Hapeville is a city in Fulton County, United States, located adjacent to the city of Atlanta. The population was 6,373 at the 2010 census, it is named for one of the area's original landowners and its first mayor. During the 1950s and 1960s, Hapeville was a thriving part of the Tri-City area and its post-World War II population supported three elementary schools and one high school. During the 40 years following, it became regarded as a somewhat depressed industrial area. Since 2005, Hapeville has seen significant gentrification, beginning with the Virginia Park neighborhood and spreading throughout the city. Hapeville has been discovered by young professionals seeking historic neighborhoods close to downtown Atlanta, there has been a great deal of new residential construction, including single-family homes and upscale apartments; this new residential development has led to a revived historic downtown. Hapeville has been discovered by metro Atlanta's arts community, the beginnings of an artist colony have taken shape with the formation of the Hapeville Arts Alliance.
The Hapeville Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. From 1947 until 2006, Hapeville was home to the Ford Atlanta Assembly Plant manufacturing the Taurus. There are development plans to open a multi-use development, Aerotropolis Atlanta, on the site, adjacent to Atlanta Airport. Porsche North America is building its North America Headquarters on the Ford site. Hapeville is home to the Dwarf House - the first Chick-fil-A restaurant and the first Johnny's Pizza. Hapeville is located at 33°39′45″N 84°24′37″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.4 square miles, all land. As of 2010 Hapeville had a population of 6,373; the racial and ethnic composition of the population was 42.8% white, 28.8% black or African American, 1.1% Asian Indian, 4.6% other Asian, 0.6% Native American, 18.8% from some other race and 3.3% from two or more races. 35.1% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. At the 2000 census there were 2,375 households, out of which 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.2% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.3% were non-families.
32.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.29. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,158, the median income for a family was $37,647. Males had a median income of $25,127 versus $23,766 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,793. About 13.7% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.1% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. Korean Air Cargo's U. S. headquarters are in Hapeville, near the northeast corner of the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport.
It is home to the Delta Air Lines headquarters and Porsche's US headquarters. Arches Brewing is located in Hapeville, serving as Hapeville's first brewery with a focus on Old World Beers. Hapeville is a part of Fulton County Schools. Residents are zoned to Hapeville Elementary School, Paul D. West Middle School in East Point, Tri-Cities High School in East Point. In addition, Hapeville Charter Middle School is located in Hapeville. Private schools include St. John the Evangelist Catholic School; the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System operates the Hapeville Branch. Comedian Jeff Foxworthy was graduated from Hapeville High School. City of Hapeville official website Hapeville Living Hapeville Georgia historical marker
A telescope is an optical instrument that makes distant objects appear magnified by using an arrangement of lenses or curved mirrors and lenses, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation. The first known practical telescopes were refracting telescopes invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century, by using glass lenses, they were used for both terrestrial applications and astronomy. The reflecting telescope, which uses mirrors to collect and focus light, was invented within a few decades of the first refracting telescope. In the 20th century, many new types of telescopes were invented, including radio telescopes in the 1930s and infrared telescopes in the 1960s; the word telescope now refers to a wide range of instruments capable of detecting different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, in some cases other types of detectors. The word telescope was coined in 1611 by the Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei's instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei.
In the Starry Messenger, Galileo had used the term perspicillum. The earliest existing record of a telescope was a 1608 patent submitted to the government in the Netherlands by Middelburg spectacle maker Hans Lippershey for a refracting telescope; the actual inventor is unknown but word of it spread through Europe. Galileo heard about it and, in 1609, built his own version, made his telescopic observations of celestial objects; the idea that the objective, or light-gathering element, could be a mirror instead of a lens was being investigated soon after the invention of the refracting telescope. The potential advantages of using parabolic mirrors—reduction of spherical aberration and no chromatic aberration—led to many proposed designs and several attempts to build reflecting telescopes. In 1668, Isaac Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope, of a design which now bears his name, the Newtonian reflector; the invention of the achromatic lens in 1733 corrected color aberrations present in the simple lens and enabled the construction of shorter, more functional refracting telescopes.
Reflecting telescopes, though not limited by the color problems seen in refractors, were hampered by the use of fast tarnishing speculum metal mirrors employed during the 18th and early 19th century—a problem alleviated by the introduction of silver coated glass mirrors in 1857, aluminized mirrors in 1932. The maximum physical size limit for refracting telescopes is about 1 meter, dictating that the vast majority of large optical researching telescopes built since the turn of the 20th century have been reflectors; the largest reflecting telescopes have objectives larger than 10 m, work is underway on several 30-40m designs. The 20th century saw the development of telescopes that worked in a wide range of wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays; the first purpose built radio telescope went into operation in 1937. Since a large variety of complex astronomical instruments have been developed; the name "telescope" covers a wide range of instruments. Most detect electromagnetic radiation, but there are major differences in how astronomers must go about collecting light in different frequency bands.
Telescopes may be classified by the wavelengths of light they detect: X-ray telescopes, using shorter wavelengths than ultraviolet light Ultraviolet telescopes, using shorter wavelengths than visible light Optical telescopes, using visible light Infrared telescopes, using longer wavelengths than visible light Submillimetre telescopes, using longer wavelengths than infrared light Fresnel Imager, an optical lens technology X-ray optics, optics for certain X-ray wavelengthsAs wavelengths become longer, it becomes easier to use antenna technology to interact with electromagnetic radiation. The near-infrared can be collected much like visible light, however in the far-infrared and submillimetre range, telescopes can operate more like a radio telescope. For example, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope observes from wavelengths from 3 μm to 2000 μm, but uses a parabolic aluminum antenna. On the other hand, the Spitzer Space Telescope, observing from about 3 μm to 180 μm uses a mirror. Using reflecting optics, the Hubble Space Telescope with Wide Field Camera 3 can observe in the frequency range from about 0.2 μm to 1.7 μm.
With photons of the shorter wavelengths, with the higher frequencies, glancing-incident optics, rather than reflecting optics are used. Telescopes such as TRACE and SOHO use special mirrors to reflect Extreme ultraviolet, producing higher resolution and brighter images than are otherwise possible. A larger aperture does not just mean that more light is collected, it enables a finer angular resolution. Telescopes may be classified by location: ground telescope, space telescope, or flying telescope, they may be classified by whether they are operated by professional astronomers or amateur astronomers. A vehicle or permanent campus containing one or more telescopes or other instruments is called an observatory. An optical telescope gathers and focuses light from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical telescopes increase the apparent angular size of distant objects as well as their apparent brightness. In order for the image to be observed, photographed and sent to a computer, telescopes work by employing one or
Cartersville is a city in Bartow County in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 19,731. Cartersville is the county seat of Bartow County. Cartersville was first known as Birmingham to its original English settlers; the town was incorporated as Cartersville in 1854. The present name is for Col. Farish Carter of the owner of a large plantation. Cartersville was designated the seat of Bartow County in 1867 following the destruction of Cassville by Sherman in the American Civil War. Cartersville was incorporated as a city in 1872. Cartersville is located in south-central Bartow County, 42 miles northwest of downtown Atlanta and 76 miles southeast of Chattanooga, Tennessee; the Etowah River flows through a broad valley south of the downtown, leading west to Rome, where it forms the Coosa River, a tributary of the Alabama River. The city limits extend eastward, upriver, as far as Allatoona Dam, which forms Lake Allatoona, a large U. S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoir.
Red Top Mountain State Park sits on a peninsula in the lake, just outside the city limits. Nancy Creek flows in the vicinity; the highest point in the city is 1,562 feet at the summit of Pine Mountain. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Cartersville has a total area of 29.3 square miles, of which 29.2 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles, or 0.59%, is water. Interstate 75, the major north-south route through the area, passes through the eastern edge of the city, with access from five exits: Exit 285 just south of the city limits in Emerson, Exit 288 closest to downtown, exits 290, 293, 296 along the city's northern outskirts. U. S. Highway 41, concurrent with State Route 3, is an older, parallel highway to Interstate 75 that goes through the eastern edge of downtown, leading north to Calhoun and Dalton and south to Marietta. U. S. Highway 411 passes through the northern edge of the city, leading west to Rome and north to Chatsworth. State Route 20 runs west to Rome concurrent with U. S. Highway runs east to Canton.
State Route 61 runs north to White concurrent with U. S. Highway runs south to Dallas, Georgia. State Route 113 runs southwesterly to Rockmart. State Route 293 runs west-northwest to Kingston; the following communities border the city: Adairsville Cassville Emerson Euharlee Kingston Stilesboro White Grassdale Road As of the census of 2010, there were 19,010 people, 5,870 households, 4,132 families residing in the city. The population of Cartersville is growing significantly; the population density was 680.7 people per square mile. There were 6,130 housing units at an average density of 262.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 63.93% White, 29.64% African American, 0.82% Asian, 0.28% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.76% from other races, 1.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 7.28% of the population. There were 5,870 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.6% were non-families.
25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.10. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,162, the median income for a family was $48,219. Males had a median income of $35,092 versus $25,761 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,977. About 8.9% of families and 11.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.7% of those under age 18 and 15.4% of those age 65 or over. The Booth Western Art Museum is on North Museum Drive in Cartersville; the Booth is the second largest art museum in Georgia. It houses the largest permanent exhibition space for Western art in the country.
It is a Smithsonian Institution Affiliate. The Etowah Indian Mounds is an archaeological Native American site in Bartow County, south of Cartersville. Tellus Science Museum the Weinman Mineral Museum, is a Smithsonian Institution Affiliate and features the first digital planetarium in North Georgia. NASA has installed a camera; the world's first outdoor Coca-Cola sign, painted in 1894, is located in downtown Cartersville on Young Brothers Pharmacy's wall. Rose Lawn, a house museum, is the former home of noted evangelist Samuel Porter Jones, for whom the Union Gospel Tabernacle in Nashville was built to become the Grand Ole Opry; the Bartow History Museum is located in the Old Cartersville Courthouse, c. 1870, in downtown Cartersville on East Church Street. The schools that comprise the Cartersville City School System are: Cartersville Primary School Cartersville Elementary School Cartersville Middle School Cartersville High SchoolThere are two private Christian schools: Excel Christian Academy The Trinity SchoolThere is a private Montessori school: Lifesong Montessori SchoolCartersville has a college campus: Georgia Highlands College Manufacturing and services play a part in the economy of the city.
The city's employers include: Anheuser-Busch Georgia Power Komatsu Shaw Industries, a major flooring manufacturerThe
College Football Hall of Fame
The College Football Hall of Fame is a hall of fame and interactive attraction devoted to college football. The National Football Foundation founded the Hall in 1951 to immortalize the players and coaches of college football. From 1995 to 2012, the Hall was located in Indiana. In August 2014, the Chick-fil-A College Football Hall of Fame opened in downtown Georgia; the facility is a 94,256 square feet attraction located in the heart of Atlanta's sports and tourism district, is adjacent to the Georgia World Congress Center and Centennial Olympic Park. Original plans in 1967 called for the Hall of Fame to be located at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the location of the first contest under rules now considered to be those of modern football, between teams from Rutgers and the College of New Jersey, now Princeton University. Rutgers donated land near its football stadium, office space, administrative support. After years of collecting donations for the construction of the building with ground not having been broken and no plans to do so, the New Jersey Attorney General began an investigation of the finances of the Hall of Fame's foundation, the National Football Foundation.
In response, the Foundation moved its operations to New York City, where it continued to collect donations for several years. When the New York Attorney General's office began its own investigation, the foundation moved to Kings Mills, Ohio in suburban Cincinnati, where a building was constructed adjacent to Kings Island in 1978; the Hall opened with good attendance figures early on, but visitation dwindled as time went on, the facility closed in 1992. Nearby Galbreath Field remained open as the home of Moeller High School football until 2003. A new building was opened in South Bend, Indiana, on August 25, 1995. Despite estimates that the South Bend location would attract more than 150,000 visitors a year, the Hall of Fame drew about 115,000 people the first year, about 80,000 annually after that, it closed in 2012. In 2009, the National Football Foundation decided to move the College Football Hall of Fame to Atlanta, Georgia; the possibility of moving the museum has been brought up in other cities, including Dallas, which had the financial backing of billionaire T. Boone Pickens.
However, the National Football Foundation decided on Atlanta for the next site. The new $68.5 million museum opened on August 23, 2014. It is located next to Centennial Olympic Park, near other attractions such as the Georgia Aquarium, the World of Coca-Cola, CNN Center, the National Center for Civil and Human Rights; the Hall of Fame is located near the Georgia Institute of Technology of the ACC and 70 miles from the University of Georgia of the SEC. The new building broke ground on January 28, 2013. Sections of the architecture are reminiscent of a football in shape; the facility is 94,256 square feet and contains 50,000 square feet of exhibit and event space, interactive displays and a 45-yard indoor football field. Atlanta Hall Management operates the College Football Hall of Fame; as of 2018, there are 997 players and 217 coaches enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame, representing 308 schools. Thirteen players, two coaches and one inanimate object are slated for induction in 2019.
The National Football Foundation outlines specific criteria that may be used for evaluating a possible candidate for induction into the Hall of Fame. A player must have received major first team All-America recognition. A player becomes eligible for consideration 10 years after his last year of intercollegiate football played. Football achievements are considered first, but the post-football record as a citizen is weighed. Players must have played their last year of intercollegiate football within the last 50 years; the nominee must have ended his professional athletic career prior to the time of the nomination. Coaches must have at least 10 years of head coaching experience, coached 100 games, had at least a.600 winning percentage. The eligibility criteria have changed over time, have led to criticism. Dennis Dodd of CBSSports.com has said, The NFF election process is confusing. Based on current rules, Notre Dame's Joe Montana will never be in the College Football Hall of Fame, he was never an All-American on a team recognized by the NCAA.
If that sounds outrageous, consider that at one time hall of famers had to graduate. Official website
Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
The Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, is the sixth district of the 12 Federal Reserve Banks of the United States and is headquartered in midtown Atlanta, Georgia. The Atlanta Fed covers the U. S. states of Alabama and Georgia, the eastern two-thirds of Tennessee, the southern portion of Louisiana, southern Mississippi as part of the Federal Reserve System. Along with its Atlanta headquarters, the Banks operates five branches with the sixth district, which are located in Birmingham, Miami and New Orleans; these branches provide cash to banks and loans, other depository institutions. In addition to supporting the U. S. financial system, the Atlanta Fed carries out the supervision and regulation of the banks operating within the sixth district. It is a source of research and expertise for public and private decision makers within the district. In recent years, researchers within the Atlanta Fed have innovated new tools to gauge the health of the macro U. S. economy, the two most notable are Wage Growth Tracker.
The Atlanta Fed is led by Dr. Raphael Bostic, appointed in 2017 and is member of the Federal Open Market Committee, the committee that makes key decisions about interest rates and the growth of the United States money supply; the Atlanta Fed's footprint covers the southeastern U. S. including the states of Alabama and Georgia, 74 counties in the eastern two-thirds of Tennessee, 38 parishes of southern Louisiana, 43 counties of southern Mississippi as part of the Federal Reserve System. The Atlanta Fed, along with the other 11 regional district banks, has three primary functions: assisting with monetary policy, operation of nationwide payment system, administering bank supervision and regulation, its job is to decide the interest rates, the president meets with other bank presidents and board members. The bank's board of directors makes recommendations on the levels of discount rates. Secondarily, the Atlanta Fed is a source of research and expertise for public and private decision makers within the district.
Researchers within the Atlanta Fed have innovated new tools to gauge the health of the macro U. S. economy, the two most notable are GDPNow Wage Growth Tracker. The Atlanta Fed's GDPNow, a "nowcasting" model for gross domestic product growth that synthesizes the related GDP subcomponents with monthly source data prior to the formal GDP release by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, is followed by financial markets; the Wage Growth Tracker is a measure of the nominal wage growth of individuals, using microdata from the Current Population Survey from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Bank is governed by a Board of Directors, drawn from the sixth district's business community and labor and consumer organizations, makes recommendations every two weeks on the level of the discount rate, the rate at which the Bank lends to commercial banks; the Bank's staff is led by Dr. Raphael Bostic, appointed in 2017 and is member of the Federal Open Market Committee. With the appointment of President Bostic in 2017, there have been 15 chief executive officers of the Atlanta Fed.
The title of Reserve Bank chief executive officer was changed to president by the Banking Act of 1935. The following people are on the board of directors as of September 2016: All terms expire on December 31. Since 2001, the Atlanta Fed has been located at 1000 Peachtree Street NE in Midtown Atlanta. Prior to 2001, the bank was located in downtown Atlanta at 104 Marietta Street NW, now the home of the State Bar of Georgia. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Birmingham Branch Office Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Jacksonville Branch Office Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Miami Branch Office Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta New Orleans Branch Office Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Nashville Branch Office Federal Reserve Act Federal Reserve Bank Federal Reserve Branches Federal Reserve Districts Federal Reserve System Structure of the Federal Reserve System Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Federal Reserve Bank Presidents Historical resources by and about the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta including annual reports back to 1915
Atlanta metropolitan area
Metro Atlanta, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the most populous metro area in the US state of Georgia and the ninth-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Its economic and demographic center is Atlanta, has an estimated 2017 population of 5,884,736 according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the metro area forms the core of a broader trading area, the Atlanta–Athens-Clarke–Sandy Springs Combined Statistical Area. The Combined Statistical Area spans up to 39 counties in north Georgia and has an estimated 2017 population of 6,555,956. Atlanta is considered a "beta world city." It is the third largest metropolitan region in the Census Bureau's Southeast region behind Greater Washington and Greater Miami. By U. S. Census Bureau standards, the population of the Atlanta region spreads across a metropolitan area of 8,376 square miles – a land area comparable to that of Massachusetts.
Because Georgia contains more counties than any other state except Texas, area residents live under a decentralized collection of governments. As of the 2000 census, fewer than one in ten residents of the metropolitan area lived inside Atlanta city limits. A 2006 survey by the Metro Atlanta Chamber of Commerce counted 140 cities and towns in the 28‑county Metropolitan Statistical Area in mid-2005. Nine cities – Johns Creek, Chattahoochee Hills, Peachtree Corners, Tucker and South Fulton – have incorporated since following the lead of Sandy Springs in 2005; the Atlanta metropolitan area was first defined in 1950 as Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett and Clayton counties. Walton, Douglas, Forsyth, Cherokee and Butts counties were added after the 1970 census, with Barrow and Coweta counties joining in 1980 and Bartow, Paulding and Spalding counties in 1990. Atlanta's larger combined statistical area adds the Gainesville, Georgia MSA, Athens-Clarke County, Georgia MSA and the LaGrange, Jefferson and Cedartown micropolitan areas, for a total 2012 population of 6,162,195.
The CSA abuts the Macon and Columbus MSAs. The region is one of the metropolises of the Southeastern United States, is part of the emerging megalopolis known as Piedmont Atlantic MegaRegion along the I-85 Corridor; the counties listed below are included in the Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Gainesville CSA. However, most other entities define a much smaller metropolitan area by including only the counties which have the densest suburban development. Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett and Clayton were the five original counties when the Atlanta metropolitan area was first defined in 1950, continue to be the core of the metro area; these five counties along with five more are members of the Atlanta Regional Commission, a weak metropolitan government agency, a regional planning agency. The ten ARC counties and five more form part of the Metropolitan North Georgia Water Planning District, created in 2001; the 12 counties listed above with under 75,000 residents are not included in any other metropolitan definition except the OMB/Census Bureau's MSA and CSA.
Hall County forms the Gainesville, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, but with astronomical growth to over 190,000 residents, is now part of the Atlanta CSA. The official tourism website of the State of Georgia features a "Metro Atlanta" tourism region that includes only nine counties: Fulton, DeKalb, Cobb, Coweta, Douglas and Henry. Cumberland Perimeter Center Hartsfield-Jackson areaMore than one half of metro Atlanta's population is in unincorporated areas or areas considered a census-designated-place by the census bureau. Metro Atlanta includes the following incorporated and unincorporated suburbs and surrounding cities, sorted by population as of 2010: Principal city Atlanta pop. 472,522 Places with 75,000 to 99,999 inhabitants. 95,158 Sandy Springs pop. 93,853 Roswell pop. 88,346 Johns Creek pop. 76,728Places with 50,000 to 74,999 inhabitants Alpharetta pop. 57,551 Marietta pop. 56,579 Stonecrest pop. 53,490 Smyrna pop. 51,271Places with 25,000 to 49,999 inhabitants Places with 24,999 or fewer inhabitants The area sprawls across the low foothills of the Appalachian Mountains to the north and the Piedmont to the south.
The northern and some western suburbs tend to be higher and more hilly than the southern and eastern suburbs. The average elevation is around 1,000 feet; the highest point in the immediate area is Kennesaw Mountain at 1,808 ft, followed by Stone Mountain at 1,686 ft, Sweat Mountain at 1,640 ft, Little Kennesaw Mountain at 1,600 ft. Others include Blackjack Mountain, Lost Mountain, Brushy Mountain, Pine Mountain, Mount Wilkinson. Many of these play prominently in the various battles of the Atlanta Campaign during the American Civil War. If the further-north counties are included, Bear Mountain is highest, followed by Pine Log Mountain, Sawnee Mountain, Hanging Mountain, followed by the others listed above. Stone, Sweat and Sawnee are all home to some of the area's broadcast stations; the area's subsoil is colored rusty by the iron oxide present in it. It becomes muddy and sticky when wet, hard when dry, stains light-colored carpets and c
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M