GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating and storage of data with associated attributes. GIS offers better understanding of patterns and relationships of the landscape at different scales, tools inside the GIS allow for manipulation of data for spatial analysis or cartography. A topographical map is the type of map used to depict elevation. In a Geographic Information System, digital models are commonly used to represent the surface of a place. Digital terrain models are another way to represent terrain in GIS, USGS is developing a 3D Elevation Program to keep up with growing needs for high quality topographic data. 3DEP is a collection of enhanced elevation data in the form of high quality LiDAR data over the conterminous United States, there are three bare earth DEM layers in 3DEP which are nationally seamless at the resolution of 1/3,1, and 2 arcseconds. This map is derived from GTOPO30 data that describes the elevation of Earths terrain at intervals of 30 arcseconds and it uses color and shading instead of contour lines to indicate elevation.
Hypsography is the study of the distribution of elevations on the surface of the Earth, the term originates from the Greek word ὕψος hypsos meaning height. Most often it is used only in reference to elevation of land, related to the term hypsometry, the measurement of these elevations of a planets solid surface are taken relative to mean datum, except for Earth which is taken relative to the sea level. In the troposphere, temperatures decrease with altitude and this lapse rate is approximately 6.5 °C/km. S
W. A. B. Coolidge
William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge was an American historian and mountaineer. Coolidge was born in New York City as the son of Frederic William Skinner Coolidge, a Boston merchant and he studied history and law at St. Pauls School in Concord, New Hampshire, at Elizabeth College, and at Exeter College, Oxford. In 1875 he became a Fellow of Magdalen College, from 1880 to 1881 he was professor of British history at Saint Davids College in Lampeter and in 1883 he became a priest of the Anglican church. In 1870 at the age of twenty he was made a member of the Alpine Club, on many of these climbs he was accompanied by his aunt, Meta Brevoort, and a pet dog, given to him by one of his guides, Christian Almer. In 1885 he moved to Grindelwald, where he died in 1926, scherbadung,1886 Chüebodenhorn,1892 Swiss travel and Swiss guide-books. The central Alps of the Dauphiny and excursions in the valley of Grindelwald. The Alps in nature and history, ronald W. Clark, An Eccentric in the Alps, The story of W. A. B.
Museum Press, London 1959 Works by or about W. A. B. Coolidge at Internet Archive Works by or about W. A. B. Coolidge in libraries
Glarus is the capital of the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Since 1 January 2011, the municipality Glarus incorporates the former municipalities of Ennenda, Glarus lies on the river Linth between the foot of the Glärnisch to the west and the Schilt to the east. Very few buildings built before the fire of 1861 remain, wood and plastics, as well as printing, are the dominant industries. The symbol of the city is the city church. The official language of Glarus is German, but the spoken language is the local Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Glarus is first mentioned in the early 9th Century in Latin as Clarona, in 1178 it was first mentioned in German as Glarus. On 10 February 878, the Emperor Charles the Fat gave his wife Richgard or Richardis the monasteries of Säckingen, of St. Felix and this land grant included extensive political rights and a large estate. This estate covered land in the Rhine and Frick valleys, the southern Hotzenwald, land in Zürich, along Lake Walen, Glarus remained under the Säckingen Abbey until 1395, when the Glarus valley broke away from the Abbey and became independent.
It became the capital of the Linth valley in 1419, in the 18th and 19th centuries, the valley began to be industrialized. Huldrych Zwingli a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland served in his first, Roman Catholic, ecclesiastical post in Glarus and he served there for ten years. It was in Glarus, whose soldiers were used as mercenaries in Europe, the Swiss Confederation was embroiled in various campaigns with its neighbours, the French, the Habsburgs, and the Papal States. Zwingli placed himself solidly on the side of the Holy See, in return, Pope Julius II honoured Zwingli by providing him with an annual pension. He took the role of chaplain in several campaigns in Italy, the decisive defeat of the Swiss in the Battle of Marignano caused a shift in mood in Glarus in favour of the French rather than the pope. Zwingli, the partisan, found himself in a difficult position. Even though he had preached in Glarus for 10 years, the town remained strongly Catholic, following the Second war of Kappel in 1531 both the Catholic and Protestant residents were given the right to worship in town.
This led to religious groups using the town church simultaneously, an arrangement that caused numerous problems. By the 18th Century both the groups shared the church but had separate organs, in 1697 there were two financially and theologically independent parishes meeting in the city church. Following the French invasion in 1798, Glarus became the capital of the Canton of Linth in the Helvetic Republic, the administration of the Canton moved into Glarus
The Ortstock is a mountain in the Schwyzer Alps, located at an elevation of 2,717 m on the border between the cantons of Schwyz and Glarus. It overlooks Braunwald and Linthal on its east side, while the west side overlooks the valley of Glattalp. There are no glaciers surrounding the Ortstock, although a few névés can be found on its northern side, the north and south faces are very steep but experienced hikers can reach the summit via a trail on its less steep western flank. The mountain lies in the municipalities of Muotathal, in the canton of Schwyz, media related to Ortstock at Wikimedia Commons Ortstock on Hikr. org
Glarus Nord is one of three municipalities of the canton of Glarus, Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Glarus Nord incorporates the former municipalities of Bilten, Mollis, Mühlehorn, Näfels, Bilten is first mentioned in 1050 as Billitun. The area around Bilten was probably inhabited in the Roman era, by the mid-11th century, Schänis Abbey owned a large part of the village, and in 1178 the Pope confirmed Schänis Abbeys ownership of the village. St. Catherines Chapel in the village was first mentioned in 1345, in either 1405/06 or 1415, the village joined the County of Glarus. The villages residents were no longer required to pay rents to Schänis Abbey after 1412, in 1528, the majority of the residents embraced the Protestant Reformation and converted to the new faith. Subsequently Bilten became part of the Reformed parish of Niederurnen, a village church was consecrated in 1607. From the 16th until the 18th century, the pastures around the village were used to raise large livestock for sale to other towns.
As a sign of the wealth in Bilten, in 1608 a local family built the Renaissance style Elsener House. In the 18th century the local farmers shifted from selling cattle to raising dairy cattle. In the late 18th century, the Linth river began to silt up, the marshy land caused disease which only ended with the Linth correction project of 1807-23. Between 1887 and 1939 the Biltener creek was gradually brought under control and channeled, the first school was built in Bilten in 1839. In 1853 a boys boarding school opened in the Elsener House, the village was connected to the Nordostbahn network in 1875. Until the mid-20th century Bilten remained an agricultural village, the Kunz slaughterhouse, which opened in 1958 and closed in 1995, and the insulation and packaging material company Wannerit AG, which opened in 1964, brought some industry to Bilten. When the A3 motorway was built through the valley in 1973, by 1990, over three-quarters of the working population were employed in industry. In 1976, a treatment plant serving the Glarus valley.
Filzbach is first mentioned in 1394 as Vilentzspach, the ruins of a Roman watchtower, Vor dem Wald, from the time of Emperor Augustus indicate that the area was inhabited by the Roman era. The tower was built in the second decade BC and abandoned in 16 AD, little is known about the village during the Middle Ages. It first became part of Glarus after the Battle of Sempach in 1386, the inhabitants of Filzbach were under the control of Schänis Abbey until the 14th century when they became part of the parish of Obstalden
The Mutteristock is a mountain in the Schwyzer Alps, which rises 2294 meters above sea level. It is located between the cantons of Glarus and Schwyz, overlooking the Wägitalersee and the Klöntalersee on its northern and southern side respectively and its summit is the highest point of the subrange lying north of Pragel Pass. The mountains slopes display bare limestone
The scale of a map is the ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground. This simple concept is complicated by the curvature of the Earths surface, because of this variation, the concept of scale becomes meaningful in two distinct ways. The first way is the ratio of the size of the globe to the size of the Earth. The generating globe is a model to which the Earth is shrunk. The ratio of the Earths size to the generating globes size is called the nominal scale, many maps state the nominal scale and may even display a bar scale to represent it. The second distinct concept of scale applies to the variation in scale across a map and it is the ratio of the mapped points scale to the nominal scale. In this case means the scale factor. If the region of the map is small enough to ignore Earths curvature—a town plan, in maps covering larger areas, or the whole Earth, the maps scale may be less useful or even useless in measuring distances. The map projection becomes critical in understanding how scale varies throughout the map, when scale varies noticeably, it can be accounted for as the scale factor.
Tissots indicatrix is often used to illustrate the variation of point scale across a map, map scales may be expressed in words, as a ratio, or as a fraction. Examples are, one centimetre to one hundred metres or 1,10,000 or 1/10,000 one inch to one mile or 1,63,360 or 1/63,360 one centimetre to one thousand kilometres or 1,100,000,000 or 1/100,000,000. In addition to the many maps carry one or more bar scales. For example, some modern British maps have three bar scales, one each for kilometres and nautical miles, a lexical scale may cause problems if it expressed in a language that the user does not understand or in obsolete or ill-defined units. For example, a scale of one inch to a furlong will be understood by older people in countries where Imperial units used to be taught in schools. A map is classified as small scale or large scale or sometimes medium scale, small scale refers to world maps or maps of large regions such as continents or large nations. In other words, they show areas of land on a small space.
They are called small scale because the fraction is relatively small. Large scale maps show areas in more detail, such as county maps or town plans might
Gottlieb Samuel Studer
Gottlieb Samuel Studer was a Swiss mountaineer, notary public and draughtsman. Studer was the son of Sigmund Gottlieb Studer, after the death of his father, the Studer family moved to Bern, where Studer was secretary to the cantonal justice and police department, becoming prefect of the city of Bern. In September 1843 he made the first ascent of the Wildhorn in the Bernese Alps, together with the geologist Theodor Simler and Dr Melchior Ulrich, Studer was inspired by the establishment of the British Alpine Club in 1857 to form a Swiss counterpart. This led to the founding on 19 April 1863 of the Swiss Alpine Club at a meeting in the Bahnhofbuffet Olten, the club was a broader and more democratic association than the Alpine Club. Studer was president of the Bern section of the SAC from 1863–1873, in 1866 Studer left the service of the state and dedicated himself to the history of Alpine exploration. The years 1869–1871 were spent writing Über Eis und Schnee, a history of the climbing of the Swiss Alps.
Over the course of 60 years Studer climbed 650 summits, in the Bernese Alps, the Pennine Alps, the Dauphiné, the Tyrol, the Pyrenees and Norway. At the age of 68 he climbed Mont Blanc, when he was 79 he climbed Pic dArzinol in the Valais, and at 81 the Niederhorn
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats