Jerez de la Frontera
Jerez de la Frontera, or Jerez, is a Spanish city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, in southwestern Spain, located midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Cádiz Mountains. As of 2015, the city, the largest in the province, had a population of 212,876, it is the fifth largest in Andalusia, has become the transportation and communications hub of the province, surpassing Cádiz, the provincial capital, in economic activity. Jerez de la Frontera is in terms of land area, the largest municipality in the province, its sprawling outlying areas are a fertile zone for agriculture. There are many cattle ranches and horse-breeding operations, as well as a world-renowned wine industry. Jerez, with 212,876 inhabitants, is the 25th largest city in Spain, the 5th in Andalusia and 1st in the Province of Cádiz, it belongs to the Municipal Association of the Bay of Cádiz, the 3rd largest Andalusian metropolitan area and the 12th in Spain, with over 650,000 inhabitants.
Its municipality covers an area of 1,188.14 km2 and includes the Los Alcornocales Natural Park and the Sierra de Gibalbín known as Montes de Propio de Jerez. The city is located 12 km from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Campiña de Jerez, region appropriate to cultivate the vineyards that produce the famous sherry; some famous places in to the city are Alcazar of Jerez, Church of San Miguel, Charterhouse of Jerez, the Cathedral of San Salvador. Since 1987 the Grand Prix motorcycle racing has been held at the Circuito de Jerez in early May. On this weekend, the city welcomes tens of thousands of bikers from around the world; the same circuit has hosted several Formula 1 Grands Prix, including the 1997 final race of the season, marred with controversy for a notable high-profile championship-deciding incident. Other popular festivals in the city are the Holy Week in Jerez. Jerez is known as the city of flamenco, sherry and motorcycles. In 2013, Jerez was the European Capital of Wine and 2014, it was the world's first Motorbike Capital.
The name Jerez goes back to the Phoenician Xera, Sèrès Romanized under the name of Ceret. The classical Latin name of Asta Regia, unrelated to the present name, referred to an ancient city now found within Mesas de Asta, a rural district 11 km from the center of Jerez; the current Castilian name came by way of the Arabic name شريش Sherīsh. In former times, during the Muslim period in Iberia, it was called Xerés; the name of the famous fortified wine, which originated here, represents an adaptation of the city's Arabic name, Sherish. Frontera refers to a Spanish frontier, located on the border between the Moorish and Christian regions of Spain during the 13th century, a regular host to skirmishes and clashes between the two regions. Over two centuries after the Castilian conquest of Granada in 1492, Xerez definitively lost its status as a frontier city, but did not lose that designation. After the Kingdom of Castile took Jerez on October 9, 1264, following the name given by the Muslims to the city in the period known as the Reconquista, the city was called Xerez in medieval Castilian, transcribing the consonant /ʃ/ with the letter ⟨x⟩, as was the rule at the time.
Thus the name was pronounced "Shereth", similar to the Moorish Arabic "Sherish". In the 16th century, the consonant /ʃ/ changed into the consonant /x/, with the corresponding spelling of Jerez; the old spelling "Xerez" as the name given to the city survived in several foreign languages until recently, today continues to influence the name given to sherry: Portuguese Xerez, Catalan Xerès, English sherry, French Xérès. The city's main football team continues to use Xerez. Traces of human presence in the area date from the upper Neolithic, humans have inhabited Jerez de la Frontera since at least the Copper or Neolithic Age, but the identity of the first natives remains unclear; the first major protohistoric settlement in the area is attributed to the Tartessians. Jerez became a Roman city under the name of Asta Regia. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Vandals and the Visigoths ruled it until the Arabs conquered the area in 711. In the 11th century it became the seat of an independent taifa.
Some years ` Abdun ibn Muhammad ruled both. In 1053 it was annexed to Seville. From 1145 to 1147 the region of Arcos and Jerez operated as an emirate under dependency of Granada, led by Abu'l-Qasim Ahyal; the Almohads conquered the city. In the 12th and 13th centuries Jerez underwent a period of great development, building its defense system and setting the current street layout of the old town. In 1231 the Battle of Jerez took place within the town's vicinity: Christian troops under the command of Álvaro Pérez de Castro, lord of the House of Castro and grandson of Alfonso VII, king of Castile and León, defeated the troops of the Emir Ibn Hud, despite the numerical superiority of the latter. After a month-long siege in 1261, the city surrendered to Castile, but its Muslim population remained, it rebelled and was defeated in 1264. The discovery of the Americas and the conquest of Granada, in 1492, made Jerez one of the most prosperous cities of Andalusia through trade and through its proximity to the ports of Seville and Cádiz.
Despite the social and political deca
Chipiona is a town and municipality located on the Atlantic coast in the province of Cádiz, Spain. According to the 2012 census, the city has a population of 18,849 inhabitants, but this amount increases during the summer holiday period; the town covers an area of 33 km². Being in the lower valley of the River Guadalquivir it is flat with a maximum terrestrial height of 4 metres, it is bordered on the north-west on the south-east by the port of Rota. It is the town of birth of singer Rocío Jurado. Chipiona is home to the tallest lighthouse in Spain and the third tallest lighthouse in Europe; the town is well known for several varieties of Moscatel. The Chipiona lighthouse is the most emblematic monument of the town, it is the 3rd in Europe and the 5th in the world. Its height from the base dates from 1867 and is located in the Punta del Perro, it was built to prevent the ships having problems accessing the river Guadalquivir and colliding with the Salmedina Stone. The Marina: early 90s took out the construction of the Marina, located near the mouth of the Guadalquivir, in 2008 is subjected to a process of enlargement.
The Shrine of Our Lady of Regla: The current building of the shrine dates from the early twentieth century, built by the Franciscan missionary community, with the help of the Duke of Montpensier. It originated in an ancient castle fortress of a fourteenth century family, who donated it to the hermits of St. Augustine in 1399 to convert it into a church. Castle Chipiona: houses the "Cadiz and the New World" museum. Muscat Museum: Opened in 2012. Located in the Cooperative Agricultural Catholic. According to the geographers Strabo and Pomponius Mela, of Ancient Greece and Rome a lighthouse existed at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River called Turris Caepionis; this was because it was built on the orders of the Roman Consul Quintus Servilius Caepion or his successors. The lighthouse marked a dangerous place for shipping and the opening of a navigable river, the Guadalquivir. Chipiona takes its name from the Roman Consul Caepion; this area has been identified as the site of the legendary Ars Gerionis, the tomb of Geryon, which stood at the end of a narrow cape that jutted into the sea in what is now a reef known as the Stone of Salmedina, near Salmedina, or just Salmedina.
These claims are based on the evidence of the literature and Roman archaeological findings dating from the second century B. C. Legend relates that the disciples of St. Augustine in Africa, fleeing the invasion of the Vandals, came by sea to Chipiona with the image of the Virgin of Regla. Tombstones have been found near the Shrine of Our Lady of Regla from the time of the Visigoths. After the islamization of the Iberian Peninsula in 711, according to tradition, the hermits hid the image in a cistern about thirty paces from the citadel, now a monastery; the picture remained hidden in a religious of the Order of St. Augustine until it was found in the 14th century, according to legend, following a revelation from heaven. A Shrine to Our Lady of Regla was built around the cistern. In 1251 Chipiona was conquered by King Ferdinand III, again more definitively in 1264 by his son Alfonso X the Wise. In 1297 King Ferdinand IV granted Guzman el Bueno, founder of the House of Medina Sidonia, the Lordship of Sanlúcar, to which Chipiona belonged.
In 1303 the eldest daughter of Guzman el Bueno and Maria Alonso Coronel, Isabel Perez de Guzman, Fernan married Ponce de León, receiving as a dowry the towns of Rota and Chipiona, thereby becoming independent both of the Lordship of Sanlúcar and joining the possessions of the Ponce de León family, germ Arcos House. In 1755, Chipiona was hit by the tsunami, caused by the Andalusian and Portuguese Atlantic coast Lisbon earthquake; the effects of the tsunami came to town about an hour after the earthquake, killing four people and leaving flooded streets and beaches, estimating the actual damage to 238 815. He pulled in procession the image of Christ of Mercy to request the withdrawal of the waters, procession, repeated every year on November, from the chapel that bears the name of Christ to the Cross the Sea. Earthquake Narration by the Community of the Holy Convent of Nuestra Señora Santa María de Regla, on December 6, 1755 In the aforementioned November 1 was not noticed any news from sunrise until 10 day time to be serene, peaceful day and calm sea, North Wind insensitive.
But, being as 10am, being this Community as high choir solemnly singing the third hour, she began to feel that the choir, the church with strange swaying motion and this, as noticeable in the view, that lectern, church lamps, candlesticks from the altar, all the temple shook and moved to a crib mode, from one side to another side, looking to the North and South. Advirtióse be a terrible earthquake, although all the relevant cause fright, entered the desplomase suspicion that the whole building, which of stone, over us all, lacked the freedom to forsake the choir, tied up all of one impulse, full of confidence safer Patronage of Our Holy Image, patent to the eye in its majestic throne. At the point we bow all knees, straining our devotion, we continue with the canonical time more consistently, it would last the tremor as ten to twelve minutes, knowing the land restitution made her pause, natural stillness, came the Community to take their seats, each recognizing the Divine Mercy, the patronage of Our Lady of Rule, Our Lady, we escaped the threatening havoc with such happiness, not the least harm experienced in all areas of the convent.
Cantóse conventual Mass without the least su
El Puerto de Santa María
El Puerto de Santa María, locally known as El Puerto, is a municipality located on the banks of the Guadalete River in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia. As of 2016, the city has a population of c. 88,184, of which some 50,000 live in the urban center, the remainder in the surrounding areas. The town of El Puerto de Santa María is 10 kilometres north east of Cádiz across the bay of Cádiz. According to the legend told in the Odyssey of Homer, after the Trojan War a Greek official named Menestheus escaped with his troops through the Straits of Gibraltar and reached the Guadalete River, they called that port Menestheus's port or Menesthei Portus. In its neighbourhood was the oracle of Menestheus, to whom the inhabitants of Gades offered sacrifices. In 711, Arab from the North of Africa conquered southern Spain, they renamed the place Alcante or Alcanatif which means Port of Salt, due to the old salt industry of Phoenicians and Romans. In 1260, Alfonso X of Castile conquered the city from the Moors and renamed it Santa María del Puerto.
He conceded a charter under the Crown of Castile. Having received a royal charter the city was allowed to use the title "El" prior to the name of the city itself; this is a distinguishing property and though Madrid is the capital of Spain it has not earned this distinction. In his Cantigas de Santa Maria CSM 367, Alfonso sings that he was miraculously healed of swollen legs after visiting his church of Santa Maríado Porto. Christopher Columbus's second expedition to the Americas set sail from El Puerto de Santa María, his pilot, Juan de la Cosa drew his world map in El Puerto in 1500. Columbus received encouragement for his travel plans, he met Juan de la Cosa who issued the first world map in 1500. El Puerto was the residence of several wealthy cargadores, merchants who operated Spain's trade with the Americas. During the 16th and 17th centuries, it was the winter port of the royal galleys. In the nineteenth century the city became the General Headquarters for the French Army during the Peninsular War under the reign of Joseph Bonaparte.
The town is steeped in history and monuments. It is within easy reach of the historical cities of Seville and Cádiz. El Puerto de Santa María is located on the Atlantic coast of the Bay of Cádiz, near the municipalities of Jerez de la Frontera, Puerto Real, Cádiz, it is popular for its beaches, which are the town's principal tourist attraction. Well known beaches include Vistahermosa, La Puntilla. Like many other southern cities, there are many. There is a major port, known as Puerto Sherry. A large amount of land has been devoted to the Bay of Cádiz Nature Reserve; the most important economic activity is tourism because of the beaches, as well as the bullfights held at the arena during the summer. The town hosts large groups of motorcyclists during the Jerez Motorcycle Grand Prix. There is commercial development in the center and periphery, a developed wine industry. Listed are a few of the main fiestas in the area: Spring Carnival: Cádiz is the home of Carnival with fancy dress and parades in the streets ending on the Tuesday 47 days before Easter.
Semana Santa: Holy Week the week that leads up to Easter Sunday is a wonderful time to enjoy the area with its street parades and long lines of penitents and big crowds. In El Puerto de Santa María, there are daily parades from Palm Sunday to Easter Sunday. Campeonato de España: A weekend fiesta of music and dance in April World Championships of Motorcycling. Feria del Vino Fino: El Puerto de Santa María's local week of fiesta, dancing sherry drinking and sevillana dancing this is in the middle of May; this is the principal festival is the Feria de Primavera, held between the fifth and sixth week after Holy Week. In recent years, it has coincided with May 1. Romería del Rocio: Festive pilgrimage of up to one million people to the village of Rocio in Almonte, Huelva around the third week of May. Hogueras de San Juan: Midsummer bonfires and fireworks on the beaches in most areas of Cádiz on 23 June. Dia de la Virgen del Carmen: One of the most popular Saint of El Puerto de Santa María and all fishermen is the Virgen Del Carmen, on the 16th of July, her image is taken from the local Church, carried into the sea on board a fishing boat, paraded around the town.
A general day of festivities. Virgen de los Milagros: The saint of the city is La Virgen de los Milagros; the festivity is on September the 8th. Her image is taken from the principal church and carried to the street, paraded around the town over a carpet of flowers, it is a local day of festivities. Bullring of El Puerto, which dates back to 1880 with space for 15,000 spectators. Iglesia Mayor Prioral, known from 1486 Castle of San Marcos, a fortified church built over the remains of a 10th-century Islamic mosque, it was built by order of Alfonso X of Castile from 1364 using parts of an ancient Roman edifice nearby. Monastery of the Victory, built by the Dukes of Medinaceli Hermitage of Santa Clara Convent of the Holy Spirit Church of San Francisco Church of San Joaquín Convent of Santo Domingo Hospital of San Juan de Dios Convent of Esclavas del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Convent of La Concepción Chapel of Aurora Monastery of San Miguel Ho
Chiclana de la Frontera
Chiclana de la Frontera is a town and municipality in southwestern Spain, in the province of Cádiz, Andalucía, near the Gulf of Cádiz. It belongs to the association of municipalities of the Bay of Cádiz, the provincial capital of Cádiz, Jerez de la Frontera, San Fernando, El Puerto de Santa María, Puerto Real and Rota which form the third largest metropolitan area in Andalusia, behind Seville and Málaga, the twelfth largest in Spain, it is located 20 kilometres south-east from Cádiz, borders the municipalities of San Fernando and Puerto Real to the north. In 1877, the municipality's population was 11,677, it has a surface area is 203 square kilometres and a population density of 401 inhabitants / km2. The average elevation is 11 metres above sea level; the economy depends upon modern industry salt processing and tourism, the municipality is known for its beaches such as the 6 kilometres long Playa de la Barrosa and golf courses in the resort of Novo Sancti Petri. The municipality contains the largest number of hotel beds in the Province of Cádiz and the Costa de la Luz.
The town's newspaper, Chiclana Información, is distributed on Saturday mornings. Human presence in the area dates back to Paleolithic times. Several Neolithic era villages have been unearthed in the area including that of La Mesa. During the 1st century, the Phoenicians settled near the town in the small island, Islote de Sancti Petri, founding a temple dedicated to their God, Melqart; when the Romans arrived they dedicated the temple to Hercules. A marble statue of a Roman emperor deified during the 2nd century was found in the waters of Sancti Petri in 1905. An ancient stronghold of the Phoenicians, remains from the Phoenicians and Romans unearthed in Chiclana are in the Museum of Cádiz; the Christians led by Alonso Pérez de Guzmán entered the town in 1303 after the moor, who have settled in Southern Spain since the 8th Century, had deserted it. Guzman claimed these territories for the crown of Castille, his possessions in Southern Spain led to the foundation of the dukedom of Medina-Sidonia.
The Battle of Barrosa, a French defeat by the Anglo-Spanish army, took place 5 miles south of Chiclana on 5 March 1811. During the Spanish War of Independence came the Battle of Chiclana, which took place in the town between the French and an Anglo-Spanish alliance. In 1900, tenders were invited by the municipal authorities, Le Secretariat del Ayuntamienti de Chiclana de la Frontera, for an electric lighting concession of the town. In the early 20th century, seasonal Algarvian migration brought workers to Chiclana's cereal fields. Sancti Petri was visited in 1930 by Manuel de Falla. Chiclana de la Frontera is located on the Costa de la Luz of the southern coast of Spain, in lower Andalusia on the southwest coast of the province of Cádiz; the municipality borders Puerto Real to the north, San Fernando to the north-northwest and Conil de la Frontera to the south-southeast. The town itself is located about 20 kilometres from the city of Cádiz which lies to the northwest and is about 95 kilometres west of Algeciras by the A-390 road through the mainland and passing through Medina-Sidonia, which lies about 24 kilometres east of the town of Chiclana.
Villages in the municipality include La Coquina, Los Gallos Cerromolinos, Pinar de los Guisos, Llano de las Maravillas, Las Veguetas, La Barrosa, Novo Sancti Petri, Campano, El Olivar, Torre del Puerco, El Colorado, Barrio Nuevo and Pago del Humo and Las Veguetas, although it is difficult to distinguish the exact boundaries of many of the settlements as many of the villages are joined. The Chiclana channel opens 5 miles from the bar of the Sancti Petri, it continues southeastward to the town, 2 miles east of the river at the base of mount Santa Anna. The coastline is characterized by extensive beaches including the Sancti Petri, the 6 kilometres long La Barrosa and El Puerco, it has an average elevation of 11 metres, its highest point being Cerro del Aguila at 52.3 metres above sea level. Another high point and landmark is Cerro de Santa Ana, located at 49.8 metres. There are numerous hills to the northeast of the municipality; the municipality and town of Chiclana is crossed by the River Iro which rises in Lago Salado and empties into the small Bay of Sancti Petri.
The relief of the land in the municipality is smooth, with slight undulations. Chiclana's climate, as in the Bay of Cádiz, is typical of the southern Atlantic coast of Spain; the town is humid with an average temperature around 19 °C, approaching the maximum 30 °C in August, with minimum temperatures are around at 2 °C. The town has 3,000 hours of sunshine a year; the average rainfall is about 600 mm, with December the wettest month and the summer months the driest, but at times the municipality can receive heavy rainfall and adverse weather conditions, making the town vulnerable to flooding. The mean wind ranges between 10 to 15 km/h; the strongest winds rises in the east or southwest during the summer and late autumn and spring. The municipality has a number of pine, olive and chaparral trees growing within it and it contains the Parque Forestal Municipal "Pinar del Hierro y de la Espartosa". Fontanar was an amphora-producing center in Chiclana de la Frontera which manufactured fish sauce transportation containers dating to the reign of Augustus.
In the 19th century, Chiclana manufactured
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Geography of Spain
Spain is a country located in southwestern Europe occupying most of the Iberian Peninsula and includes a small exclave inside France called Llívia as well as the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean 108 km off northwest Africa, five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of North Africa: Ceuta, Islas Chafarinas, Peñón de Alhucemas, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera. The Spanish mainland is bordered to the south and east entirely by the Mediterranean Sea. With an area of 504,030 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the fourth largest country in the European continent, it has an average altitude of 650 m. Its total area is 504,782 km2 of which 499,542 km2 is land and 5,240 km2 is water. Spain lies between latitudes 36° and 44° N, longitudes 19° W and 5° E, its Atlantic coast is 710 km long. The Pyrenees mountain range, extends 435 km from the Mediterranean to the Bay of Biscay. In the extreme south of Spain lie the Straits of Gibraltar, which separate the Iberian peninsula and the rest of Europe from Ceuta and Morocco in North Africa.
Spain shares land boundaries with France and Andorra along the Pyrenees in the northeast, with Portugal on the west, with the small British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar near the southernmost tip. The affiliation of Gibraltar has continued to be a contentious issue between Britain; the sovereignty of the plazas de soberanía on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco is disputed by Morocco. Spain has a small exclave inside France called Llívia; the majority of Spain's peninsular region consists of the Meseta Central, a highland plateau rimmed and dissected by mountain ranges. Other landforms include narrow coastal plains and some lowland river valleys, the most prominent of, the Andalusian Plain in the southwest; the country can be divided into ten natural regions or subregions: the dominant Meseta Central, the Cantabrian Mountains and the northwest region, the Ibérico region, the Pyrenees, the Penibético region in the southeast, the Andalusian Plain, the Ebro Basin, the coastal plains, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands.
These are grouped into four types: the Meseta Central and associated mountains, other mountainous regions, lowland regions, islands. The Meseta Central is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain, which has elevations that range from 610 to 760 m. Rimmed by mountains, the Meseta Central slopes to the west and to the series of rivers that form some of the border with Portugal; the Sistema Central, described as the "dorsal spine" of the Meseta Central, divides the Meseta into northern and southern subregions, the former higher in elevation and smaller in area than the latter. The Sistema Central rims the capital city of Madrid with peaks that rise to over 2,400 m within the Madrid region. South-west of Madrid, the Sistema Central shows Pico Almanzor, of 2,592 m; the mountains of the Sistema Central, which continue westward into Portugal, display some glacial features. Despite their height, the mountain system does not create a major barrier between the northern and the southern portions of the Meseta Central because several passes permit road and railroad transportation to the northwest and the northeast.
The southern portion of the Meseta is further divided by twin mountain ranges, the Montes de Toledo running to the east with the Sierra de Guadalupe, to the west. Their peaks do not rise much higher than 1,500 m. With many easy passes, including those that connect the Meseta with the Andalusian Plain, the Montes de Toledo do not present an obstacle to transportation and communication; this chain of lower mountain ranges is separated from the Sistema Central to the north by the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula: the Tagus River. The mountain regions that rim the Meseta Central and are associated with it are the Sierra Morena, the Cordillera Cantábrica, the Sistema Ibérico. Forming the southern edge of the Meseta Central, the Sierra Morena merges in the east with the southern extension of the Sistema Iberico and reaches westward along the northern edge of the Rio Guadalquivir valley to join the mountains in southern Portugal; the massif of the Sierra Morena extends northward to the Río Guadiana, which separates it from the Sistema Central.
Despite their low elevations surpassing 1,300 m, the mountains of the Sierra Morena are rugged at their southern edge. The Cordillera Cantábrica, a limestone formation, runs parallel to, close to, the northern coast near the Bay of Biscay, its highest points are the Picos de Europa, surpassing 2,600 m. The Cordillera Cantábrica abruptly drops 1,500 m some 30 km from the coast. To the west lie the hills of the northwest region and to the east the Basque mountains that link them to the Pyrenees; the Sistema Ibérico extends from the Cordillera Cantábrica southeastward and, close to the Mediterranean, spreads out from the Río Ebro to the Río Júcar. The barren, rugged slopes of this mountain range cover an area of close to 21,000 square kilometers; the mountains exce
Cádiz is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia. Cádiz, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Western Europe, with archaeological remains dating to 3100 years, was founded by the Phoenicians, it has been a principal home port of the Spanish Navy since the accession of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century. The city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network, it is the site of the University of Cádiz. Situated on a narrow slice of land surrounded by the sea‚ Cádiz is, in most respects, a Andalusian city with a wealth of attractive vistas and well-preserved historical landmarks; the older part of Cádiz within the remnants of the city walls is referred to as the Old Town. It is characterized by the antiquity of its various quarters, among them El Pópulo, La Viña, Santa María, which present a marked contrast to the newer areas of town. While the Old City's street plan consists of narrow winding alleys connecting large plazas, newer areas of Cádiz have wide avenues and more modern buildings.
In addition, the city is dotted with numerous parks where exotic plants flourish, including giant trees brought to Spain by Columbus from the New World. Little remains of the Phoenician language, but numismatic inscriptions record that they knew the site as a Gadir or Agadir, meaning "The Wall", "The Compound", or "The Stronghold". Borrowed by the Berber languages, this became the agadir common in North African place names; the Carthaginians continued to use this name and all subsequent names have derived from it. The Greek cothon refers to a Carthaginian type of fortified basin that can be seen at ancient sites such as Motya. Attic Greek sources hellenized Gadir as tà Gádeira, neuter plural. Herodotus, using Ionic Greek, transcribed it a little differently, as Gḗdeira; as in Stephanus of Byzantium's notes on the writings of Eratosthenes, the name is given in the feminine singular form as hè Gadeíra. In Latin, the city was known as its Roman colony as Augusta Urbs Iulia Gaditana. In Arabic, the Latin name became Qādis.
The Spanish demonym for people and things from Cádiz is gaditano. In English, the name is pronounced variously; when the accent is on the second syllable, it is pronounced but, when the accent is on the first syllable, it may be pronounced as, as, or as. In Spanish, the accent is always on the first syllable but, while the usual pronunciation in Spain is, the local dialect says, or instead. More some English speakers may attempt to pronounce it as the Spanish to the British version of "Ibiza", leading to pronunciations of Cádiz with /s/ or /θ/ instead of /z/, but keeping the English vowels and the strong /d/. According to a 2016 census estimate, the population of the city of Cádiz was 118,919, that of its metropolitan area was 629,054. Cádiz is the seventeenth-largest Spanish city. In recent years, the city's population has declined. Between 1995 and 2006, it lost more than 14,000 residents, a decrease of 9%. Among the causes of this loss of population is the peculiar geography of Cádiz. There is a pronounced shortage of land to be developed.
The city has little vacant land, a high proportion of its housing stock is low in density. The older quarters of Cádiz are full of buildings that, because of their age and historical significance, are not eligible for urban renewal. Two other physical factors tend to limit the city's population, it is impossible to increase the amount of land available for building by reclaiming land from the sea. Because Cádiz is built on a sandspit, it is a costly proposition to sink foundations deep enough to support the high-rise buildings that would allow for a higher population density; as it stands, the city's skyline is not different from in the Middle Ages. A 17th-century watchtower, the Tavira Tower, still commands a panoramic view of the city and the bay despite its modest 45 meters height. Cádiz is the provincial capital with the highest rate of unemployment in Spain. This, tends to depress the population level. Young Gaditanos, those between 18 and 30 years of age, have been migrating to other places in Spain, as well as to other places in Europe and the Americas.
The population younger than twenty years old is only 20.58% of the total, the population older than sixty-five is 21.67%, making Cádiz one of the most aged cities in all of Spain. The population distribution of the municipality is uneven. In its inhabited areas, Cádiz is one of the most densely populated cities in Europe; the uninhabited Zona Franca industrial area, Bay of Cádiz Port Area, Bay of Cádiz Natural Park occupy 63