1900 Summer Olympics
The 1900 Summer Olympics, today known as the Games of the II Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that took place in Paris, France, in 1900. No opening or closing ceremonies were held; the Games were held as part of the 1900 World's Fair. In total, 997 competitors took part in 19 different sports; this number relies on certain assumptions about which events were and were not "Olympic". Many athletes, among them some who won events, didn't know that they had competed in the Olympic Games. Women took part in the games for the first time, sailor Hélène de Pourtalès, born Helen Barbey in New York City, became the first female Olympic champion; the decision to hold competitions on a Sunday brought protests from many American athletes, who travelled as representatives of their colleges and were expected to withdraw rather than compete on their religious day of rest. At the Sorbonne conference of 1894, Pierre de Coubertin proposed that the Olympic Games should take place in 1900 in Paris.
The delegates to the conference were unwilling to wait six years and lobbied to hold the first games in 1896. A decision was made to hold the first Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens and that Paris would host the second celebration. Most of the winners in 1900 were given cups or trophies. Professionals competed in fencing and Albert Robert Ayat, who won the épée for amateurs and masters, was awarded a prize of 3000 francs; some events were contested for the only time in the history of the Games, including automobile and motorcycle racing, cricket, Basque pelota, 200m swimming obstacle race and underwater swimming. This was the only Olympic Games in history to use live animals as targets during the shooting event; the host nation of France flooded the field. The 1900 Games were held as part of the 1900 Exposition Universelle; the Baron de Coubertin believed that this would help public awareness of the Olympics and submitted elaborate plans to rebuild the ancient site of Olympia, complete with statues, temples and gymnasia.
The director of the Exposition Universelle, Alfred Picard, thought holding an ancient sport event at the Exposition Universelle was an "absurd anachronism". After thanking de Coubertin for his plans, Picard filed them away and nothing more came of it. A committee was formed for the organization of the Games, consisting of some of the more able sports administrators of the day and a provisional program was drawn up. Sports to be included at the games were track and field athletics, wrestling, fencing and British boxing and ocean yacht racing, golf, archery, rowing and water polo. British and Irish sports associations announced a desire to compete, as did a number of powerful American universities and sports clubs. Competitors from Russia and Australia confirmed their intentions to travel to Paris. On 9 November 1898, the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques put out an announcement that it would have sole right to any organised sport held during the World's Fair, it was an empty threat but Viscount Charles de La Rochefoucauld, the nominated head of the organizing committee, stepped down rather than be embroiled in the political battle.
The Baron de Coubertin, secretary-general of the USFSA, was urged to withdraw from active involvement in the running of the Games and did so, only to comment "I surrendered – and was incorrect in doing so." The IOC ceded control of the Games to a new committee, to oversee every sporting activity connected to the 1900 Exposition Universelle. Alfred Picard appointed Daniel Mérillon, the head of the French Shooting Association, as president of this organization in February 1899. Mérillon proceeded to publish an different schedule of events, with the result that many of those that had made plans to compete in concordance with the original program withdrew, refused to deal with the new committee. Between May and October 1900, the new organizing committee held an enormous number of sporting activities alongside the Paris Exposition; the sporting events used the term of "Olympic". Indeed, the term "Olympic Games" was replaced by "Concours internationaux d'exercices physiques et de sport" in the official report of the sporting events of the 1900 Exposition Universelle.
The press reported competitions variously as "International Championships", "International Games", "Paris Championships", "World Championships" and "Grand Prix of the Paris Exposition". De Coubertin commented to friends: "It's a miracle that the Olympic Movement survived that celebration"; these Olympic Games were the first organised under the IOC Presidency of Pierre de Coubertin Alvin Kraenzlein won the 60 metres, the 110 metre hurdles, the 200 metre hurdles and the long jump events. For his victory in the long jump, he was punched in the face by his rival Meyer Prinstein, prevented from competing in the final by officials of Syracuse University because it was scheduled for a Sunday. Hélène de Pourtalès became the first female Olympic
Ryan Steven Lochte is an American competitive swimmer and 12-time Olympic medalist. He is the 2nd-most decorated swimmer in Olympic history, behind only Michael Phelps, his seven individual Olympic medals rank near the top in men's swimming. As part of the American teams, he holds the world record in the 4×200-meter freestyle and 4x100-meter freestyle relay. Individually, he holds the world record in the 200-meter individual medley and 400-meter individual medley. Lochte's success has earned him SwimSwam's Swammy Award for US Male Swimmer of the Year in 2013, the World Swimmer of the Year Award and the American Swimmer of the Year Award twice, he has been named the FINA Swimmer of the Year three times. He has won a total of 90 medals in major international competition, 54 gold, 22 silver, 14 bronze spanning the Olympics, the Worlds, Pan American and Pan Pacific Championships, including six Olympic gold medals and 39 world championship titles. Lochte specializes in the backstroke and individual medley, but is a freestyle and butterfly swimmer.
He is noted for the distance he attains while kicking underwater. Lochte is known for his dominance in the short course format. Lochte swam the 100m individual medley in 50.71 seconds on December 15, 2012 at the FINA World Championships in Istanbul, Turkey. At this same event, he is credited with swimming the fastest 200m medley, leading him to finish in 1 minute 49.63 seconds. In 2016, Lochte generated international controversy when he falsely claimed that he and three other American swimmers had been pulled over and robbed by armed robbers with police badges while in Rio de Janeiro, for the 2016 Summer Olympics. On July 23, 2018, the US Anti-Doping Agency imposed a 14 months suspension from competition on Lochte because he had in 24 May that year received a'prohibited intravenous infusion.'On May 24, 2018, the same day he had received the infusion, Lochte had posted a picture - since deleted - of himself on Instagram, "showing him receiving an intravenous injection of what he says were “vitamins”...
USADA doesn’t allow intravenous infusions of permitted substances at volumes greater than 100 ml in a 12-hour period without a special “Therapeutic Use Exemption”,' Vox reported. Lochte was born in New York, the son of Ileana "Ike" and Steven R. Lochte, his mother is Cuban and was born and raised in Havana, while his father is of Dutch and German descent. He has two older sisters and Megan, two younger brothers and Brandon. During his early childhood, his family lived in Bristol, New York where he attended Bloomfield Central Schools; the family moved to Florida. Lochte was taught to swim at the age of five by both of his parents, he was kicked out of his father's swimming classes for misbehaving, which included pulling other children's legs, blowing bubbles, hiding at the other end of the pool. Lochte only began taking swimming when he was in junior high school, his father said, "I would send him to go shower. He spent more time in the showers than he did in the pool." At 14 years old, his loss at the Junior Olympics changed his attitude.
He commented: "I said,'I'm sick of losing'. After that I trained hard and I never lost there again." Lochte graduated in 2007, majoring in sport management. As a member of the Florida Gators swimming and diving team, he swam for coach Gregg Troy in National Collegiate Athletic Association and Southeastern Conference competition from 2004 to 2007. At Florida, Lochte was the NCAA Swimmer of the Year twice, a seven-time NCAA champion, a seven-time SEC champion, a 24-time All-American. At the 2006 NCAA Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, during his senior year, Lochte won national titles in all three of his individual events, setting U. S. Open and American records in 200-yard backstroke, he broke Tom Dolan's nearly decade-old NCAA record in the 400-yard individual medley. Lochte qualified for his first Olympics after finishing second to Michael Phelps in the 200-meter individual medley at the 2004 U. S. Olympic Team Trials, he qualified for the 4×200-meter freestyle relay team after finishing 4th in the 200-meter freestyle final.
At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Lochte swam with Phelps, Klete Keller, Peter Vanderkaay to upset the Australian team and capture the gold medal in the 4×200-meter freestyle relay. It was the first loss for the Australian team in six years, he narrowly edged out George Bovell and László Cseh in the 200-meter individual medley to win the silver medal behind Phelps. That year at the 2004 FINA Short Course World Championships in Indianapolis, Lochte won the silver medal in the 200-meter individual medley and the bronze in the 200-meter freestyle, he won the gold medal in the 4×200-meter freestyle relay with Chad Carvin, Dan Ketchum, Justin Mortimer. At the 2005 World Aquatics Championships in Montreal, Lochte won the bronze medals in both the 200-meter backstroke and 200-meter individual medley. In the 4×200-meter freestyle relay, Lochte teamed with Phelps and Keller to win gold ahead of Canada and Australia. At the 2006 FINA Short Course World Championships in Shanghai, held just two weeks after the 2006 NCAA Championships, Lochte won three individual titles, one silver, one bronze.
He won the 200-meter individual medley and the 200-meter backstroke, setting new world records in both events. He set another world record in the 100-meter backstroke in the opening leg of the 4×100-meter
Dara Grace Torres is an American former competitive swimmer, a twelve-time Olympic medalist and former world record-holder in three events. Torres is the first swimmer to represent the United States in five Olympic Games, and, at age 41, the oldest swimmer to earn a place on the U. S. Olympic team. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, she competed in the 50-meter freestyle, 4×100-meter medley relay, 4×100-meter freestyle relay, won silver medals in all three events. Torres has won twelve Olympic medals, one of three women with the most Olympic women's swimming medals; the others are fellow Americans Jenny Natalie Coughlin. Torres won five medals at the 2000 Summer Olympics when, at age 33, she was the oldest member of the 2000 U. S. Olympic Swim Team, she has won at least one medal in each of the five Olympics in which she has competed, making her one of only a handful of Olympians to earn medals in five different Games. Torres was born to a Cuban-American family, in Los Angeles, the daughter of Edward Torres, Marylu Kauder.
Her father was a real estate developer and casino owner from Cuba. Torres grew up in Beverly Hills, the fifth of six children and the older of two girls; as a 7-year-old, she followed in the footsteps of her older brothers by joining their community Y. M. C. A. for swimming practice. At 14, she won the national open championship in the 50-yard freestyle by defeating the then-current champion, Jill Sterkel, a college junior, she attended the Westlake School for Girls, competed for the Westlake swim team under coach Darlene Bible from the seventh grade through her sophomore year in high school. She was a member of the Westlake basketball and volleyball teams. During her 1983–84 high school junior year, she left home to swim for the Mission Viejo Nadadores in Mission Viejo, while training for her first Olympics under coach Mark Schubert. After the 1984 Olympics, Torres returned to the Westlake School to graduate in 1985. Torres accepted an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Florida in Gainesville, where she swam for the Florida Gators swimming and diving team in National Collegiate Athletic Association competition under coach Randy Reese from 1986 to 1989.
In her four years as a Gator swimmer, Torres won nine Southeastern Conference individual championships, including the 50-yard freestyle, 100-yard freestyle, 200-yard freestyle, 100-yard butterfly. Torres won three NCAA individual national championships in 1988, she was named the SEC Athlete of the Year in 1988, SEC Female Swimmer of the Year in 1987 and 1989, earned twenty-eight All-American swimming honors—the maximum number possible during a college career. Torres lettered in volleyball at Florida, playing the sport in her fifth year after having exhausted her NCAA eligibility in swimming. Torres graduated from the university with a bachelor's degree in telecommunications in 1990, was inducted into the University of Florida Athletic Hall of Fame as a "Gator Great" in 1999. In November 2013, she was named as a recipient of the 2014 NCAA Silver Anniversary Award, presented annually to six distinguished former student-athletes on the 25th anniversary of their final school year of athletic eligibility.
At the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, Torres was a member of the winning U. S. women's 4×100-meter freestyle relay team, swimming in the first-round qualifying heat and earning a gold medal in the event final. Her winning teammates in that final included Jenna Johnson and Carrie Steinseifer. For the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, Torres qualified for the U. S. Olympic women's team in two relay events. Torres earned a bronze medal for swimming for the third-place U. S. women's team in the 4×100-meter freestyle relay final, together with teammates Mitzi Kremer, Laura Walker and Mary Wayte. She earned a silver medal for swimming the freestyle leg of the 4×100-meter medley relay for the second-place U. S. team in the preliminary heats, but not the final. Individually, Torres placed seventh in the final of the 100-meter freestyle event. Torres qualified for the U. S. Olympic women's team in a single event for the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, she swam the second leg of the 4×100-meter freestyle relay for the winning U.
S. team that included Nicole Haislett, Angel Martino and Jenny Thompson, earned a gold medal for her efforts in the event final and first-round qualifying heat. After seven years out of competitive swimming, Torres began to train for an Olympic comeback in 1999 under the guidance of coach Richard Quick, she won five medals at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, but saved her best for two of the major relay events of the U. S. Olympic women's team, she swam the second leg for the winning U. S. women's team in final of the 4×100-meter freestyle relay that included Amy Van Dyken, Courtney Shealy and Jenny Thompson. Torres won a second gold medal for anchoring the winning U. S. team in the 4×100-meter medley relay, together w
Italy at the Olympics
Italy has competed at all the modern Olympic GamesItaly has taken part in all the Winter Olympic Games, winning 124 medals, 577 medals at the Summer Olympic Games. Italy has won a total of 246 gold medals which makes them the 6th most successful country in Olympic history, after the USA, the Soviet Union, Great Britain and France. Italy has the sixth highest medal total of all time with 701; the Italian National Olympic Committee was created in 1908 and recognised in 1913. The Italian Olympic Team has competed in the Mediterranean Games where they have won a total of 1,786 medals, the most in the games' history; as of 2016 they are the most successful nation at fencing in Olympic history. Italy has hosted the Games on three occasions. Italy has finished in the top 5 of the medal count 11 times in the Summer Olympic Games and 3 times in the Winter Olympic Games. In total Italy has finished in the top 5 of the medal count 14 times. Italy has finished in the top 10 of the medal count 20 times in the Summer Olympic Games and 13 times in the Winter Olympic Games.
In total Italy has finished in the top 10 of the medal count 33 times. According to the official count of the International Olympic Committee, Italy has won 577 medals at Summer Olympics. *Red border color indicates tournament was held on home soil. Notes: in pink color the women athletes; the Italian athlete who won the most medals in the history of the Olympic Games, is the fencer Edoardo Mangiarotti. In this table, the men who have won gold individual medals at the Olympics. Notes: in Khaki the athletes still in activity. For Cycling was considered for world championships, only professional events. In this table, the women who have won gold individual medals at the Olympics and at the World Championships. Updated to 22 February 2018. List of flag bearers for Italy at the Olympics Category:Olympic competitors for Italy Italy at the Paralympics Italy national athletics team Naturalized athletes of Italy a b Not counting Enrico Brusoni gold medal at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Cycling Points Race, this medal is not recognized by IOC, but is recognized by Italian National Olympic Committee.
"Italy". International Olympic Committee. "Results and Medalists — Italy". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. "Italy". Sports-Reference.com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012
Birgit Fischer is a German kayaker, who has won eight gold medals over six different Olympic Games, a record she shares with Aladár Gerevich, spanning seven Olympiads: twice representing East Germany four times representing the reunited nation. After both the 1988 and 2000 games, she announced her retirement, only to return for the subsequent games, she has been both the youngest- and oldest-ever Olympic canoeing champion. In 2004, she was voted German sportswoman of the year. Fischer was born in Brandenburg an der Havel in East Germany, she attended an ASK boarding school in Potsdam, worked as a sports instructor in the National People's Army, attaining a rank of major by the time of German reunification in 1990. She was married from 1984 to 1993 to canoeist Jörg Schmidt, silver medalist in the C-1 1000 m event at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, she lives with their two children in Brandenburg. In 1999 she stood unsuccessfully as a candidate for the FDP in the European Parliament election.
Fischer's niece, competed for Germany at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, winning a gold in the K-4 500 m event. Fischer's brother Frank won nine world championship medals between 1981 and 1986, she won 38 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships medals between 1978 and 2005, including 28 golds. Fischer's career medal count was surpassed by Hungary's Katalin Kovács at the 2011 championships in Szeged. Fischer is a photographer and displays works through the Art of the Olympians. List of multiple Olympic gold medalists List of multiple Olympic gold medalists in one event List of multiple Olympic medalists List of multiple Summer Olympic medalists List of athletes with the most appearances at Olympic Games Fotographie by Birgit Fischer ICF medalists for Olympic and World Championships – Part 1: flatwater: 1936–2007 at WebCite. Additional archives: Wayback Machine. ICF medalists for Olympic and World Championships – Part 2: rest of flatwater and remaining canoeing disciplines: 1936–2007 at WebCite Official website Evans, Hilary.
"Birgit Fischer-Schmidt". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC
Larisa Semyonovna Latynina is a former Soviet artistic gymnast from southern Ukraine. Between 1956 and 1964 she won four team medals, she holds the record for the most Olympic gold medals by a gymnast, male or female, with 9. Her total of 18 Olympic medals was a record for 48 years, she held the record for individual event medals with 14 for 52 years. She is credited with helping to establish the Soviet Union as a dominant force in gymnastics, she was born as Larisa Semyonovna Diriy in Soviet Ukraine. Her father, Semyon Andreyevich Diriy, left the family when she was 11 months old, she was raised by her illiterate mother, who worked as a cleaner during the day, as a watchman during the night, her father was killed at the Battle of Stalingrad. She first turned to gymnastics after her choreographer moved out of Kherson, she graduated from high school in 1953, moved to Kiev. She attended the Lenin Polytechnic Institute, continued her training at the Burevestnik Voluntary Sports Society. At the age of 19, she debuted internationally at the 1954 Rome World Championships, winning the gold medal in the team competition.
At the 1956 Summer Olympics, she competed with Ágnes Keleti of Hungary to become the most successful gymnast of the Olympics. Latynina beat Keleti in the all-around event, the Soviet team won the team event. In the event finals, Latynina won gold medals on the floor and vault, a silver medal on the uneven bars, a bronze medal in the now discontinued team event with portable apparatus. Keleti won six medals: four golds and two silvers. After a successful World Championships in 1958, Latynina was the favorite for the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. In the all-around event she led the Soviet Union to take the first four places, thereby securing a win in the team competition by a margin of nine points. Latynina defended her floor title, took silver medals in the balance beam and uneven bars events, bronze in the vault competition. Latynina won all-around titles at the 1962 World Championships, beating Věra Čáslavská of Czechoslovakia. Still the defending World Champion at the 1964 Summer Olympics, she was beaten by Čáslavská in the all-around competition.
Latynina added two more gold medals to her tally, winning the team event and the floor event both for the third time in a row. A silver medal and two bronzes in the other apparatus events brought her total of Olympic medals to eighteen—nine gold medals, five silver and four bronze, she won a medal in every event in which she competed, except for the 1956 balance beam where she came in fourth. Latynina's nine gold medals makes her second on the list of most Olympic gold medalists, she held the distinction of having more Olympic medals than anybody, from 1964 until 2012. She is the only woman to have won nine gold medals, she is the only female athlete who at some point has held the record for most Olympic gold medals. Additionally, within the sport of gymnastics, she is the only woman who has won an all-around medal in more than two Olympiads, the only woman who has won an individual event in more than two Olympiads, one of only three women who have won every individual event at either the World Championship or Olympic level.
She is the only female gymnast to have twice won team gold, all-around gold and an event final gold at the same Olympics, having done so in 1956 and four years in 1960. She was born to Pelageya Anisimovna Barabamyuk and Semyon Andreevich Diriy, who died in the Battle of Stalingrad. Larisa was married three times, her last and current husband is Yuri Izrailovich Feldman, a member of the Russian Academy of Electrotechnical Sciences and a former competitive cyclist. Her daughter from a former marriage, Tatyana Ivanovna Latynina, is a folk dancer, she was born only five months after her mother won a world all-around title, seven months after her birth Latynina competed at the national championships. Latynina kept her pregnancy a secret from her coach, she had a son. Latynina retired after the 1966 World Championships and became a coach for the Soviet national gymnastics team, a position she held until 1977. Under her coaching the Soviet women won team gold in the 1972 and 1976 Olympics, she organized the gymnastics competition at the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow.
She is a citizen of Russia, lives in an estate near the town of Semenovskoye. 1989: Olympic Order, International Olympic Committee 1998: Inducted into the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame List of multiple Olympic gold medalists List of multiple Olympic gold medalists at a single Games List of multiple Olympic medalists at a single Games List of multiple Summer Olympic medalists List of top Olympic gymnastics medalists List of top medalists at the World Artistic Gymnastics Championships List of Olympic female gymnasts for the Soviet Union Larisa Latynina. The Balance. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Life Magazine images International Olympic Committee's profile on Latynina at the Wayback Machine Larisa Latynina at the International Olympic Committee Larissa LATYNINA at the International Federation of Gymnastics International Gymnast's profile on Latynina Gymn Forum: Complete list of Latynina's competitive results profile on DatabaseOlympics.com Larisa Latynina's profile in the Modern Museum of Sports includes photos of h
Nikolai Yefimovich Andrianov was a Soviet/Russian gymnast. He held the record for men for the most Olympic medals at 15 until Michael Phelps surpassed him at the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. Andrianov is the third athlete in cumulative Olympic medals after Phelps's 28 and Larisa Latynina, who earned 18. Andrianov won the most medals at the 1976 Summer Olympics with 6 individual medals and one team medal. Within the sport of Men's Artistic Gymnastics, he holds the men's record for most individual Olympic medals and shares the male record for most individual Olympic gold medals in gymnastics, tied with Boris Shakhlin and Dmitry Bilozerchev. In many other rankings among all-time medal winners at the Olympic and European levels, he ranks high, – making him one of the most decorated gymnasts of all time. Andrianov entered the Children and Youth Sports School of the Burevestnik sports society in Vladimir at age 11, his first international success came in 1971 at the European Championships in Madrid, where he won two gold medals.
Between 1971 and 1980 he won many international gymnastics competitions, including the Olympic Games, world championships and European championships. Andrianov's first Olympic medal was a gold in the 1972 floor competition, he dominated the 1976 gymnastics competition, winning four golds, including the all-around, two silvers, a bronze. These medals included golds in the floor exercises and vault, as well as a prized gold in the 1976 all-around, his record of four gymnastic golds at a single games stood until Vitaly Scherbo won six in 1992. Andrianov took the Olympic Oath for athletes at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. In the gymnastics competition, he won two more golds, two silvers, a bronze. Andrianov's golds in that Olympics were in the vault and team competition, his silvers were in the all-around and floor exercises, his bronze medal was in the horizontal bar, he retired shortly after that year's Olympics. Andrianov married two-time Olympic champion Lyubov Burda. Together they worked as children’s gymnastics coaches, with Andrianov being the head coach of the Soviet national men’s junior team in 1981–1992.
In 1990–1992 he coached the Soviet senior gymnastics team, in 1990–1993 headed the Soviet and the Russian Gymnastics Federation. In 2001, Andrianov was inducted into the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame. Between 1994 and 2002 he coached the Japan Olympic gymnastics team, on the invitation of his former rival, Mitsuo Tsukahara. Andrianov coached Tsukahara's son, Naoya Tsukahara, both father and son credit him with raising Naoya's skills and confidence to equip him to compete at the international level. In 2002 he became the director of gymnastics at the N. G. Tolkachyov Specialized Children and Youth sports school in Vladimir, where he first began the sport as a youth. In his final years, Andrianov developed the degenerative neurological disorder multiple system atrophy and in his final months was unable to move his arms or legs or talk. Andrianov died on 21 March 2011 at the age in his hometown of Vladimir. Russia's national gymnastic team coach, Alexander Alexandrov, called the death "tragic", but stated that he had been ill for a long time.
Order of Lenin Order of the Badge of Honour Order of the Red Banner of Labour Medal "For Labour Valour" Lenin Komsomol Prize List of multiple Olympic medalists List of multiple Summer Olympic medalists List of multiple Olympic gold medalists List of multiple Olympic medalists at a single Games List of multiple Olympic gold medalists at a single Games List of Olympic medal leaders in men's gymnastics This article contains information from the website http://www.gymnast.ru/, incorporated into the Wikipedia with permission from its author E. V. Avsenev. International Federation of Gymnastics' Article on Nikolai Andrianov A short biography and achievements Biography IOC 1980 Summer Olympics^ "Nikolai Andrianov". International Gymnastics Hall of Fame. Retrieved 1 December 2006. IOC 1980 Summer Olympics Obituary Nikolai Andrianov