The Glarus Alps are a mountain range in central Switzerland. They are bordered by the Uri Alps and the Schwyz Alps to the west, the Lepontine Alps to the south, the eastern part of the Glarus Alps contains a major thrust fault which was declared a geologic UNESCO world heritage site. The Glarus Alps extend well beyond the canton of Glarus, including parts of the cantons of Uri, Graubünden, and St Gallen. The main chain of the Glarus Alps can be divided into six groups, separated from each other by passes. The westernmost of these is the Crispalt, a range including many peaks of nearly equal height. The highest of these are the Piz Giuv and Piz Nair, the name Crispalt is given to a southern, but secondary, peak of Piz Giuv, measuring 3,070 m. West of the group is the Rienzenstock, while a northern outlyer culminates in the Bristen. East of the Crispalt, the Kreuzli or Chrüxli Pass separates this from the higher mass of the Oberalpstock. Here occurs a partial break in the continuity of the chain, two glacier passes lead over this part of the chain — one to west, over the Brunnigletscher to the Maderanertal, the other to the north-east, over the Sand Glacier, to the Linthal.
The Tödi, the highest of the range and of north-eastern Switzerland, is attended by numerous secondary peaks that arise from the extensive snow-fields surrounding the central mountain, a less important branch encloses the Biferten Glacier, and terminates in the Selbsanft, south of Tierfehd. Towards the valley of the Vorderrhein a high promontory stretches nearly due south from the peaks of the Tödi. Another considerable ramification of the same mass terminates farther to the east in the peak of the Cavistrau. The Kisten Pass separates the Tödi group from the Hausstock, whose summit attains 3,158 m, the Hausstock is cut off from the rather lower but more extended mass of the Vorab by the Panixer Pass. Numerous summits, of which the Vorab proper and Piz Grisch are the most important, approach very near, but do not quite attain to 10,000 feet. Main glaciers, Hüfi Glacier Limmern Glacier Biferten Glacier Vorab Glacier The chief passes of the Tödi Range, from the Oberalp Pass to the Klausen Pass, Note, road status as of 1911.
Swiss Alps This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Swisstopo maps Swiss official cartography, on-line version, map. geo. admin. ch Media related to Glarus Alps at Wikimedia Commons The Glarus Alps on SummitPost
Erstfeld is a municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland. Erstfeld is first mentioned in 1258 as Ourzcvelt, in 1638, it was listed under the Latin name in Protocampis. In 1831, it was known as Hirschfelden, Erstfeld has an area, as of 2006, of 59.2 km2. Of this area,11. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,2. 8% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In the 1993/97 land survey,19. 8% of the land area was heavily forested, while 7. 9% is covered in small trees. Of the agricultural land,0. 2% is used for farming or pastures, of the settled areas,1. 2% is covered with buildings,0. 3% is industrial,0. 1% is listed as parks and greenbelts and 1. 2% is transportation infrastructure. Of the unproductive areas,0. 1% is unproductive standing water,0. 9% is unproductive flowing water,41. 8% is too rocky for vegetation, and 13. 3% is other unproductive land. The municipality consists of the village of Erstfeld and scattered farm houses along the valley floor. Erstfeld is at the base of the ramp of the Gotthard railway.
Erstfeld has a population of 3,774, as of 2007,13. 3% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years, the population has decreased at a rate of -10. 8%, most of the population speaks German, with Serbo-Croatian being second most common, and Italian being third. As of 2007, the distribution of the population was 50. 6% male and 49. 4% female. In Erstfeld, about 60. 8% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, Erstfeld has an unemployment rate of 1. 94%. As of 2005, there were 119 people employed in the economic sector. About 643 people are employed in the sector, and there are 38 businesses in this sector. About 870 people are employed in the sector, with 86 businesses in this sector. Erstfeld is served by the Erstfeld station, situated within the municipality, emilie Lieberherr, a feminist Albert Eschenmoser, an organic chemist Erstfeld in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Galenstock is the fourth highest mountain in the Urner Alps in Switzerland. Its summit ridge lies on the border between the cantons of Uri and the Valais. It was first climbed by Eduard Desor, Daniel Dollfuss, Sr. and Daniel Dollfuss, Jr. with guides H. Währen, M. Bannholzer, P. Brigger, hotel Tiefenbach Albert Heim hut Media related to Galenstock at Wikimedia Commons Galenstock
GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating and storage of data with associated attributes. GIS offers better understanding of patterns and relationships of the landscape at different scales, tools inside the GIS allow for manipulation of data for spatial analysis or cartography. A topographical map is the type of map used to depict elevation. In a Geographic Information System, digital models are commonly used to represent the surface of a place. Digital terrain models are another way to represent terrain in GIS, USGS is developing a 3D Elevation Program to keep up with growing needs for high quality topographic data. 3DEP is a collection of enhanced elevation data in the form of high quality LiDAR data over the conterminous United States, there are three bare earth DEM layers in 3DEP which are nationally seamless at the resolution of 1/3,1, and 2 arcseconds. This map is derived from GTOPO30 data that describes the elevation of Earths terrain at intervals of 30 arcseconds and it uses color and shading instead of contour lines to indicate elevation.
Hypsography is the study of the distribution of elevations on the surface of the Earth, the term originates from the Greek word ὕψος hypsos meaning height. Most often it is used only in reference to elevation of land, related to the term hypsometry, the measurement of these elevations of a planets solid surface are taken relative to mean datum, except for Earth which is taken relative to the sea level. In the troposphere, temperatures decrease with altitude and this lapse rate is approximately 6.5 °C/km. S
The Clariden is a mountain in the Glarus Alps, located at an elevation of 3,267 m between the Swiss cantons of Uri and Glarus. While on the north the Clariden overlooks the 1,948 m high Klausen Pass, the Hüfi Glacier on the west is drained by the Chärstelenbach stream, a tributary of the Reuss that eventually flows into Lake Lucerne. The Clariden Glacier on the east is drained by the Linth that eventually flows into Lake Zürich, the mountain lies in the municipalities of Silenen and Spiringen, in the canton of Schwyz, and Glarus Süd, in the canton of Glarus. The nearest settlements are the villages of Unterschächen to the north-west, and Linthal to the north-east, media related to Clariden at Wikimedia Commons Clariden on Summitpost Clariden on Hikr
Realp is a municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland. Realp is first mentioned in 1363 as Riealb, Realp has an area, as of 2006, of 78 km2. Of this area,41. 6% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,0. 6% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In the 1993/94 land survey,0. 2% of the land area was heavily forested, while 2. 1% is covered in small trees. Of the agricultural land,1. 6% is used for orchards or vine crops and 40. 0% is used for alpine pastures, of the settled areas,0. 1% is covered with buildings, and 0. 5% is transportation infrastructure. Of the unproductive areas,0. 1% is unproductive standing water,1. 1% is unproductive flowing water,43. 3% is too rocky for vegetation, the municipality is located on the rise into the Furka Pass. Realp has a population of 141, as of 2007,7. 8% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -22. 7%, all of the population speaks German. As of 2007 the gender distribution of the population was 50. 3% male and 49. 7% female, in the 2007 federal election the FDP party received 96. 2% of the vote.
In Realp about 50% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, Realp has an unemployment rate of 0. 74%. As of 2005, there were 8 people employed in the economic sector. People are employed in the sector and there are businesses in this sector. 63 people are employed in the sector, with 16 businesses in this sector. The historical population is given in the table, Realp has a small T-bar with a beginner run. It is part of the Skiarena Andermatt-Sedrun, nearby there is cross-country skiing, and a biathlon course. Realp in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats
It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peaks key col is a point on this contour line. By convention, the prominence of Mount Everest, the Earths highest mountain, is taken to equal the elevation of its summit above sea level, if the peaks prominence is P metres, to get from the summit to any higher terrain one must descend at least P metres. Together with the convention for Mount Everest, this implies that the prominence of any island or continental highpoint is equal to its elevation above sea level, for every ridge connecting the peak to higher terrain, find the lowest point on the ridge. The key col is defined as the highest of these cols, the prominence is the difference between the elevation of the peak and the elevation of the key col. The following mental exercise may illustrate the meaning of topographic prominence, imagine you are standing at the top of a peak and imagine that an imaginary sea level rises to your feet. Now slowly lower the sea level and an imaginary island appears beneath your feet.
Your island will grow and will merge with other islands that emerge, the parent peak may be either close or far from the subject peak. The summit of Mount Everest is the parent peak of Aconcagua at a distance of 17,755 km, the key col may be close or far from the subject peak. The key col for Aconcagua is the Bering Strait at a distance of 13,655 km, the key col for the South Summit of Mount Everest is about 100 m distant. Prominence is interesting to many mountaineers because it is a measurement that is strongly correlated with the subjective significance of a summit. Peaks with low prominences are either subsidiary tops of some higher summit or relatively insignificant independent summits, peaks with high prominences tend to be the highest points around and are likely to have extraordinary views. Only summits with a sufficient degree of prominence are regarded as independent mountains, for example, the worlds second-highest mountain is K2. While Mount Everests South Summit is taller than K2, it is not considered an independent mountain because it is a subsummit of the main summit, many lists of mountains take topographic prominence as a criterion for inclusion, or cutoff.
John and Anne Nuttalls The Mountains of England and Wales uses a cutoff of 15 m, in the contiguous United States, the famous list of fourteeners uses a cutoff of 300 ft /91 m. Also in the U. S.2000 feet of prominence has become a threshold that signifies that a peak has major stature. This generates lists of peaks ranked by prominence, which are different from lists ranked by elevation. Such lists tend to emphasize isolated high peaks, such as range or island high points, one advantage of a prominence-ranked list is that it needs no cutoff, since a peak with high prominence is automatically an independent peak
The Uri Alps are a mountain range in Central Switzerland and part of the Western Alps. The Uri Alps are composed of two groups separated by the Susten Pass. The Dammastock massif on the south is the most glaciated part while the northern part, the group south of the Susten Pass forms the dividing range between the head waters of the Aare from those of the Reuss. In addition a portion of the range is located in the basin of the Rhone. This part lies entirely within the valley of the Rhone Glacier and this group forms a complex mass including four considerable ridges and attains its greatest height at the Dammastock and the Galenstock. The group includes four nearly parallel ridges running NNW. and SSE and that forming the eastern boundary of the valley of Hasli reaches 3,383 metres at the Tieralplistock, whence it extends NNW. to the Mährenhorn, and south to the Gärstenhörner. A wide reservoir of snow whence the Trift Glacier flows to the north, north of the Dammastock the range collectively known as the Hinter Tierberg, attains 3,447 metres.
Further east than the last is the Sustenhorn range, rising at its highest point to 3,505 metres, divided from the last by the Stein Glacier, another ridge still further east is separated from the last by the Voralptal, a branch of the Göschenental. Its highest summits are the Fleckistock and the Stucklistock, the lower part of the Göschenental is bounded on the south by a range running west to east diverging from the ridge between the Dammastock and the Galenstock. On the north side of the Susten Pass the ranges are lower and, except the highest mountains on the south, the main ridge, culminating at the Titlis divides the basins of the Aare and the Reuss. From the Grassen, tripoint border between the cantons of Berne and Uri, a small range diverges from the watershed and runs from west to east. The principal summits of the Uri Alps are, Main glaciers, Rhone Glacier Trift Glacier Stein Glacier Tiefen Glacier Chelen Glacier Damma Glacier Swisstopo maps Uri Alps on SummitPost