Bangladesh the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It shares land borders with Myanmar; the country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country as well as its most densely-populated, to the exclusion of small island nations and city-states. Dhaka is largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population; the politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh. Most of Bangladesh is covered by the largest delta on Earth; the country has 8,046 km of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has a coral reef. The longest unbroken natural sea beach of the world, Cox's Bazar Beach, is located in the southeast, it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers, the national animal; the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical Indian subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia; the Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries. The region was home to many principalities; as the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province, Bangladesh as part of the Bengal Subah was worth 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. It was a notable center of the global muslin and silk trade.
As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements. The Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan; the region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. After independence was achieved, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy; the country continues to face challenges in the areas of poverty, education and corruption. Bangladesh is a developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, its economy ranks 43rd in terms of nominal gross domestic product and 29th in terms of purchasing power parity, it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, India, Japan and Singapore. With its strategically vital location between South and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation.
It is a founding member of SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation and the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Initiative. It is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Commonwealth of Nations, the Developing 8 Countries, the OIC, the Indian-Ocean Rim Association, the Non Aligned Movement, the Group of 77 and the World Trade Organization. Bangladesh is one of the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping forces; the etymology of Bangladesh can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term. The term Bangladesh was written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan; the term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengali language. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD; the term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.
The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342; the word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century; the origins of the term Bangla are unclear, with theories pointing to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe, the Austric word "Bonga", the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom. The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal". Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years, remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years. Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration. Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region.
By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery. The Ganges and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permit
Åland Maritime Museum
The Åland Maritime Museum is a museum in Mariehamn in the Åland Islands, Finland. It is located in the western part of the town on the sea on Hamngatan, about 1 km at the other end of Storagatan. Along with Ålands Museum, it is the most important museum in the islands and a monument to history of Aland as the holder the world’s largest fleet of wooden sailing ships; the foremost exhibit is a four-masted barque named Pommern, built in Glasgow in 1903, anchored behind the museum. The museum designed, it has been called the “kitsch museum of fishing and maritime commerce.” The Åland Maritime Museum is considered one of the world’s finest museums related to merchant sailing ships. The building is laid out on two floors with objects relevant to the past glory of the shipping era; the museum has a library wing which has a large collection of photos. Souvenirs of books and picture post cards are available in the museum shop; the museum created the central core of a ship depicting a mast, saloon and cabins.
The ships figureheads are on display along with the boats. In addition, nautical trappings, a number of ships in bottles and sea chests are on display. Paintings of ships, done by local artists who were specially commissioned by the captain of every ship, are exhibited in the museum. Models of ships of different time periods are displayed on a uniform scale so that the difference between a Baltic schooner and an ocean-going windjammer could be discerned; the museum ship, Pommern, a four masted merchant barque and windjammer which operated on the grain trade route between Australia and England during the interwar years, is now anchored behind the museum as a display. This is considered as the symbol of the capital of Åland, it is well preserved. It was launched in 1903 in Glasgow, under the name Mneme, was renamed Pommern. Gustaf Erikson bought the ship in 1929. With a 26-member crew, it carried several tonnes of merchandise, it won the grain race twice in the 1930s, completed the route under 100 days at least four times.
It has a record for running for 110 days at a stretch. It is the centrepiece of the museum since 1957 at its present mooring in the western harbour of Mariehamn, after sailing for over 70 years. Cabinets in the museum display curios collected by the sailors from different lands. A unique display is a pirate's flag, one of a kind; the museum is now under complete renovation and hence has been closed for visitors till the summer of 2011 by which time the additions and refurbishments are expected to be completed. The renovation envisages doubling the museum space with a new set of exhibits with an auditorium and a library wings. Exhibits would cover a complete ship-owner office, a new captain lounge from a steamship, a steam engine, lighthouse prisms and artefacts. During the renovation, the museum is organising mobile exhibitions in Åland and in Sweden and Finland. Kåhre, Georg; the Last Tall Ships: Gustav Erikson and the Åland Sailing Fleets 1872–1947. Greenwich: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-134-3 Hagmark-Cooper, Hanna.
"Is there a place for women in maritime history? ", History.ac.uk, archived at on 13 August 2016. Media related to Åland Maritime Museum at Wikimedia Commons Official website Articles on history and the sea
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the display of art from the museum's own collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or have restrictions in place. Although concerned with visual art, art galleries are used as a venue for other cultural exchanges and artistic activities, such as performance arts, music concerts, or poetry readings. Art museums frequently host themed temporary exhibitions which include items on loan from other collections. In distinction to a commercial art gallery, run by an art dealer, the primary purpose of an art museum is not the sale of the items on show. Throughout history and expensive works of art have been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as an early form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects donated their collections to temples.
It is unclear. In Europe, from the Late Medieval period onwards, areas in royal palaces and large country houses of the social elite were made accessible to sections of the public, where art collections could be viewed. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to people wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside; the treasuries of cathedrals and large churches, or parts of them, were set out for public display. Many of the grander English country houses could be toured by the respectable for a tip to the housekeeper, during the long periods when the family were not in residence. Special arrangements were made to allow the public to see many royal or private collections placed in galleries, as with most of the paintings of the Orleans Collection, which were housed in a wing of the Palais-Royal in Paris and could be visited for most of the 18th century. In Italy, the art tourism of the Grand Tour became a major industry from the 18th century onwards, cities made efforts to make their key works accessible.
The Capitoline Museums began in 1471 with a donation of classical sculpture to the city of Rome by the Papacy, while the Vatican Museums, whose collections are still owned by the Pope, trace their foundation to 1506, when the discovered Laocoön and His Sons was put on public display. A series of museums on different subjects were opened over subsequent centuries, many of the buildings of the Vatican were purpose-built as galleries. An early royal treasury opened to the public was the Grünes Gewölbe of the Kingdom of Saxony in the 1720s. Established museums open to the public began to be established from the 17th century onwards based around a collection of the cabinet of curiosities type; the first such museum was the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, opened in 1683 to house and display the artefacts of Elias Ashmole that were given to Oxford University in a bequest. In the second half of the eighteenth century, many private collections of art were opened to the public, during and after the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars many royal collections were nationalized where the monarchy remained in place, as in Spain and Bavaria.
In 1753, the British Museum was established and the Old Royal Library collection of manuscripts was donated to it for public viewing. In 1777, a proposal to the British government was put forward by MP John Wilkes to buy the art collection of the late Sir Robert Walpole who had amassed one of the greatest such collections in Europe, house it in a specially built wing of the British Museum for public viewing. After much debate, the idea was abandoned due to the great expense, twenty years the collection was bought by Tsaritsa Catherine the Great of Russia and housed in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg; the Bavarian royal collection was opened to the public in 1779 and the Medici collection in Florence around 1789. The opening of the Musée du Louvre during the French Revolution in 1793 as a public museum for much of the former French royal collection marked an important stage in the development of public access to art by transferring the ownership to a republican state; the building now occupied by the Prado in Madrid was built before the French Revolution for the public display of parts of the royal art collection, similar royal galleries were opened to the public in Vienna and other capitals.
In Great Britain, the corresponding Royal Collection remained in the private hands of the monarch and the first purpose-built national art galleries were the Dulwich Picture Gallery, founded in 1814 and the National Gallery opened to the public a decade in 1824. University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities; this phenomenon exists in the East, making it a global practice. Although overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in the US alone; this number, compared to other kinds of art museums, makes university art museums the largest category of art museums in the country. While the first of these collections can be traced to learning collections developed in art academies in Western Europe, they are now associated with and housed in centers of higher education of all types; the word gallery being an archite
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products. Put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit, it does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates; the proprietor is taxed on all income from the business. The term is often used colloquially to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner.
Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common entities exist: Sole proprietorship: A sole proprietorship known as a sole trader, is owned by one person and operates for their benefit. The owner may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, whether from operating costs or judgments against the business. All assets of the business belong to a sole proprietor, for example, a computer infrastructure, any inventory, manufacturing equipment, or retail fixtures, as well as any real property owned by the sole proprietor. Partnership: A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business; the three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are general partnerships, limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships. Corporation: The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a separate legal personality from its owners.
Corporations can be either government-owned or owned, they can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations. A owned, for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, who elect a board of directors to direct the corporation and hire its managerial staff. A owned, for-profit corporation can be either held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange. Cooperative: Often referred to as a "co-op", a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives. Cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy. Limited liability companies, limited liability partnerships, other specific types of business organization protect their owners or shareholders from business failure by doing business under a separate legal entity with certain legal protections.
In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are not as protected. Franchises: A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open and run a business from a larger corporation. Franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse. One out of twelve retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business. A company limited by guarantee: Commonly used where companies are formed for non-commercial purposes, such as clubs or charities; the members guarantee the payment of certain amounts if the company goes into insolvent liquidation, but otherwise, they have no economic rights in relation to the company. This type of company is common in England. A company limited by guarantee may be without having share capital. A company limited by shares: The most common form of the company used for business ventures. A limited company is a "company in which the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount individually invested" with corporations being "the most common example of a limited company."
This type of company is common in many English-speaking countries. A company limited by shares may be a publicly traded company or a held company A company limited by guarantee with a share capital: A hybrid entity used where the company is formed for non-commercial purposes, but the activities of the company are funded by investors who expect a return; this type of company may no longer be formed in the UK, although provisions still exist in law for them to exist. A limited liability company: "A company—statutorily authorized in certain states—that is characterized by limited liability, management by members or managers, limitations on ownership transfer", i.e. L. L. C. LLC structure has been called "hybrid" in that it "combines the characteristics of a corporation and of a partnership or sole proprietorship". Like a corporation, it has limited liability for members of the company, like a partnership, it has "flow-through taxation to the members" and must be "dissolved upon the death or bankruptcy of a member".
An unlimited company with or without a share capital: A hybrid entity, a company where the liability of members or shareholders for the debts of the company are not limited. In this case, the doctrine of a veil of incorporation does not apply. Less common types of companies are: Companies formed by letters patent: Most corpor
The Åland Islands or Åland is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland. It demilitarised and is the only monolingually Swedish-speaking region in Finland, it is the smallest region of Finland, constituting 0.49% of its land area and 0.50% of its population. Åland comprises Fasta Åland on which 90% of the population resides and a further 6,500 skerries and islands to its east. Fasta Åland is separated from the coast of Sweden by 38 kilometres of open water to the west. In the east, the Åland archipelago is contiguous with the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Åland's only land border is located on the uninhabited skerry of Märket, which it shares with Sweden.Åland's autonomous status means that those provincial powers exercised by representatives of the central Finnish government are exercised by its own government. The autonomous status of the islands was affirmed by a decision made by the League of Nations in 1921 following the Åland Islands dispute.
It was reaffirmed within the treaty admitting Finland to the European Union. By law, Åland is politically neutral and demilitarised, residents are exempt from conscription to the Finnish Defence Forces; the islands were granted extensive autonomy by the Parliament of Finland in the Act on the Autonomy of Åland of 1920, replaced by new legislation by the same name in 1951 and 1991. The constitution of Finland defines a "constitution of Åland" by referring to this act. Åland remains Swedish-speaking by this act. In connection with Finland's admission to the European Union, a protocol was signed concerning the Åland Islands that stipulates, among other things, that provisions of the European Community Treaty shall not force a change of the existing restrictions for foreigners to acquire and hold real property or to provide certain services. Åland's original name was in the Proto-Norse language *Ahvaland which means "land of water". In Swedish, this first developed into Áland and into Åland "river land"—even though rivers are not a prominent feature of Åland's geography.
The Finnish and Estonian names of the island and Ahvenamaa, are seen to preserve another form of the old name. Another theory suggests that the Finnish Ahvenanmaa would be the original name of the archipelago, from which the Swedish Åland derives; the official name, Landskapet Åland, means "the Region of Åland". Members of the Neolithic Comb Ceramic culture started settling the islands some 7000 years ago, after the islands had begun to re-emerge from the sea after being pushed down by the weight of the continental ice of the latest ice-age. Two neolithic cultures met on Åland: the Comb Ceramic culture and the Pit-Comb Ware culture which spread from the west. Stone Age and Bronze Age people obtained food by hunting seals and birds and gathering plants, they started agriculture early on. In the Iron Age, contacts with Scandinavia increased. From the Viking age there are over six castle ruins. Along with Finland, the Åland Islands formed part of the territory ceded to Russia by Sweden under the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in September 1809.
As a result, they became part of the semi- autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. During negotiations, Sweden failed to secure a provision; the issue was important not only for Sweden but for the United Kingdom, which became concerned that a military presence on the islands could threaten Britain's military and commercial interests. In 1832 Russia started to fortify the islands with the great fortress of Bomarsund. In 1854, as part of the campaign in the Baltic during the Crimean War against Russia, a combined British and French force of warships and marines captured and destroyed the fortress; the 1856 Treaty of Paris demilitarised the entire Åland archipelago. During the Finnish Civil War, in 1918, Swedish troops intervened as a peacekeeping force between the Russian troops stationed on the islands and "White" and "Red" Finnish troops who came from Finland over the frozen sea. Within weeks, the Swedish troops gave way to German troops who occupied Åland at the request of the "White" Senate of Finland.
After 1917 the residents of the islands worked towards having them ceded to Sweden. In 1919 96.4% of the voters on the islands signed a petition for secession from Finland and for integration with Sweden, with over 95% in favour. Swedish nationalist sentiments had strengthened as a result of the anti-Swedish tendencies in Finland and as a result of Finnish nationalism fueled by Finland's struggle to retain its autonomy and resistance against Russification; the conflict between the Swedish-speaking minority and the Finnish-speaking majority on the Finnish mainland, prominent in Finnish politics since the 1840s, contributed to the apprehension of the Åland population about a future within Finland. Finland, declined to cede the islands and instead offered the islanders an autonomous status; the residents did not approve the offer, the dispute over the islands went before the League of Nations. The latter decided that Finland should retain sovereignty over the province but that the Åland Islands should be made an autonomous territory.
Thus Finland was obliged to ensure the residents of the Åland Islands the right to maintain the Swedish language, as well as their own culture and local traditions. The 1921 Åland convention established the neutral status of Åland by inter
Beit Al Quran
Beit Al Qur'an is a multi-purpose complex dedicated to the Islamic arts and is located in Hoora, Bahrain. Established in 1990, the complex is most famous for its Islamic museum, acknowledged as being one of the most renowned Islamic museums in the world. Construction of the complex began in 1984 and the museum was opened in March 1990 by Abdul Latif Jassim Kanoo, it was built to "accommodate a comprehensive and valuable collection of the Qur'an and other rare manuscripts", a concept which, according to a regional magazine, is unique in the Persian Gulf region. The core of the museum's holdings is Kanoo's own collection of Qur'anic manuscripts and Islamic art, since he was said to have been an avid collector; as his collection grew, he came to feel a strong sense of responsibility toward the rare manuscripts he had acquired. In 1990, he donated his collection to the museum he established to operate a first-of-its-kind institution dedicated to the service of the Qur'an and the preservation of historic manuscripts.
The establishment of the institute was funded by public donations, with added help from a variety of people from all walks of life in Bahrain, ranging from heads of state to school children. The facilities at Beit Al Qur'an are free to the general public; the institution and its museum house an internationally celebrated collection of historic Quranic manuscripts from various parts of the Islamic world, from China in the East and to Spain in the West, representing a progression of calligraphic traditions from the first Hijri century and of the Islamic Golden Age, to the present day. The Beit al Qur'an complex is open to the public on Saturdays to Wednesdays from 9am to 12pm and 4pm to 6pm respectively; the complex's exterior designs are based on an old fashioned 12th-century mosque. The entire complex itself comprises a mosque, a library, an auditorium, a madrasa, a museum that consists of ten exhibition halls. A large stained glass dome covers mosque; the Mihrab, the sign indicating the direction to Mecca, is covered in blue ceramic tiles with engraved Al Qursi Qur'anic verse.
The library consists of over 50,000 books and manuscripts in three languages – Arabic and French – that are on Islam. The institute does specialise in Islamic art, many of the reference books have international importance; the library and its reading rooms are open to the public during working hours with internet access available, as well as providing individual rooms for researchers and specialists. There is an auditorium – named the Mohammed Bin Khalifa Bin Salman Al Khalifa Lecture Hall – which can accommodate up to 150 people, is used for lectures and conferences. Guest speakers are brought to Bahrain from many countries, including the US, UK, France; the conference hall is made available for general use for public lectures in cooperation with different societies and institutions in Bahrain. The Yousuf Bin Ahmad Kanoo School for Qur'anic Studies is located within the site; the school offers seven study areas equipped with computers and modern aids, with separate classes for women and children learning the Qur'an.
The Al Hayat Museum is the complex's most recognized establishments. Manuscripts on parchments that originate from Saudi Arabia and Baghdad, are present in the museum; the manuscripts undergo special procedures for the preservation of these artifacts, in order to protect them from damages. Some of the artifacts present in the museum include a rare manuscript of the Qur'an, dating to 1694 AD and was printed in Germany; the museum houses the world's oldest translated copy of the Qur'an, translated to Latin in Switzerland and dates to 955 AD. The first copy of the Qur'an, written during the reign of Caliph Uthman ibn Affan, is on display in the museum alongside a number of small copies of the Qur'an, which could only be read using optical instruments. Grains and rice, dating from the 14th century in present-day Pakistan, which contain surahs engraved into them, are displayed in the museum; the exhibits include a rare number of gold and copper pottery and glass from different eras of Iraq, Turkey and Egypt, respectively.
The works of Islamic scholars, such as Ibn Taymiyyah are preserved in the museum. It has been claimed to have been "the only institute in the world dedicated to the Qur'an and Qur'anic studies". Khamis Mosque List of tourist attractions in Bahrain Islam in Bahrain
The Bahamas, known as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is a country within the Lucayan Archipelago. The archipelagic state consists of more than 700 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, is located north of Cuba and Hispaniola, northwest of the Turks and Caicos Islands, southeast of the U. S. state of Florida, east of the Florida Keys. The capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence; the designation of "the Bahamas" can refer either to the country or to the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Royal Bahamas Defence Force describes the Bahamas territory as encompassing 470,000 km2 of ocean space; the Bahamas is the site of Columbus's first landfall in the New World in 1492. At that time, the islands were inhabited by the Lucayans, a branch of the Arawakan-speaking Taíno people. Although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola; the islands were deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera.
The Bahamas became a British crown colony in 1718. After the American Revolutionary War, the Crown resettled thousands of American Loyalists in the Bahamas. Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period; the slave trade was abolished by the British in 1807. Subsequently, the Bahamas became a haven for freed African slaves. Today, Afro-Bahamians make up nearly 90% of the population; the Bahamas became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1973 with Elizabeth II as its queen. In terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas, with an economy based on tourism and finance; the name Bahamas is most derived from either the Taíno ba ha ma, a term for the region used by the indigenous Native Americans, or from the Spanish baja mar reflecting the shallow waters of the area. Alternatively, it may originate from a local name of unclear meaning; the word The constitutes an integral part of the short form of the name and is, capitalised.
So in contrast to "the Congo" and "the United Kingdom", it is proper to write "The Bahamas." The name The Bahamas is thus comparable with certain non-English names that use the definite article, such as Las Vegas or Los Angeles. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, the country's fundamental law, capitalizes the "T" in "The Bahamas." Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century, having migrated there from South America. They came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30,000 Lucayans inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in 1492. Columbus's first landfall in the New World was on an island; some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island, situated in the southeastern Bahamas. An alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge, based on Columbus's log.
Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive. On the landfall island, Columbus exchanged goods with them; the Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour. The slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity; the population of the Bahamas was diminished. In 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers, led by William Sayle, migrated from Bermuda; these English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleuthera—the name derives from the Greek word for freedom. They settled New Providence, naming it Sayle's Island after one of their leaders. To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks. In 1670, King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America, they rented the islands from the king with rights of trading, appointing governors, administering the country. In 1684 Spanish corsair Juan de Alcon raided Charles Town.
In 1703, a joint Franco-Spanish expedition occupied the Bahamian capital during the War of the Spanish Succession. During proprietary rule, the Bahamas became a haven for pirates, including Blackbeard. To put an end to the'Pirates' republic' and restore orderly government, Great Britain made the Bahamas a crown colony in 1718 under the royal governorship of Woodes Rogers. After a difficult struggle, he succeeded in suppressing piracy. In 1720, Rogers led local militia to drive off a Spanish attack. During the US War of Independence in the late 18th century, the islands became a target for US naval forces under the command of Commodore Esek Hopkins. US Marines occupied the capital of Nassau for 2 weeks. In 1782, following the British defeat at Yorktown, a Spanish fleet appeared off the coast of Nassau; the city surrendered without a fight. Spain returned possession of the Bahamas to Great Britain the following year, u