Canton of Schwyz
Schwyz is a canton in central Switzerland between the Alps in the south, Lake Lucerne to the west and Lake Zürich in the north, centered on and named after the town of Schwyz. It is one of the cantons of Switzerland, Switzerlands Standard German name, die Schweiz, is derived from the name of the canton. For the history of the name, see Schwyz, the Swiss Federal Charter is on display in Schwyz. Northeast of the town of Schwyz is the Einsiedeln Abbey, the earliest traces of humans in Schwyz are from the Upper Paleolithic and Early Mesolithic or about 12,500 BC. An excavation of the karst caves in the valley of the Muota river revealed numerous sites, the alpine meadows at Bödmeren, Twärenen and Silberen were stone age hunter-gatherer camps. Ibex and red deer bones along with charcoal indicate that the animals were butchered and cooked in these camps, in 2009 the first stone age tool in the canton, a stone drill, was discovered. During the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age there were a number of pile dwellings, the two settlements at Hurden in Freienbach are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Hurden sites are related to the western Cortaillod culture, sites on the island of Lützelau and the shore zone at Freienbach are eastern Pfyn culture and Corded Ware culture. During the Bronze Age several bridges were built between the promontory of Endingen in Rapperswil, St. Gallen and the settlements at Hurden, over 200,000 posts and seven bridges have been discovered, along with several settlements and ritual sites. On the Schwyz side of the lake, ten different settlements from 4300-2700 BC have been discovered, after 1200 BC there is very little evidence for further Bronze Age settlements in the canton. Only eight Iron Age sites have been discovered in the canton from the 8th to 1st centuries BC, during the Roman era a Roman Vicus was established at Kempraten in Rapperswil around the massive bridge at Seedamm which crossed into Schwyz. A Gallo-Roman temple was built on Ufenau island around AD200 on the site of the present chapel of Sts, a few Roman coin hoards were discovered at Küssnacht and Rickenbach bei Schwyz and Küssnacht may have been the site of a Roman estate.
In 561 Schwyz became part of the Ducatus alamannorum and remained independent under the Alemanni dukes until the second quarter of the 8th century. The Alemanni began to settle into the valleys around 680, but for centuries the Germanic speaking Alemanni, Romansh remained the main language in Einsiedeln until the 10th century. In the 8th and 9th centuries the land was under the Counts of the Zürichgau, the low-laying land along Lake Zürich was relatively easy to reach and was settled throughout the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages, the Muotathal area was used by seasonal herders, Küssnacht was first mentioned in the 9th century, but it is likely that there were earlier settlements. The forests around Einsiedeln were lightly settled, a visit of the Irish monks and Columbanus in 611 is mentioned in the Gallusviten. However, their efforts were unsuccessful in Schwyz
The Druesberg is a mountain located north of Pragel Pass in the Schwyzer Alps and the canton of Schwyz. It lies on the range between Unteriberg and Muotathal, the skiing and hiking area Hoch-Ybrig lies to the north-west of the mountain summit, on the slopes into the valleys of the Minster and Waag rivers. To the north-east, the mountain is drained by the upper reaches of the Sihl, Druesberg on SummitPost Druesberg on Hikr
The Rigi is a mountain massif of the Alps, located in Central Switzerland. The whole massif is almost entirely surrounded by the water of three different water bodies, Lake Lucerne, Lake Zug and Lake Lauerz, the Rigi Kulm and other areas, such as the resort of Rigi Kaltbad, are served by Europes oldest mountain railways, the Rigi Railways. The whole area offers activities such as skiing or sledging in the winter. The name Rigi is from Old High German *rigî, from rîga row, furrow, the name is first recorded in 1350 as Riginun. The name was interpreted as Regina montium queen of mountains by Albrecht von Bonstetten, bonstettens interpretation as Regina was influential in the 17th century, and was still repeated in 18th-century travelogues. Karl Zay criticized this latinization, arguing for mons rigidus instead, in the 19th century, many authors repeated either rigidus or regina as the names supposed origin. The two possibilities were adduced as explanation the names grammatical gender alternating between masculine and feminine, brandstetter finally discredited these interpretations and established the origin in Old High German rîga.
There are multiple transport options available to ascend Mt. Rigi, By rack railway from Arth-Goldau and Vitznau. The Vitznau-Rigi-Bahn started operation on May 21,1871 and was the first mountain railway in Europe, on June 4,1875 the Arth-Rigi-Bahn was finished, allowing access from the other side of the mountain. They were electrified in 1937 and 1907 respectively, with the Arth-Rigi-Bahn becoming the first electrified standard gauge rack-railway in the world, both lines go all the way to the summit, Rigi Kulm. By gondola lift from Weggis to Rigi-Kaltbad, by cable-car from the Kräbel station on the Arth-Rigi-Bahn line to Rigi-Scheidegg. There are numerous public grilling stations located near the hiking trails, Rigi is a perfect destination for people practising winter sports and other winter recreation activities. Mt. Rigi has been featured in works of art. Perhaps the most famous paintings of the Rigi were a series by JMW Turner, including The Blue Rigi, mark Twain visited Rigi during his tour of Central Europe in the late 1870s, and wrote about his travels in chapter 28 of his A Tramp Abroad.
There is a Catskills resort called the Rigi Kulm in Abraham Cahans novel The Rise of David Levinsky, the Rigi, a downhill road in Wellington, New Zealand, is named for the mountain and for many years was used as a main thoroughfare for coach riders. Technically, the Rigi is not a part of the Alps and it is mostly composed of molasse and other conglomerate, as opposed to the Bündner schist and flysch of the Alps. ch Rigi Kulm Pictures Rigi Rigi Webcams
GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating and storage of data with associated attributes. GIS offers better understanding of patterns and relationships of the landscape at different scales, tools inside the GIS allow for manipulation of data for spatial analysis or cartography. A topographical map is the type of map used to depict elevation. In a Geographic Information System, digital models are commonly used to represent the surface of a place. Digital terrain models are another way to represent terrain in GIS, USGS is developing a 3D Elevation Program to keep up with growing needs for high quality topographic data. 3DEP is a collection of enhanced elevation data in the form of high quality LiDAR data over the conterminous United States, there are three bare earth DEM layers in 3DEP which are nationally seamless at the resolution of 1/3,1, and 2 arcseconds. This map is derived from GTOPO30 data that describes the elevation of Earths terrain at intervals of 30 arcseconds and it uses color and shading instead of contour lines to indicate elevation.
Hypsography is the study of the distribution of elevations on the surface of the Earth, the term originates from the Greek word ὕψος hypsos meaning height. Most often it is used only in reference to elevation of land, related to the term hypsometry, the measurement of these elevations of a planets solid surface are taken relative to mean datum, except for Earth which is taken relative to the sea level. In the troposphere, temperatures decrease with altitude and this lapse rate is approximately 6.5 °C/km. S
It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peaks key col is a point on this contour line. By convention, the prominence of Mount Everest, the Earths highest mountain, is taken to equal the elevation of its summit above sea level, if the peaks prominence is P metres, to get from the summit to any higher terrain one must descend at least P metres. Together with the convention for Mount Everest, this implies that the prominence of any island or continental highpoint is equal to its elevation above sea level, for every ridge connecting the peak to higher terrain, find the lowest point on the ridge. The key col is defined as the highest of these cols, the prominence is the difference between the elevation of the peak and the elevation of the key col. The following mental exercise may illustrate the meaning of topographic prominence, imagine you are standing at the top of a peak and imagine that an imaginary sea level rises to your feet. Now slowly lower the sea level and an imaginary island appears beneath your feet.
Your island will grow and will merge with other islands that emerge, the parent peak may be either close or far from the subject peak. The summit of Mount Everest is the parent peak of Aconcagua at a distance of 17,755 km, the key col may be close or far from the subject peak. The key col for Aconcagua is the Bering Strait at a distance of 13,655 km, the key col for the South Summit of Mount Everest is about 100 m distant. Prominence is interesting to many mountaineers because it is a measurement that is strongly correlated with the subjective significance of a summit. Peaks with low prominences are either subsidiary tops of some higher summit or relatively insignificant independent summits, peaks with high prominences tend to be the highest points around and are likely to have extraordinary views. Only summits with a sufficient degree of prominence are regarded as independent mountains, for example, the worlds second-highest mountain is K2. While Mount Everests South Summit is taller than K2, it is not considered an independent mountain because it is a subsummit of the main summit, many lists of mountains take topographic prominence as a criterion for inclusion, or cutoff.
John and Anne Nuttalls The Mountains of England and Wales uses a cutoff of 15 m, in the contiguous United States, the famous list of fourteeners uses a cutoff of 300 ft /91 m. Also in the U. S.2000 feet of prominence has become a threshold that signifies that a peak has major stature. This generates lists of peaks ranked by prominence, which are different from lists ranked by elevation. Such lists tend to emphasize isolated high peaks, such as range or island high points, one advantage of a prominence-ranked list is that it needs no cutoff, since a peak with high prominence is automatically an independent peak
The Grosser Mythen is a mountain in the Schwyzer Alps of Central Switzerland. The mountain lies in the canton of Schwyz, to the east of the town of Schwyz and it is accessible from the Holzegg by a hiking trail which is opened during the summer months only. Geologically the Mythen is a penninic Klippe, the name is pronounced, it is in origin the plural referring to the Grosser and Kleiner Mythen collectively, each of which had the name Mythe in the singular. The name is unrelated to the now-homographic German word for myth, Weibel derives it from Latin meta cone, until the late 19th century, the name of the mountain was still feminine, die Grosse Mythe, after c. 1870, the masculine gender became increasingly common in written German although dialectically the feminine remains current, media related to Mythen at Wikimedia Commons Grosser Mythen on Hikr