Leioa is a municipality in Biscay, Basque Country, in northern Spain. It is located south of Getxo and Berango delimitating south with Erandio. Today it is part of the Bilbao conurbation, its population stands at 30,400. Leioa has an area of 8.36 square kilometres. The Udondo river constitutes the eastern limit of the municipality. Leioa has its origins in 1526, before which it was part of the "anteiglesia de Erandio", it was a village with no more than 8000 people until the 1960s, when development came its way, as Bilbao expanded. Its population experienced a rapid increase in the 1970s, a more moderate growth afterwards, it has become a part of metropolitan Bilbao. Peruri, Sarriena and Lertutxe. Tellería, Artatzagane and Aldekoane. Artaza, Ikea Mendi, Udondo and Santimami. Pinueta, Txopoeta, Txorierri and Ibaiondo; the municipality of Leioa still retains much of its agricultural past and out of the urban centre many traditional Basque houses can still be seen on little family farms, though rapid development puts their long-term future in question.
The University of the Basque Country has most faculties within this municipality. May 29: “Lamiako maskarada” festivity in Lamiako. June 24: “San Joan Bataiatzailea” festivity in Elexalde. August 24: “San Bartolomé” festivity in Basaez. September 8: “Ntra. Sra. De los Remedios” festivity in Ondiz. May 15: “San Isidro” festivity. August 17: Santi Mami jaiak. September 10: Udondoko jaiak. September 29: San Miguel Txopoetako jaiak. Two consecutive stations of Line 1 of the Metro Bilbao rapid transit system are located in Leioa: Leioa and Lamiako. LEIOA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia http://www.leioa.eu/ Tourism.euskadi.eus Leioa
Basque Country (autonomous community)
The Basque Country the Basque Autonomous Community is an autonomous community in northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava and Gipuzkoa; the Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The autonomous community is based on the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, a foundational legal document providing the framework for the development of the Basque people on Spanish soil. Navarre, which had narrowly rejected a joint statue of autonomy with Gipuzkoa, Álava and Biscay in 1932, was granted a separate statute in 1982. There is no official capital in the autonomous community, but the city of Vitoria-Gasteiz, in the province of Álava, is the de facto capital as the location of the Basque Parliament, the headquarters of the Basque Government, the residence of the President of the Basque Autonomous Community; the High Court of Justice of the Basque Country has its headquarters in the city of Bilbao.
Whilst Vitoria-Gasteiz is the largest municipality in area, with 277 km2, Bilbao is the largest in population, with 353,187 people, located in the province of Biscay within a conurbation of 875,552 people. The term Basque Country may refer to the larger cultural region, the home of the Basque people, which includes the autonomous community; the following provinces make up the autonomous community: Álava, capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Biscay, capital Bilbao-Bilbo Gipuzkoa, capital Donostia-San Sebastián The Basque Country borders Cantabria and the Burgos province to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the north and Navarre to the east and La Rioja to the south. The territory has three distinct areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains; the main range of mountains forms the watershed between the Mediterranean basins. The highest point of the range is in the Aizkorri massif; the three areas are: Formed by many valleys with short rivers that flow from the mountains to the Bay of Biscay, like the Nervión, Urola or Oria.
The coast is rough, with small inlets. The main features of the coast are the Bilbao Abra Bay and the Estuary of Bilbao, the Urdaibai estuary and the Bidasoa-Txingudi Bay that forms the border with France. Between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa, where the capital Vitoria-Gasteiz is located; the rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River. The main rivers are the Zadorra Bayas River. From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa, which shares the Mediterranean characteristics of other Ebro Valley zones; some of Spain's production of Rioja wine takes place here. The Basque Mountains form the watershed and mark the distinct climatic areas of the Basque Country: The northern valleys, in Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the valley of Ayala in Álava, are part of Green Spain, where the oceanic climate is predominant, with its wet weather all year round and moderate temperatures. Precipitation average is about 1200 mm; the middle section is influenced more by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate.
This gives cold, snowy winters. The Ebro valley has a pure continental climate: winters are cold and dry and summers warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is irregular, as low as 300 mm. Half of the 2,155,546 inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao, Bilbao's metropolitan area. Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbao's conurbation, known as Greater Bilbao. With 28.2% of the Basque population born outside this region, immigration is crucial to Basque demographics. Over the 20th century most of this immigration came from other parts of Spain from Galicia or Castile and León. Over recent years, sizeable numbers of this population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad, chiefly from South America. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the Basque Country. In 2012, the proportion of Basques that identified themselves as Roman Catholic was 58.6%, while it is one of the most secularised communities of Spain: 24.6% were non-religious and 12.3% of Basques were atheist.
Bilbao-Bilbo Vitoria-Gasteiz San Sebastián-Donostia Barakaldo Getxo Irun Portugalete Santurtzi Basauri Errenteria Spanish and Basque are co-official in all territories of the autonomous community. The Basque-speaking areas in the modern-day autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre and the French Basque Country; the whole Basque speaking territory has experienced both expansion in its history. The Basque language experienced a gradual territorial contraction throughout the last nine centuries, severe deterioration of its sociolinguistic status for much of the 20th century due to heavy immigration from other parts of Spain, the virtual nonexistence of Basque language schooling, national policies implemented by the different Spanish régimes. After the advent of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Countr
Sestao is a town and municipality of 28,288 inhabitants located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is in the left bank of part of Bilbao's metropolitan area. Sestao was the place of the most important steel industry of Altos Hornos de Vizcaya. Sestao is administratively divided into 13 neighbourhoods or wards: Kasko Kueto Galindo Albiz Urbinaga Rebonza Azeta Simondrogas Txabarri Markonzaga Aizpuru Los Baños Las Llanas Sestao, an industrial area in disuse placed in the province of the Basque Country, is located in the estuary of Bilbao, it appeared due to diverse economic and political forces, but it was the economic strength of the iron industry the most important one. Over the last 20 years the city of Bilbao has transformed its riverbanks, pursuing its urban and economic improvement; the recovery of these old industrial spaces and the relocation of port activities to the outer bay will allow the city to face its river front and start a general process of urban transformation.
The spaces occupied by the shipyards, containers or blast furnaces, will become promenades, art galleries, new neighborhoods and areas of business of high environmental quality. The industrial crisis of the 80 affected Bilbao; the closure and modernization of major industries was a major impact on the whole environment of the river and, at the same time, an opportunity to recover valuable land for urban development of the city. The transformation of the city is creating an economic structure focused on services and new industries; the river banks are now serving an urban strategy for economic improvement. The estuary is therefore the backbone of the area, but it is a strong barrier that separates both margins of the river: one with a much more industrial character and another one much more residential. Sestao is the area that links all this area that will propose a real integral operation of all this area. Although the area seems isolated, thanks to the station Urbinaga, is integrated in the network of Metro Bilbao, connecting Bilbao with the Right Bank and Left, offering an essential service to the future citizens of "La Punta".
La Punta is an abandoned edge of the town. Sestao has the highest unemployment rate in the Basque Country, due to the closure of large companies because of their restructuring. Comparing the residential areas of Sestao and Barakaldo with "La Punta", it seems necessary to densify this area and thus strengthen the bond between Barakaldo and Sestao, the relationship with the right bank of the river; the growth of the town of Sestao is limited by the lack of developable land and limited by natural and artificial barriers. For this reason, it has reached a densified town with a network of small open spaces; the grew of the population was a consequence of the development of the industry, not the industry a consequence of the human presence in the area. This defines the DNA of Sestao, it is a settlement, born by the implantation of the heavy industry. Consumption and land distribution is based on the industry and these industrial areas are located in the best situations the city; the margin facing the estuary is colonized for industry, the least quality areas is intended to construction of workers' housing.
It is proposed that over time the vegetation in the low-lying industrial areas of the Galindo River estuary is restored to a healthy state by cultivating the growth of plants that are resistant to local soil contamination, that improve soil and water quality through bio-remediation. Rather than a tabula rasa to be integrated into the city with a false topography, the industrial areas of Bilbao are in a new natural equilibrium condition. Working with these new natural conditions offers the possibility of an urbanism that combines urban and natural and responds to the fluctuations of the natural ecosystem of the river. Since the appearance of the industry in 1875, the whole estuary became involved in the configuration of an industrial point of reference in the Spanish national scene of heavy industries. Meanwhile, the municipality of Sestao created the largest industrial base of the country. Http://visibleearth.nasa.gov The city will develop a system of small public spaces that provide residents moments of pause, rest and connections between the different urban levels.
Connection of both margins of the river. Program associated with the existing water activity. Recovery of the convent as a viewpoint; the view shows the contrast between the industrial landscape lined by shipyard cranes and the historic mansions of the Basque bourgeoisie. Integration of the tram connected to the right bank of the river. Rehabilitation of ships in better condition to include public program to allow the language of industrial structures: from jetties, cranes and temporary stairs to pylons. Housing and facilities of social nature. Soriano, Federico, FISURAS 14 VV. AA. Diccionario Metapolis de Arquitectura Avanzada, ACTAR, 2002 Rehabilitación de la Ría de Bilbao. PFC, VVAA. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. 2014 VV. AA. PGOU Plan General de Organización Urbana de Sestao, 2010 VVAA, Slow Urbanism, Sestao. Europan 11, 2011 https://www.google.com/maps?q=SESTAO+BILBAO&gws_rd=ssl&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi80qv7wPXPAhVLFT4KHdGcAfYQ_AUICCgB
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
San Sebastián or Donostia is a coastal city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain. It lies on the coast of the Bay of 20 km from the French border; the capital city of Gipuzkoa, the municipality's population is 186,095 as of 2015, with its metropolitan area reaching 436,500 in 2010. Locals call themselves donostiarra, both in Basque; the main economic activities are commerce and tourism, it is one of the most famous tourist destinations in Spain. Despite the city’s small size, events such as the San Sebastián International Film Festival have given it an international dimension. San Sebastián, along with Wrocław, was the European Capital of Culture in 2016. In spite of appearances, both the Basque form Donostia and the Spanish form San Sebastián have the same meaning of Saint Sebastian; the dona/done/doni element in Basque place-names is derived from Latin domine. There are two hypotheses regarding the evolution of the Basque name: one says it was *Done Sebastiáne > Donasaastiai > Donasastia > Donastia > Donostia, the other one says it was *Done Sebastiane > *Done Sebastiae > *Done Sebastie > *Donesebastia > *Donasastia > *Donastia > Donostia.
The city is located in the north of the Basque Autonomous Community, on the southern coast of the Bay of Biscay. San Sebastián's three picturesque beaches, Concha and Zurriola, make it a popular resort; the town is surrounded by accessible hilly areas: Urgull, Mount Ulia, Mount Adarra and Igeldo. The city sits at the mouth of the River Urumea, Donostia was built to a large extent on the river's wetlands over the last two centuries. In fact, the city centre and the districts of Amara Berri and Riberas de Loiola lie on the former bed of the river, diverted to its current canalized course in the first half of the 20th century. San Sebastián features an oceanic climate with cool winters. Like many cities with this climate, San Sebastián experiences cloudy or overcast conditions for the majority of the year with some precipitation; the city averages 1,650 mm of precipitation annually, evenly spread throughout the year. However, the city is somewhat drier and noticeably sunnier in the summer months, experiencing on average 100 mm of precipitation during those months.
Average temperatures range from 8.9 °C in January to 21.5 °C in August. The first evidence of human stationary presence in the current city is the settlement of Ametzagaña, between South Intxaurrondo and Astigarraga; the unearthed remains, such as carved stone used as knives to cut animal skin, date from 24,000 to 22,000 BC. The open-air findings of the Upper Paleolithic have revealed that the settlers were hunters and Homo sapiens, besides pointing to a much colder climate at the time. San Sebastián is thought to have been in the territory of the Varduli in Roman times. 10 km east of the current city lay the Basque Roman town of Oiasso, for a long time wrongly identified with San Sebastián. After a long period of silence in evidence, in 1014 the monastery of St. Sebastián with its apple orchards, located in the term of Hernani, is donated to the Abbey of Leire by Sancho III of Pamplona. By 1181, the city is chartered by king Sancho VI of Pamplona on the site of Izurum, having jurisdiction over all the territory between the rivers Oria and Bidasoa.
In 1200, the city was conquered by Castile, whose king Alfonso VIII, confirmed its charter, but the Kingdom of Navarre was deprived of its main direct access out to the sea. As soon as 1204, the city nucleus at the foot of Urgull started to be populated with Gascon-speaking colonizers from Bayonne and beyond, who left an important imprint in the city's identity in the centuries to come. In 1265, the use of the city as a seaport is granted to Navarre as part of a wedding pact; the large quantity of Gascons inhabiting the town favoured the development of trade with other European ports and Gascony. The city steered clear of the destructive War of the Bands in Gipuzkoa, the only town in doing so in that territory. In fact, the town only joined Gipuzkoa in 1459. Up to the 16th century, Donostia remained out of wars, but by the beginning of the 15th century, a line of walls of simple construction is attested encircling the town; the last chapter of the town in the Middle Ages was brought about by a fire that devastated Donostia in 1489.
After burning to the ground, the town began a new renaissance by building up with stone instead of bare timber. The advent of the Modern Age brought a period of war for the city. New state boundaries were drawn; the town provided critical naval help to Emperor Charles V during the siege of Hondarribia, which earned the town the titles "Muy Noble y Muy Leal", recorded on its coat of arms. The town aided the monarch by sending a party to the Battle of Noain and providing help to quash the Revolt of the Comuneros in 1521. After these events, who had played a leading role in the political and economic life of the town since its foundation, began to be excluded from influential public positions by means of a string of regional sentences uphe
Laudio/Llodio is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. Laudio is Llodio in Spanish. Llodio is an important industrial center located at 50 km NW from the provincial capital of Vitoria and at 20 km SE from Bilbao, it is the second municipality of Álava, in population. The municipality has an area of 37,56 km² and a population of 18,633, its geographical coordinates are: Latitude: 43º09’4’’ N Longitude: 2º57’22’’ W Altitude: Minimum: 130 m, Maximum: 782 m. Since the 2011 Municipal elections the Mayor of Llodio is Mr. Natxo Urkixo Orueta; the Coalition Bildu has 6 municipal councillors on Llodio Town Council, the Basque Nationalist Party PNV/EAJ has 6, the Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left has 2 as does the People's Party. The local group Omnia takes the final seat; the results of the 2004 Spanish General Election in Llodio were as follows: PNV - Partido Nacionalista Vasco: 37.9% PSE-EE Partido Socialista de Euskadi: 27.8% PP - Partido Popular: 18.6% EB-IU - Izquierda Unida: 6.9% EA - Eusko Alkartasuna: 4.8% ARALAR-ZUTI - Aralar-Zutik: 2.0% The town has a local athletics club, Club de Atletismo de Laudio, which has its own track and field stadium.
The club has hosted the Cross Internacional Valle de Llodio, an annual international cross country running event, since 1985. City Council Website LLODIO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Aerial view of Llodio
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE