Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Medelhavsmuseet is a museum in central Stockholm focused around collections of ancient objects from the Mediterranean area and the Near East. Since 1999 the museum is one of four composing the National Museums of Sweden; the museum was first formed in 1954 when two separate institutions, the Egyptian Museum and the Cyprus Collection, were combined. The Egyptian Museum had been created in 1928 from artifacts collected in the 18th, 19th and early 20th century while the Cyprus Collection was the result of the excavations of the Swedish Cyprus Expedition in the late 1920s and early 1930s; the Cyprus collection in the museum is the largest outside Cyprus and of great scholarly value. A new gallery of Cypriote antiquities sponsored by the A. G. Leventis Foundation and designed by White Architects was opened in January 2009. Besides Egypt and Cyprus the museum holds collections of Greek and Roman antiquities, near eastern antiquities from Shah Tepe, Luristan bronzes and Islamic art; the museum has been located in the Gustav Horn palace, Gustav Adolfs Torg, Fredsgatan 2, Stockholm since 1982.
Sven-Harry's Art Museum
Sven-Harry's Art Museum is an art museum in Stockholm, founded by builder Sven-Harry Karlsson. It is housed in a multi-purpose building alongside an art gallery and businesses; the award-winning Swedish builder Sven-Harry Karlsson has been an art collector since the mid-1960s, forming a collection including work by Carl Fredrik Hill, Helene Schjerfbeck, Ernst Josephson, August Strindberg, Edvard Munch, Anders Zorn, others. He constructed a building to house his collection in Vasaparken in Stockholm's inner city. Designed by Gert Wingårdh and Anna Höglund of Wingårdh Architects, the 5-story building is clad in a gold-tinted copper-aluminium-zinc alloy designed not to darken when exposed to oxygen, it is now owned and run by a foundation. Its director since 2012 has been Elsebeth Welander-Berggren. In addition to Sven-Harry's Art Museum, the building houses an art gallery, a restaurant and other businesses, 18 apartments in its 5,000 square metres; the museum is located at the top of the building, its interior spaces are designed as a replica of Sven-Harry Karlsson's former home in Lidingö, which dated from the 1770s.
The art gallery, about 400 square metres, is divided into three major halls split between the ground floor and the fourth floor. It exhibits work by artists such as Torsten Andersson; the remainder of the ground floor is taken up by commercial enterprises
Hamn is a battlefield museum in Fisksätra, Nacka Municipality, near Stockholm, Sweden about the Battle of Stäket on 13 August 1719 when Russian force, circumventing Vaxholm Castle, attempted to pass through Baggensstäket, a narrow passage in the Stockholm archipelago. After a desperate counterattack by Södermanlands regemente the Russian force departed, it is debated. The museum was founded as a result of a still ongoing archaeological research project. In 2003, the project “Battlefield Archaeology by Stäket” was formed, consented by the Swedish National Heritage Board, the County Government and Nacka Municipality. Databases and maps etc. were studied and a reference group with scholars was formed. In spring 2004 sample examinations on the southern side, by the so-called Marsh Meadow, were initiated. During the years 2004-2010, the last five of which under the management of the Swedish National heritage Board, the battlefields were examined by the Baggensstäket inlet; the battlefields got classified as “ancient monuments”, the battlefield on the southern side was the first of its kind to be classified as such.
In total, 735000 m2 have been scanned and about 1300 objects of antiquarian and culturally historical value have been found. In June 2010, the project with the museum HAMN, financed by Nacka Municipality and the EU, was initiated. Today, a book project about the southern side of the Battle of Stäket with results from ten years of research, is ongoing
Moderna Museet, Sweden, is a state museum for modern and contemporary art located on the island of Skeppsholmen in central Stockholm, opened in 1958. In 2009, the museum opened a new branch in Malmö in the south of Sweden, Moderna Museet Malmö; the museum was opened in 9 May 1958. Its first manager was Pontus Hultén. In May 2010, Daniel Birnbaum became the new director of the museum. In 2009, the museum opened a new branch in the building known as Rooseum in Malmö; the museum houses Swedish and international modern and contemporary art, including pieces by Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dalí and a model of the Tatlin's Tower. The museum's collection includes key works by artists such as Marcel Duchamp, Louise Bourgeois, Niki de Saint Phalle, Henri Matisse and Robert Rauschenberg, as well as ongoing acquisitions by contemporary artists. On 8 November 1993, six works by Picasso and two by Georges Braque totaling more than £40m were stolen from the museum in a renowned coup where the burglars came in through the roof by night, copying the method from the 1955 French movie Rififi.
All six of the Picasso paintings and one of the Braque paintings have been recovered. Visiting the permanent collection is free of charge, but some of the temporary exhibitions has entrance fees. In 2005, former museum director Pontus Hultén bequeathed over 700 works of art to Moderna Museet, along with his archive and library. A few works of the collection are on display with the museum's permanent collection; the museum has a sculpture park on the island with works by sculptors of diverse nationalities. The Four Elements, Alexander Calder, 1961 Le Paradis fantastique, Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint Phalle, 1966 Déjeuner sur l'herbe, Pablo Picasso and Carl Nesjar, 1962 Monumentalfigur, Christian Berg, 1927 Monument över den sista cigaretten, Erik Dietman, 1975 Leninmonument 13 april 1917, Björn Lövin, 1977 Mannen på templet, Bjørn Nørgaard, 1980 Svart svensk granit, Ulrich Rückriem, 1981 Pavilion Sculpture II, Dan Graham, 1984 Louisa, Thomas M. Woodruff, 1987 Freedom and Belief, Joseph Kosuth, 1998 No title, Per Kirkeby, 1999–2000 Instabil, Lars Englund, 2005 Närkontakt, Gustav Kraitz, 2008 The museum was housed in Exercishuset on Skeppsholmen.
In 1994–98, it was temporarily moved to another location, the Spårvägshallarna, in Stockholm while the new building on Skeppsholmen, designed by the Spanish architect Rafael Moneo, was built. The Pontus Hultén Study Gallery was designed by Renzo Piano; the museum is a venue for temporary contemporary art exhibitions throughout the year. In 2005, the museum hosted the onedotzero festival bringing a new younger audience to the museum with screenings, installations and live VJ audio-visual events. Official website – in Swedish and English
Swedish Museum of Natural History
The Swedish Royal Museum of Natural History, in Stockholm, is one of two major museums of natural history in Sweden, the other one being located in Gothenburg. The museum was founded in 1819 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, but goes back to the collections acquired through donations by the academy since its foundation in 1739; these collections had first been made available to the public in 1786. The museum was separated from the Academy in 1965. One of the keepers of the collections of the academy during its earlier history was Anders Sparrman, a student of Carl Linnaeus and participant in the voyages of Captain James Cook. Another important name in the history of the museum is the zoologist and archaeologist Sven Nilsson, who brought the disorganised zoological collections of the museum into order during his time as keeper before returning to Lund as professor; the present buildings for the museum in Frescati, was designed by the architect Axel Anderberg and completed in 1916, topped with a dome.
As of 2014 it is the largest museum building in Sweden. The main campus of Stockholm University was built next to the museum; the museum has an IMAX cinema called Cosmonova. The cinema is the largest planetarium in Sweden. Swedish Museum of Natural History official website
Biological museum (Stockholm)
Biologiska museet is a museum located in Djurgården in Stockholm. It exhibits a collection of stuffed European mammals in dioramas; some of the diorama backgrounds were created by artist Bruno Liljefors, known for his dramatic paintings of Scandinavian wildlife. The museum was built in 1893 after a design by architect Agi Lindegren, inspired by medieval Norwegian stave churches. Museums in Stockholm Official homepage