The Moderate Party is a liberal-conservative political party in Sweden. The party supports tax cuts, the free market, civil liberties and economic liberalism. Internationally, it is a full member of the International Democrat Union and European People's Party; the party was founded in 1904 as the General Electoral League by a group of conservatives in the Riksdag, the Swedish parliament. The party was known as The Right and Right Wing Party. After holding minor posts in centre-right governments, the Moderates became the leading opposition party to the Swedish Social Democratic Party and since those two parties have dominated Swedish politics. After the 1991 general election, party leader Carl Bildt formed a minority government, the first administration since 1930 to be headed by a member of the party, which lasted three years; the party was returned in government, under party leader and Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeld, after the 2006 and 2010 general elections. In 2010 the party, the leading member of the centre-right Alliance coalition, obtained its best result ever.
The current chairman of the party, Ulf Kristersson, was elected at a special party congress on 1 October 2017, following Anna Kinberg Batra's sudden resignation. Kinberg Batra had replaced Reinfeldt, Prime Minister from 2006 to 2014. Under Reinfeldt's leadership, the party moved more towards the centre in Swedish politics; the party was founded on 17 October 1904 in a restaurant called Runan in Stockholm. The intention was to start a campaign organization in support of the group of Conservatives which had emerged in the Riksdag. During the 19th century conservatives had organised themselves in the Riksdag but there was no party to support them; the Swedish right were threatened by the rise of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Liberals. The party was called the General Electoral League. At first the party was nationalist and staunchly conservative; the importance of a strong defense was underlined and other societal institutions embraced by the party were the monarchy and the state of law.
The party held a protectionist view towards the economy. In the defence policy crisis in 1914, which overturned the parliamentary Liberal government, the party sided with King Gustav but stopped short of accepting a right-wing government by royal appointment, instead opting for an independent-conservative "war cabinet" under Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, overturned in favor of a Liberal-Social Democratic majority coalition government and thus the breakthrough of parliamentary rule, albeit reluctantly embraced by the right. Arvid Lindman became influential in the party and served two terms as Prime Minister of Sweden and after the enactment of universal suffrage. In 1907 he proposed universal male suffrage to the parliament and in 1912 he was formally elected leader, but the party voted against universal suffrage and the party again voted against women's right to vote. It was only because the party was in minority that Sweden was able to grant the right to vote for all, pushed through by the Liberals and the Social Democrats, against the objections of the right.
Although not one of the founders of the party and not a prominent ideologist and his achievements as a leader are appreciated as being of great importance for the new party. His leadership was marked by a consolidation of the Swedish right, by transforming the party into a modern, political movement. Lindman was a pragmatic politician, but without losing his principles, he was peace-broker. For this he was respected by his fiercest political opponents and when he resigned and left the parliament in 1935, the leader of the Social Democrats, Per Albin Hansson, expressed his "honest thanks over the battle lines". From the beginning of the 20th century social democracy and the labour movement rose to replace liberalism as the major political force for radical reforms; the Moderate Party intensified its opposition to socialism during the leadership of Lindman—the importance of continuance and strengthening national business were cornerstones. But at the same time, recent social issues gained significant political attention.
During the governments led by Lindman, several reforms for social progress were made, it was his first government that initiated the public state pension. In the 1920s the Swedish right started to move towards a classical liberal view on economic issues under the influence of the liberal economist Gustav Cassel, but the economic downturn following the Great Depression frustrated the possible liberal transition of their economic policy. Before that occurred the party gained its greatest success yet with 29.4% in the general election of 1928 called the Cossack Election, on a anti-socialist programme. The government formed by the party did not accept the concept of the market economy, but continued the protectionist policy by generous financial aid; the government began complete regulation of agriculture. Production associations, with the objective to administer the regulations and to run monopolies on imports, were established du
Swedish Social Democratic Party
The Swedish Social Democratic Party, contesting elections as the Arbetarepartiet–Socialdemokraterna and referred to just as the Social Democrats, is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden. The current party leader since 2012 is Stefan Löfven, Prime Minister of Sweden since 2014. Founded in 1889, a schism occurred in 1917 when the left socialists split from the Social Democrats to form the Swedish Social Democratic Left Party; the symbol of the SAP is traditionally a red rose, believed to have been Fredrik Ström's idea. The words of honour, as recorded by the 2001 party programme, are "freedom and solidarity." The party had influences from Marxism in its early days, however these were removed in the years leading up to the split in 1917. In 2007, the Social Democrats elected Mona Sahlin as its first female party leader. On 7 December 2009, the Social Democrats launched a political and electoral coalition known as the Red-Greens together with the Greens and the Left Party; the parties contested the 2010 election on a joint manifesto, but lost the election to the incumbent centre-right coalition The Alliance.
On 26 November 2010 the Red-Green alliance was dissolved. The Social Democratic Party has about 100,000 members, with about 2,540 local party associations and 500 workplace associations, it has been the largest party in the Riksdag since 1914. The member base is diverse, but prominently features organized blue-collar workers and public sector employees; the party has a historical relationship with the Swedish Trade Union Confederation. Organisations within the Swedish social democratic movement: The National Federation of Social Democratic Women in Sweden organizes women; the Swedish Social Democratic Youth League organizes youth. The Social Democratic Students of Sweden organizes university students; the Religious Social Democrats of Sweden organizes all members with religious beliefs. The LGBT Social Democrats of Sweden organizes LGBT-people; the Swedish Social Democratic Party had its golden age during the mid-1930s to mid-1980s when in half of all general elections they got between 44.6% and 46.2% of the votes, making it one of the most successful political parties in the history of the liberal democratic world.
In two of the general elections, in 1940 and 1968, they got more than 50%. In 1940 all established Swedish parties, except for the Communist Party, had a coalition government due to the pressures of the Second World War, it led to voters most wanting one party to be in majority to give a parliament that couldn't be hung. In 1944 the tides of the war had turned and the allied nations looked to win, giving voters more confidence in voting by preference and explaining the more normal electoral result of 46.6%. There might well have among parts of the public regarding how the Communist Party was held out of the government, in 1944 they got 10.3%. In 1968 the established Communist Party, most due to bad press about the Soviets overtaking of Czechoslovakia, got a very bad result of 3% of the votes, while the Social Democrats enjoyed 50.1% and their own majority in parliament. Only in a brief period between the elections of 1973 to 1979 did the Social Democrats get below the normal interval of 44.6% to 46.2%, instead scoring an average of 43.2%, losing in 1976, the first time in 44 years, again just in 1979.
However, they won back power in 1982 with a normal result of 45.6%. The voter base consists of a diverse swathe of people throughout Swedish society, although it is strong amongst organised blue-collar workers. In the 2006 general election, the Social Democratic Party received the smallest share of votes in a general election with universal suffrage, resulting in the loss of office to the opposition, the centre-right coalition Alliance for Sweden. Among the support that the Social Democratic Party lost in the 2006 election was the vote of pensioners, blue-collar trade unionists; the combined Social Democratic Party and Left Party vote of citizens with non-Nordic foreign backgrounds sank from 73% in 2002 to 48% in 2006. Stockholm County votes for the centre-right parties. Only 23% of Stockholm City residents voted for S in 2006. From 2006 to 2014, the Social Democrats lost two consecutive terms to the centre-right Alliance, due to the centrist liberal attitudes of Prime Minister Frederik Reinfeldt attracted some of the S voters.
In 2010, 2014 and 2018, the vote shares of S declined, some of these votes were lost to the right-wing populist Sweden Democrats. In the 2018 Swedish general election The Social Democrats' vote share fell to 28.3 percent, its lowest level of support since 1911. In the 1890s the Social Democrats stood on the same ticket as the Liberals; the party's first chapter in its statutes says "the intension of the Swedish Social Democratic Labour Party is the struggle towards the Democratic Socialism," that is, a society with a democratic economy based on the socialist principle, "From each ac
Sten Roland Nordin, is a Swedish politician of the Moderate Party and the current Governor of Blekinge County. He served as Commissioner of Finance of Stockholm, the capital and largest city of Sweden, from 2008 to 2014. Educated at the University of Uppsala, he was Chairman of the Heimdal Association, the Free Moderate Party Student Union. Nordin was elected as a member of the Stockholm City Council from 1992, was vice-Chair of the Moderate group from 1994-2006. Leaving municipal politics, he was a member of the Riksdag from 2006 until 2008. During his time in the Riksdag he was a member of the Transport Tax Committee. Returning to city politics, in late April 2008, he was elected Stockholm’s Commissioner of Finance, which gave him the title of Mayor of Stockholm, he left the role following the election of 2014. On the first of October 2017, Nordin was appointed the governor of Blekinge County. Riksdagen: Sten Nordin
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Hjalmar Leo Mehr was a Swedish Social Democratic politician, mayor of Stockholm and governor of Stockholm County. He promoted many radical socialist welfare state policies but is remembered and criticized for the redevelopment of Norrmalm, where a significant part of the old Stockholm was demolished. Hjalmar Mehr's parents Sara and Bernhard Meyerowitch were Russian-Jewish revolutionaries who after the failed 1905 Russian Revolution fled to Sweden, where Hjalmar was born and named after Hjalmar Branting
Carl Zeth "Zäta" Konstantin Höglund was a leading Swedish communist politician, anti-militarist, author and mayor of Stockholm. Höglund can be credited as the founder of the Swedish Communist movement. Zeth Höglund went on many meetings in Bolshevik Russia and was elected to the Comintern Executive Committee in 1922. In 1926, he returned to the Social Democratic party but still chose to define himself as a communist. Zeth Höglund grew up in Gothenburg in a lower-middle-class family, his father, Carl Höglund, worked as a merchant in leather and became a shoemaker. Zeth was the youngest of ten children, he was the only son, hence had nine big sisters. His parents were religious but disliked the church hierarchy and the way preachers and governments used religion to influence people. Höglund would become an atheist. Early on in High School, Höglund started considering himself a socialist and instead of his school books he started reading the German socialists Karl Marx, Ferdinand Lassalle, Wilhelm Liebknecht and the Swedish socialists Axel Danielsson and Hjalmar Branting.
He read Nietzsche and August Strindberg. He graduated from High School in 1902 with average grades, he soon got an internship with the liberal daily Göteborgs-Posten and was hired by that newspaper that fall. The same fall Höglund started studying History, Political Science and Literature at the Gothenburg University. Here he met Fredrik Ström, a four-year-older student a radical socialist, they developed a close friendship. At the May Day demonstration in 1903, Höglund and Fredrik Ström had an invitation to speak from the Social Democratic Party on a demand for 8-hour workdays. Höglund started and was followed by Ström, who started agitating for 6-hour workdays, promising 4-hour workdays in a socialist future. In the summer of 1903, Höglund and Fredrik Ström decided to move to Paris, they were curious of the homeland of the great French Revolution of 1789 and the city where their heroes Jean-Paul Marat, Georges Danton and Louis de Saint-Just had lived and fought. In Paris they attended several socialist meetings, of which the grandest was when Jean Jaurès spoke to over 4,000 people.
They tried to write on their own and sent political articles home to Sweden where some of them were published in different newspapers. One day at the post office, Fredrik Ström discovered that they were under surveillance by the French police; the two Swedes were short on money. They could spend little money on food; when winter came they went hungry. They decided to go back to Sweden, they had no for the trip home, but two of Höglund's sisters and Alice, sent them the money, they returned home by Christmas 1903. Höglund joined the Swedish Social Democratic Party in 1904 and became the leader of party's youth movement, he wrote an article called "Let Us Make Swedish Social Democracy the Strongest in the World". In 1905, Höglund supported Norway's right to self-determination and independence from Sweden; when the Swedish conservatives made clear that they were prepared to subdue Norway by force, Zeth Höglund wrote the manifesto Down With Weapons! in which he indirectly declared that if the Swedish workers were forced to go to war with Norway, they would instead turn their weapons against the Swedish ruling class.
The war was avoided, Norway became independent, but, as a result of his anti-war agitation, Zeth Höglund was sentenced to six months in jail, which he served between the mid-summer and Christmas of 1906. While condemned and imprisoned by the Swedish ruling class as a dangerous rebel, Höglund was saluted by others; the German socialist Karl Liebknecht described him as a hero in his book Militarism and Anti-Militarism. The Russian Communist leader Lenin wrote: "The close alliance between the Norwegian and Swedish workers, their complete fraternal class solidarity, gained from the Swedish workers' recognition of the right of the Norwegians to secede.... The Swedish workers have proved that in spite of all the vicissitudes of bourgeois policy.... They will be able to preserve and defend the complete equality and class solidarity of the workers of both nations in the struggle against both the Swedish and the Norwegian bourgeoisie." In November 1912, Höglund, together with his Swedish friends Hjalmar Branting and Ture Nerman, attended the special emergency convention of the Socialist International, summoned to Basel in Switzerland, due to the outbreak of the Balkan Wars.
At the convention, the leaders of all the European Socialist parties agreed to stand together internationally to prevent any future wars. Together with Fredrik Ström and Hannes Sköld, Höglund wrote the anti-militarist manifesto Det befästa fattighuset in which they described and criticized Sweden as an armed fortress and at the same time a poorhouse, where the people were miserable and the rulers spent all resources on militarism. Not one krona, not one öre, to militarism! was the slogan of the manifesto. It was despised from the bourgeoisie media. In 1914, Höglund got a seat in the lower house of the Riksdag. There, he agitated for socialism, against capitalism and the Swedish monarchy. Höglund's speeches were so revolutionary that they provoked Hjalmar Branting, although many young socialists started seeing Höglund as their true leader. In 1914, when World War I broke out, Zeth Höglund together with Ture Nerman represented the Swedish-Norwegian members of the Zimmerwald Conference, the international socialist anti-war movement which gathered in the small Swiss village of Zi
Karin Björnsdotter Wanngård, is a Swedish politician, Mayor of Stockholm from 2014 to 2018. She is a member of the Social Democrats, has been city councillor of Stockholm Municipality since 1994. Wanngård was appointed leader of the Social Democrats in Stockholm Municipality in 2011, served as the city's leader of the opposition until 2014. Following the 2014 municipal election, Wanngård formed a coalition consisting of her own Social Democrats, the Green Party, the Left Party, the Feminist Initiative, which together holds a majority in the city council. In early 2017, Wanngård announced her coal usage elimination goal for Stockholm to be complete by 2022, she became one of sixteen women. Official website