different names, Adula or Piz Valrhein. The group of the snowy peaks lying between the two branches of the Rhine were known in the Middle Ages by the names Mons Aquila or Mons Avium. From the Romansh form of the first comes the name Adula, the German name Rheinwaldhorn comes from the Rheinwald region. The Rheinwaldhorn is the point of the eastern portion of the Lepontine Alps. In this area, the watershed between the Rhine and the Po river has no direction, and exhibits a dislocated appearance. The peaks of the Adula form a group, all the highest lying in a cluster not more five kilometres distant from the centre. From the central group a considerable range extends due south more than 15 kilometres, a parallel ridge connected with the main massif divides the Val Calanca from Val Mesocco, it surpasses but in few points the height of 9,000 feet.
The northern ridge, longer but less regular than the first-mentioned, extends fully 20 kilometres, the summit of the Rheinwaldhorn is split between two cantons and three municipalities. On the west side is the municipality of Blenio and on the east side are the municipalities of Vals, the summit of the Rheinwaldhorn was first reached in 1789 by Placidus a Spescha. For seventy years no attempts seems to have made to repeat the ascent. In 1859, Weilenmann reached the summit alone, the next and third recorded ascent was made in 1861 by Coaz, with three companions, and a chamois-hunter named Peter Anton Jellier, of Vals. Coaz gave an account of the expedition in the Jahresbericht der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Graubünden, sleeping at the Zapport Alps, they mounted to the spot named Paradies, located below the Paradies Glacier. A faint sheep-tract was followed for some distance, they took to the glacier. The first stage of the ascent was completed when they gained the col in the ridge between the Rheinwaldhorn and Güferhorn, from thence the way lay along the arête.
This was very narrow, and in places difficult, where steep rocks projected through the névé. The summit is a ridge about 200 feet long, running north to south. Here in the two following ascents were found remains of the cairn erected there seventy years before by Placidus a Spescha
The Vogelberg is a 3,218 metres high mountain of the Lepontine Alps, located on the border between the Swiss cantons of Ticino and Graubünden. It is the highest summit of the Lepontine Alps south of the Rheinwaldhorn, the Vogelberg is a large glaciated massif consisting of several secondary summits, Pizzo Cramorino on the west side and Rheinquellhorn on the east. The northern flanks are covered by the Paradies Glacier at the source of the Hinterrhein, the southern side, overlooking the valley of Malvaglia is steeper and has no glaciers
Pizzo Rotondo is a mountain in the Lepontine Alps. The massif of Piz Rotondo separates the valleys of the upper Rhone, about two kilometres north-east lies the Witenwasserenstock, which is the watershed between the basins of the Rhone, Po and Rhine. On the north lies a relatively large glacier named Gerengletscher. On the south side, at Passo di Rotondo, lies a glacier named Ghiacciaio del Pizzo Rotondo. The first ascent by Viktor Haller and his guides on August 5,1869, started from Bedretto in Ticino over the east face, only four days later, the second ascent took place, this time from the other site. F. Schläpfer and his guides Rudolf Elmer and Johann Kreuzer, started from Oberwald, and made the first ascent of the summit via the long Geren valley. Only Elmer and Kreuzer traversed to the higher southern summit. List of mountains of Ticino List of mountains of Valais List of most isolated mountains of Switzerland Pizzo Rotondo on Summitpost Pizzo Rotondo on Hikr
The district of Blenio is a district of the canton of Ticino in Switzerland. It has a population of 5,714, the capital of the district is Acquarossa. The district has an area, as of 1997, of 360.74 square kilometers, of this area,13.19 km2 or 3. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 133.15 km2 or 36. 9% is forested. Of the rest of the land,6.4 km2 or 1. 8% is settled,5.75 km2 or 1. 6% is either rivers or lakes and 143.3 km2 or 39. 7% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 0. 9%, out of the forested land,27. 0% of the total land area is heavily forested and 2. 6% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,2. 5% is used for growing crops, of the water in the district,0. 4% is in lakes and 1. 2% is in rivers and streams. Of the unproductive areas,18. 1% is unproductive vegetation and 21. 6% is too rocky for vegetation, of the Swiss national languages,301 speak German,78 people speak French,4,716 people speak Italian, and 10 people speak Romansh.
As of 2008, the distribution of the population was 50. 2% male and 49. 8% female. The population was made up of 2,609 Swiss men, there were 2,631 Swiss women, and 197 non-Swiss women. In 2008 there were 49 live births to Swiss citizens and births to non-Swiss citizens, ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 21 while the foreign population decreased by 2. There were 3 Swiss men who immigrated back to Switzerland and 1 Swiss woman who emigrated from Switzerland, at the same time, there were 14 non-Swiss men and 12 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in 2008 was an increase of 14 and this represents a population growth rate of 0. 4%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in the district is,523 children or 9. 2% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 569 teenagers or 10. 0% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,539 people or 9. 5% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 721 people or 12. 7% are between 30 and 39,863 people or 15. 2% are between 40 and 49, and 693 people or 12. 2% are between 50 and 59.
The senior population distribution is 706 people or 12. 4% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old,623 people or 11. 0% are between 70 and 79, there are 445 people or 7. 8% who are over 80. In 2000 there were 6,471 single family homes out of a total of 8,535 inhabited buildings, there were 1,264 two family buildings and 612 multi-family buildings. There were 188 buildings in the district that were multipurpose buildings, in 2000 there were 4,642 apartments in the district
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism and these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, a few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level and these colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains, different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m, there is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain, whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. The highest point in San Francisco, California, is called Mount Davidson, notwithstanding its height of 300 m, Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittows Dictionary of Physical Geography states Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, in addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement, typically 100 or 500 feet. For a while, the US defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, any similar landform lower than this height was considered a hill. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US, using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, and 14% of Africa. As a whole, 24% of the Earths land mass is mountainous, there are three main types of mountains, volcanic and block.
All three types are formed from plate tectonics, when portions of the Earths crust move, compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate, at a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, and forms magma that reaches the surface. When the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain, magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US
GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating and storage of data with associated attributes. GIS offers better understanding of patterns and relationships of the landscape at different scales, tools inside the GIS allow for manipulation of data for spatial analysis or cartography. A topographical map is the type of map used to depict elevation. In a Geographic Information System, digital models are commonly used to represent the surface of a place. Digital terrain models are another way to represent terrain in GIS, USGS is developing a 3D Elevation Program to keep up with growing needs for high quality topographic data. 3DEP is a collection of enhanced elevation data in the form of high quality LiDAR data over the conterminous United States, there are three bare earth DEM layers in 3DEP which are nationally seamless at the resolution of 1/3,1, and 2 arcseconds. This map is derived from GTOPO30 data that describes the elevation of Earths terrain at intervals of 30 arcseconds and it uses color and shading instead of contour lines to indicate elevation.
Hypsography is the study of the distribution of elevations on the surface of the Earth, the term originates from the Greek word ὕψος hypsos meaning height. Most often it is used only in reference to elevation of land, related to the term hypsometry, the measurement of these elevations of a planets solid surface are taken relative to mean datum, except for Earth which is taken relative to the sea level. In the troposphere, temperatures decrease with altitude and this lapse rate is approximately 6.5 °C/km. S