Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico
Trujillo Alto is a municipality of Puerto Rico located in the Northern Coastal Plain and in the karst zone, north of Caguas, Gurabo. Trujillo Alto is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Area, which includes the municipalities of Bayamón, Cataño, Toa Baja; the city is spread over Trujillo Alto Pueblo. It is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area. Trujillo Alto was founded in 1801, but gained more importance during the 20th century. Due to its proximity to the capital, San Juan, the city has become a suburb of the metropolitan area, which has sparked its growth during recent years; the population of Trujillo Alto has increased through the last century from 9,576 to 74,482. According to the 2010 Census, it is Puerto Rico's tenth-most populated municipality. In 1953-54, the Carraízo hydroelectric dam was constructed in Trujillo Alto by the Sumner Sollitt Construction Company of Chicago, under contract by the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority; the dam forms the Loíza Lake, a reservoir which serves as the main source of the water supply for San Juan, Puerto Rico.
The region of what is now Trujillo Alto belonged to the Taíno region of Cayniabón, which stretched from the northeast coast of Puerto Rico into the central region of the island. The region was led by cacique Canobaná. Archeological findings have identified two sites within the municipality of Trujillo Alto with archeological significance: Las Cuevas, studied by Irving Rouse, Quebrada Grande. After the Spanish colonization, families started settling at both sides of the Río Grande de Loíza. During the 17th Century, the Spanish crown granted Alonso Pizarro Hermona, from Trujillo in Spain, a vast ranch that covered the region. Residents began using his family name to refer to the location; the inhabitants went to the Governor and asked for permit to build a chapel, a requisite to found a town. Despite some opposition, Trujillo Alto was founded on January 8, 1801 under the name of Santa Cruz de Trujillo. Around 1820, the name "Trujillo Alto" was more used to differentiate the town from that of Trujillo Bajo.
In 1826, communication to and from the town improved with the construction of two bridges: one into Río Piedras, the other into Río Grande. In 1844, Trujillo Alto was composed of only five wards. A few years the first school was built. During that time, population decreased notably due to an epidemic of cholera. In 1902, the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico approved a law for the consolidation of certain municipalities; as a result, Trujillo Alto was incorporated into the town of Carolina. However, in 1905 a new law revoked the previous one, turning Trujillo Alto into an independent municipality again; the proximity of the city to the capital, San Juan, has sparked significant growth and development in the region. During the 20th century, the population of Trujillo Alto increased dramatically; as of 2010, the city is the tenth-most populous city of Puerto Rico. Mayor José Luis Cruz Cruz, serving since 2009, has labeled the city as "The New Metropolis". Trujillo Alto sits on the Northern Coastal Plain region of Puerto Rico.
It is bordered by the municipalities of San Juan, Carolina and Caguas. Trujillo Alto is a small municipality. Trujillo Alto's terrain is plain in the north, while the south features small hills. Heights can range from 660-1,600 feet above sea level. Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017 triggered numerous landslides in Trujillo Alto with the significant amount of rain that fell. Trujillo Alto's hydrographic system consists of the Río Grande de Loíza, which crosses the municipality. There are several creeks in the city: Colorada, Limones, Grande, Haya Fría, Maracuto. Trujillo Alto is the site of Puerto Rico's main water reservoir: The Carraízo Dam, at the Loíza Lake. Both were built in 1953 by the Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewers Authority. Although it was built to generate hydroelectricity, it is now used as a public water-supply source; the Loíza Lake is used for sports and recreational fishing. Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, Trujillo Alto is subdivided into barrios. Carraízo Cuevas Dos Bocas La Gloria Quebrada Grande Quebrada Negrito St.
Just Trujillo Alto barrio-puebloTrujillo Alto's townscape is simple. Most of the barrios are spread through the rural section of the city, while the downtown area is small, consisting only of eight primary streets; this gave the city the nickname of the "City of the Eight Streets". There are no high-rise buildings and structures. There are several places of interest for tourists to visit in Trujillo Alto; the Bicentenary Walkway, located in the entrance to the city at the PR-181, features the remodeled historic steel bridge as well as a gazebo. It was built in 2001 to commemorate the 200 years of the foundation of Trujillo Alto. On the PR-181, is the Luis Muñoz Marín Foundation, established in 1980, it includes a museum, a historic archive, a park. The Carraízo Dam and the Loíza Lake are frequently visited. Other places of interest are the Convent Carmelitas de San José, the Lourdes Gruta, the Mountain Spring; the economy of Trujillo Alto has relied on agriculture sugarcane, coffee and minor fruits.
Cattle ranching is a source of economy in Trujillo Alto. In recent years and industry have become integral parts of the economy of the city. Trujillo Alto is the
Paulínia is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. It is part of the São Paulo Macrometropolis; the population is 100,128 in an area of 138.78 km². The elevation is 590 m, it is known for hosting the largest refinery of Petrobras. The municipality was created in 1964 from a part of the municipality of Campinas. Paulínia Futebol Clube is the municipality's football club, they play their home games at Estádio Municipal Luís Perissinoto. São José Betel The municipality contains part of the Mata de Santa Genebra, an area of relevant ecological interest. Boehringer Ingelheim inaugurated a new production site for veterinary vaccines in 2017. Theatro Municipal de Paulínia Atibaia River Jaguari River Escola Técnica de Paulínia Paulínia Shopping
Orange, New Jersey
The City of Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 30,134, reflecting a decline of 2,734 from the 32,868 counted in 2000, which had in turn increased by 2,943 from the 29,925 counted in the 1990 Census. Orange was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on November 27, 1806, from portions of Newark Township. Portions of the township were taken on April 1834, to form the now-defunct Clinton Township. On January 31, 1860, Orange was reincorporated as a town. Portions of the town were taken to form South Orange Township, East Orange Township and West Orange Township. On April 3, 1872, Orange was reincorporated as a city. In 1982, the city was one of four Essex County municipalities to pass a referendum to become a township, joining 11 municipalities that had made the change, of what would be more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships in order take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis.
The city derives its name from William III of William IV, Prince of Orange. Orange is joined with neighboring East Orange, South Orange and West Orange and referred to as part of "the Oranges". Orange had its origins in Connecticut's New Haven Colony. In 1666, a group of 30 of New Haven's families traveled by water to found "a town on the Passayak" River, they arrived on territory now encompassing Newark, the Oranges, several other municipalities. The area was situated in the northeast portion of a land grant conveyed by King Charles II of England to his brother James, Duke of York. In 1664, James conveyed the land to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. Since Carteret had been Royal Governor of the Isle of Jersey, the territory became known as "New Jersey." Orange was a part of the city of Newark, but it was known as "Newark Mountains". On June 7, 1780, the townspeople of Newark Mountains voted to adopt the name Orange. At the time, there was a significant number of people in favor of secession from Newark.
However, this would not occur until November 27, 1806, when the territory now encompassing all of the Oranges was detached. On April 13, 1807, the first government was elected, but not until March 13, 1860 was Orange incorporated as a city; the new city began fragmenting into smaller communities because of local disputes about the costs of establishing paid police and street departments. South Orange was organized on January 26, 1861. Orange is located on the Newark and Mount-Pleasant Turnpike, the main road from Newark to Morristown, to Easton, Pennsylvania; the town became a busy thoroughfare for travelers, hotels abounded. The stagecoach was the primary method of transportation. Omnibuses of the Eclipse and the Morris & Newark Lines serviced Orange; the Morris and Essex Railroad arrived in Orange in its first cars drawn by horses. On October 2, 1837, the first steam locomotive appeared, the horses were, with minor exception, relegated to pasture; the "M&E" became a part of the Delaware and Western Railroad, which exists today as NJ Transit's Morristown Line.
Trolley cars appeared much with the Orange and Newark Horse Car Railroad Company running its first car up Main Street in May 1862. The Orange Crosstown Line extending from Morris Street, Orange, to Bloomfield, was started in June 1888. All of the trolleys, the buses that replaced them, became part of the sprawling Public Service Coordinated Transport System. Orange was an industrial city from the outset. Early settlers found a profuse growth of hemlock trees, an ideal supply of tannic acid for the tanning industry, boot and shoemaking factories soon flourished. Orange was once the hatmaking capital of the United States; the industry can be traced there to 1792. By 1892, 21 firms were engaged in that trade, employing over 3,700 people in plants that produced about 4.8 million hats, which had a combined value in excess of $1 million. Several brothers founded the "No-Name Hat Company" in Orange before one of them moved on to make fedoras in Philadelphia under the family name, "Stetson." By 1921, only five hatmaking firms were left, many having departed for places such as Norwalk and Danbury, Connecticut.
By 1960, all had left. Beer was a major revenue producer in Orange beginning in the early 1900s, when the three Winter Brothers of Pittsburgh, arrived in the city and built the first brewery; the Orange Brewery was constructed in 1901 at a reported cost of $350,000. The production of beer ceased with prohibition in 1920, after the repeal of the Volstead Act in 1933, the brewery was sold to John F. Trommers of Philadelphia. Trommers brewed beer under that label until 1950, when the concern was again sold to Liebmann Breweries, which bottled Rheingold Beer. After several additional owners, the plant was closed permanently in 1977. Other notable firms located in Orange were the Monroe Calculating Company, manufacturers of the patented adding machines of the same name, the Bates Manufacturing Company, producers of office accessories such as staplers and stampers; the United States Radium
Fat Pat (rapper)
Patrick Hawkins, better known by his stage name Fat Pat, was an American rapper from Houston, Texas, a member of DEA with his brother John "Big Hawk" Hawkins and DJ Screw, Kay-K, all original members of the Screwed Up Click. Wreckshop Records released his first two albums, Ghetto Dreams and Throwed In Da Game in 1998 after his death. Releases were on the Screwed Up Click label. On February 3, 1998, Hawkins was fatally shot at 10440 South Drive, Texas, after going to a promoter's apartment to collect an appearance fee; the promoter was not home and he was shot in the corridor outside the apartment. Eight years his brother, rapper Big Hawk was shot to death. Following Pat's death in 1998, fellow Screwed Up Click and Wreckshop Records rapper D-Reck decided to make a documentary which combined footage both old and new of Fat Pat and members of both rap cliques; the 50 minute film, Fat Pat - Ghetto Dreams, was released in 1999 and re-released on DVD a year as a double feature with another SUC-made film starring Big Moe entitled Mann!
The Movie. 1998: Ghetto Dreams 1998: Throwed in da Game 2001: Fat Pat's Greatest Hits 2004: Since The Gray Tapes 2005: Since The Gray Tapes Vol. 2 2008: I Had a Ghetto Dream 1998: Screwed for Life 27 Club Houston hip hop List of murdered hip hop musicians
Sandy Springs, Georgia
Sandy Springs is a city in northern Fulton County, United States, part of the Atlanta metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, Sandy Springs had a population of 93,853, its 2017 estimated population was 106,739. Sandy Springs is Georgia's sixth-largest city and is the site of several corporate headquarters such as UPS, Inspire Brands, Cox Communications, Mercedes-Benz USA's corporate offices. In 1842, the Austin-Johnson House was erected on, it is the oldest house in Sandy Springs. In 1851, Wilson Spruill donated 5 acres of land for the founding of the Sandy Springs United Methodist Church, near the natural spring for which the city is named. In 1905, the Hammond School was built at Johnson Ferry Road and Mt. Vernon Highway, across the street from the church. In 1950, the state legislature blocked Atlanta from annexing the community, which remained rural until the Interstate Highway System was authorized by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. In 1959, after a fire at Hammond Elementary School, William Hartsfield, the mayor of Atlanta, urged residents to support annexation so that the area would have better firefighting protection.
Community opposition killed the proposal. In the early 1960s, Georgia 400 and Interstate 285 were constructed, connecting Sandy Springs to metro Atlanta and initiating a housing boom that brought new residents and major land development. In 1966, annexation by Atlanta was defeated with two-thirds voting against. On January 16, 1997, Eric Rudolph bombed an abortion clinic in Sandy Springs. Efforts to incorporate Sandy Springs began in 1966, in response to attempts by the city of Atlanta to annex this unincorporated area of North Fulton County. Sandy Springs residents, led by Eva Galambos, fought for 40 years to obtain their own government. In the 1970s, the city of Atlanta attempted to use a state law to force annexation of Sandy Springs; the attempt failed. In response, the Committee for Sandy Springs was formed in 1975. In every legislative session, state legislators representing the area introduced a bill in the Georgia General Assembly to authorize a referendum on incorporation. Legislators representing Atlanta and southwestern Fulton County, who feared tax revenue that would be lost from incorporation, blocked the bills using the procedural requirement that all local legislation be approved first by a delegation of representatives from the affected area.
In 1989, a push was made for Sandy Springs to join neighboring Chattahoochee Plantation in Cobb County. This move was blocked by Speaker Tom Murphy; when the Republican Party gained a majority in both houses of the General Assembly in 2005, the procedural rules used to prevent a vote by the full chamber were changed so that the bill was handled as a state bill and not as a local bill. The assembly repealed the requirement that new cities must be at least 3 miles from existing cities, because the new city limits border both Roswell and Atlanta; the bill allowing for a referendum on incorporation was introduced and passed as HB 37. The referendum initiative was signed by Governor Sonny Perdue; the referendum was held on June 21, 2005, residents voted 94% in favor of incorporation. Shortly afterwards, voters returned to the polls selecting Eva Galambos as the City’s first mayor. Many residents expressed displeasure with county services, based upon financial information provided by the county, that the county was redistributing revenues to fund services in less financially stable areas of the county, ignoring local opposition to rezoning, allowing excessive development.
Many residents of unincorporated and less-developed south Fulton County opposed incorporation, fearing the loss of tax revenues which fund county services. County residents outside Sandy Springs were not allowed to vote on the matter. Efforts such as requesting the U. S. Justice Department to reject the plan were unsuccessful. A mayor and six city council members were elected in early November 2005, with Eva Galambos, who had initiated and led the charge for incorporation, elected mayor by a wide margin. Formal incorporation occurred on December 1, making Sandy Springs the third-largest city to incorporate in the U. S; the city's police force and fire department began service in 2006. Prior to 2005, residents relied upon a large, traditionally modeled county government for the provision of services, which residents felt did not adequately meet their needs; these challenges formed the basis for desiring a streamlined government physically closer to constituents and responsive to community desires.
Sandy Springs initiated a non-traditional approach by operating as a Public Private Partnership, with nearly half of City staff employed by a private company. In 2010, the City undertook a comprehensive procurement process to rebid all general city services, resulting in multiple providers, providing considerable savings and higher levels of service for the City; the Sandy Springs PPP model is regarded as an example for other local governments, with city leaders from across the country and around the globe, including China, Korea and others visiting Sandy Springs to learn about the PPP model. Since the incorporation of Sandy Springs, several other metro cities have formed – Dunwoody, Peachtree Hills and Johns Creek – each instituting a form of the Public-Private model. In 2010, the city became the first jurisdiction in Georgia to "bail out" from the preclearance requirements of Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act; the boundaries of Sandy Springs are Atlanta to the south, Cobb Count
Murder of the Notorious B.I.G.
The murder of Christopher Wallace, better known by his stage names "the Notorious B. I. G." and "Biggie Smalls", occurred in the early hours of March 9, 1997. The hip hop artist was shot four times in a drive-by shooting in Los Angeles, one of, fatal. Despite numerous witnesses and enormous media attention and speculation, no one was formally charged for the murder of Wallace; the case remains unsolved, as police have searched for years for more details without success. In 2006, Wallace's Voletta Wallace. Retired LAPD Officer Greg Kading alleged that Marion "Suge" Knight, the head of Death Row Records, hired fellow Blood gang member Wardell "Poochie" Fouse to murder Wallace and paid Poochie $13,000, he alleged that Theresa Swan, the mother of Knight's child, was involved in the murder, was paid $25,000 to set up meetings both before and after the shooting took place. In 2003, Poochie himself was murdered in a drive-by by rival gang members. Christopher Wallace traveled to Los Angeles, California in February 1997 to promote his upcoming second studio album, Life After Death, to film a music video for its lead single, "Hypnotize".
On March 5, he gave a radio interview with The Dog House on San Francisco's KYLD, in which he stated that he had hired security because he feared for his safety. Wallace cited not only the ongoing East Coast–West Coast hip hop feud and the murder of Tupac Shakur six months prior, his role as a high-profile celebrity in general, as his reasons for the decision. Life After Death was scheduled for release on March 25, 1997. On March 7, Wallace presented an award to Toni Braxton at the 1997 Soul Train Music Awards in Los Angeles and was booed by some of the audience; the following evening, March 8, he attended an after-party hosted by Vibe magazine and Qwest Records at the Petersen Automotive Museum in West Los Angeles. Other guests included Faith Evans, Sean Combs, members of the Bloods and Crips gangs. On March 9, 1997, at 12:30 a.m. Wallace left with his entourage in two GMC Suburbans to return to his hotel after the Los Angeles Fire Department closed the party early because of overcrowding. Wallace traveled in the front passenger seat alongside his associates Damion "D-Roc" Butler, Junior M.
A. F. I. A. Member Lil' Cease, driver Gregory "G-Money" Young. Combs traveled in the other vehicle with three bodyguards; the two SUVs were trailed by a Chevrolet Blazer carrying Bad Boy Records' director of security. By 12:45 a.m. the streets were crowded with people leaving the event. Wallace's SUV stopped at a red light on the corner of Wilshire Boulevard and South Fairfax Avenue just 50 yards from the museum. A dark-colored Chevrolet Impala SS pulled up alongside Wallace's SUV; the driver of the Impala, a black male, rolled down his window, drew a 9 mm blue-steel pistol and fired at the Suburban. Wallace's entourage rushed him to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, where doctors performed an emergency thoracotomy, but he was pronounced dead at 1:15 a.m.. He was 24 years old, his autopsy was released to the public in December fifteen years after his death. According to the report, three of the four shots were not fatal; the first bullet traveled down to his wrist. The report said that the third bullet struck "the left side of the scrotum, causing a shallow, 3⁄8 inch linear laceration."
The fourth bullet was fatal, entering through his right hip and striking several vital organs, including his colon, liver and the upper lobe of his left lung, before stopping in his left shoulder area. Wallace's death was mourned by fans worldwide. Rapper Nas felt at the time of Wallace's death that his passing, along with that of Tupac Shakur, "was nearly the end of rap." Following the shooting, reports surfaced linking Wallace's murder with that of Shakur six months earlier, due to similarities in the drive-by shootings and the publicized East Coast–West Coast hip hop feud, of which Shakur and Wallace had been central figures. Media reports had speculated that Wallace was in some way connected to Shakur's murder, though no evidence surfaced to implicate him. Shortly after Wallace's death, Los Angeles Times writers Chuck Philips and Matt Lait reported that the key suspect in his murder was a member of the Southside Crips acting in service of a personal financial motive, rather than on the gang's behalf.
The investigation stalled, no one was formally charged. In a 2002 book by Randall Sullivan, called LAbyrinth, information was compiled about the murders of Wallace and Shakur based on information provided by retired LAPD detective Russell Poole. In the book, Sullivan accused Suge Knight, co-founder of Death Row Records and a known Bloods affiliate, of conspiring with corrupt LAPD officer David Mack to kill Wallace and make both deaths appear to be the result of the rap rivalry; the book stated that one of Mack's alleged associates, Amir Muhammad, was the hitman who killed Wallace. The theory was based on evidence provided by an informant and the general resemblance of Muhammad to the facial composite generated during the investigation. In 2002, filmmaker Nick Broomfield released a documentary, Biggie & Tupac, based on information from the book; the New York Times described Broomfield's low-budget documentary as a "largely