Acadia National Park
Acadia National Park is a national park located in the U. S. state of Maine. It reserves much of Mount Desert Island, and associated smaller islands, initially created as the Sieur de Monts National Monument in 1916, the park was renamed Lafayette National Park in 1919, and was given its current name of Acadia in 1929. Over three million people visited the park in 2016, Acadia is the oldest designated national park area east of the Mississippi River. The area was inhabited by the Wabanaki people. While he was sailing down the coast of what is now Maine on 5 September 1604, the distance from this island to the mainland on the north is not a hundred paces. It is very high and cleft in places, giving it the appearance from the sea of seven or eight mountains one alongside the other, the tops of them are bare of trees, because there is nothing there but rocks. The woods consist only of pines and birches and he named it Mount Desert Island. Over four centuries later, the area remains essentially the same, the first French Missionary colony in America was established on Mount Desert Island in 1613.
The colony was destroyed a short time by a vessel from the Colony of Virginia as the first act of overt warfare in the long struggle leading to the French. The island was granted to Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac by Louis XIV of France in 1688, Massachusetts governor Sir Francis Bernard, 1st Baronet assumed control of the island in 1760. In 1780 Massachusetts granted the eastern half of the island to Cadillacs granddaughter, Mme. de Gregoire, the first record of summer visitors vacationing on the island was in 1855, and steamboat service from Boston was inaugurated in 1868. The first land was donated by Mrs. Eliza Homans of Boston in 1908, the landscape architect Charles Eliot is credited with the idea for the park. Dorr, called the Father of Acadia National Park, along with Eliots father Charles W. Eliot and it first attained federal status when President Woodrow Wilson established it as Sieur de Monts National Monument on July 8,1916, administered by the National Park Service. On February 26,1919, it became a park, with the name Lafayette National Park in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette.
Jordan Pond Road was started in 1922 and completed as a scenic highway in 1927. The parks name was changed to Acadia National Park on January 19,1929, Schoodic Peninsula was added to the park in 1929, and the Cadillac Mountain Summit Road, begun in 1925, was completed in 1931. From 1915 to 1933, the wealthy philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, Jr. financed, designed and he sponsored the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand, with the nearby family summer home Reef Point Estate, to design the planting plans for the subtle carriage roads at the park. The network encompassed over 50 miles of carriage trails,17 granite bridges
Bodie Island Lighthouse
The current Bodie Island Lighthouse is the third that has stood in this vicinity of Bodie Island on the Outer Banks in North Carolina and was built in 1872. It stands 165 feet tall and is located on the Roanoke Sound side of the first island that is part of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore, the lighthouse is just south of Nags Head, a few miles before Oregon Inlet. It was renovated from August 2009 to March 2013, and was made climbable by the public, there are 214 steps that spiral to the top. The 170-foot structure is one of only a dozen remaining tall, brick tower lighthouses in the United States —, the preceding Bodie Island lighthouses actually stood south of Oregon Inlet on Pea Island in an area now under water. The first was built in 1847 and abandoned in 1859 due to a poor foundation, the second, built in 1859, was destroyed in 1861 by retreating Confederate troops who feared it would be used as a Union observation post during the Civil War. The third and current lighthouse, with its original first order Fresnel lens, was completed in 1872 and this lighthouse was moved further North and further inland to a 15-acre site.
In 1932, the Bodie Island Lighthouse became automated, and by 1953 it had transferred into the care of the National Park Service. It remained manned until 1940, when the lighthouse was fully automated, in 1953, the generators were disconnected and power was supplied from the commercial electric grid. While some people pronounce the name with an o sound. This is derived from the name of the area, which was Bodies Island. Folklore would have you believe it is due to the number of sailors washed ashore from this portion of the Atlantic Ocean. Local gift shops sell maps of the shipwrecks on the ocean floor, an impressive array of ships have been sunk due to storms and German U-boats in World War II. This lighthouse appears in the background of the 1963–1964 Federal Duck Stamp, after years of raising funds and postponement, work to restore the cast iron and other parts in need of work began on the lighthouse in August 2009. As of March 2010, the scaffolding was 100% complete while interior scaffolding was 50% completed.
The restoration was stopped in spring 2011 after significant new structural integrity issues were found in many of the support beams under the balcony. The additional repairs needed were too costly to finish in the restoration project. In August,2011 Hurricane Irene blew out some of the restored lantern room glass. Flooding caused buckling of the floors in the Bodie Island Light Station Double Keepers Quarters, additional funding was obtained to continue the restoration, which was restarted in 2012 and completed in March 2013
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants. Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweed. Catkin-like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn, approximately 60 species are recognized, with inflorescences and foliage ranging from purple, through red and green to gold. Members of this genus share many characteristics and uses with members of the related genus Celosia. Amaranth derives from Greek ἀμάραντος, with the Greek word for flower, ἄνθος, the more accurate amarant is an archaic variant. Amaranthus shows a variety of morphological diversity among and even within certain species. Although the family is distinctive, the genus has few distinguishing characters among the 70 species included and this complicates taxonomy and Amaranthus has generally been considered among systematists as a difficult genus. Formerly, Sauer classified the genus into two subgenera, differentiating only between monoecious and dioecious species, Acnida Aellen ex K. R, although this classification was widely accepted, further infrageneric classification was needed to differentiate this widely diverse group.
Currently, Amaranthus includes three recognized subgenera and 70 species, although numbers are questionable due to hybridization and species concepts. Infrageneric classification focuses on inflorescence, flower characters and whether a species is monoecious/dioecious, a modified infrageneric classification of Amaranthus was published by Mosyakin & Robertson and includes three subgenera, Acnida and Albersia. The taxonomy is further differentiated by sections within each of the subgenera, species include, One cup of cooked amaranth grain provides 251 calories and is an excellent source of protein, dietary fiber, and some dietary minerals. Amaranth is particularly rich in manganese, iron, cooked amaranth leaves are an excellent source of vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and folate. Amaranth does not contain gluten, so it may be a healthy and it has high biological value and its benefits are not limited to people with gluten-related disorders, but are applicable to the general population. Quantity and quality of proteins of amaranth are superior to those of wheat and it contains higher concentrations of folic acid than wheat, and its fiber and minerals contents are higher than those of other cereals.
Amaranth contains phytochemicals that may be antinutrient factors, such as polyphenols, tannins, known to the Aztecs as huauhtli, it is thought to have represented up to 80% of their energy consumption before the Spanish conquest. Another important use of amaranth throughout Mesoamerica was to prepare ritual drinks, to this day, amaranth grains are toasted much like popcorn and mixed with honey, molasses, or chocolate to make a treat called alegría, meaning joy in Spanish. Diego Durán described the festivities for Huitzilopochtli, the name of which means hummingbird of the side or left-handed hummingbird. The Aztec month of Panquetzaliztli was dedicated to Huitzilopochtli, people decorated their homes and trees with paper flags, ritual races, dances, songs and finally human sacrifices were held
The states largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the state is named after Henrietta Maria of France, the wife of Charles I of England. George Calvert was the first Lord of Baltimore and the first English proprietor of the colonial grant. Maryland was the state to ratify the United States Constitution. Maryland is one of the smallest U. S. states in terms of area, as well as one of the most densely populated, Maryland has an area of 12,406.68 square miles and is comparable in overall area with Belgium. It is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next largest state, its neighbor West Virginia, is almost twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature. The mid-portion of this border is interrupted by Washington, D. C. which sits on land that was part of Montgomery and Prince Georges counties and including the town of Georgetown.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia, the Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Close to the town of Hancock, in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state. This geographical curiosity makes Maryland the narrowest state, bordered by the Mason–Dixon line to the north, portions of Maryland are included in various official and unofficial geographic regions. Much of the Baltimore–Washington corridor lies just south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain, earthquakes in Maryland are infrequent and small due to the states distance from seismic/earthquake zones. The M5.8 Virginia earthquake in 2011 was felt moderately throughout Maryland, buildings in the state are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily. The lack of any glacial history accounts for the scarcity of Marylands natural lakes, laurel Oxbow Lake is an over one-hundred-year-old 55-acre natural lake two miles north of Maryland City and adjacent to Russett.
Chews Lake is a natural lake two miles south-southeast of Upper Marlboro. There are numerous lakes, the largest of them being the Deep Creek Lake. Maryland has shale formations containing natural gas, where fracking is theoretically possible, as is typical of states on the East Coast, Marylands plant life is abundant and healthy. Middle Atlantic coastal forests, typical of the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, grow around Chesapeake Bay, moving west, a mixture of Northeastern coastal forests and Southeastern mixed forests cover the central part of the state
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time. Climate change may refer to a change in weather conditions. Climate change is caused by such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics. Certain human activities have identified as significant causes of recent climate change. Scientists actively work to understand past and future climate by using observations, more recent data are provided by the instrumental record. The most general definition of change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Niño, the term climate change is often used to refer specifically to anthropogenic climate change. Anthropogenic climate change is caused by activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earths natural processes.
In this sense, especially in the context of environmental policy, within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increases while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas levels affect. A related term is climatic change, in 1966, the World Meteorological Organization proposed the term climatic change to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, regardless of cause. Change was a given and climatic was used as an adjective to describe this kind of change, when it was realized that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate, the term climate change replaced climatic change as the dominant term to reflect an anthropogenic cause. Climate change was incorporated in the title of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate change, used as a noun, became an issue rather than the technical description of changing weather. On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the Sun and this energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, and other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions.
Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or forcing mechanisms, there are a variety of climate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing. Some parts of the system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond more slowly in reaction to climate forcings. There are key factors which when exceeded can produce rapid change. Forcing mechanisms can be internal or external. Internal forcing mechanisms are natural processes within the system itself
Olympic National Park
Olympic National Park is a United States national park located in the state of Washington, on the Olympic Peninsula. The park has four regions, the Pacific coastline, alpine areas, the west side temperate rainforest. Within the park there are three distinct ecosystems which are sub-alpine forest and wildflower meadow, temperate forest, and the rugged Pacific Shore and these three different ecosystems are in pristine condition and have outstanding scenery. U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt originally created Mount Olympus National Monument on 2 March 1909 and it was designated a national park by President Franklin Roosevelt on June 29,1938. In 1976, Olympic National Park was designated by UNESCO as an International Biosphere Reserve, in 1988, Congress designated 95 percent of the park as the Olympic Wilderness. The coastal portion of the park is a rugged, sandy beach along with a strip of adjacent forest and it is 60 miles long but just a few miles wide, with native communities at the mouths of two rivers.
The Hoh River has the Hoh people and at the town of La Push at the mouth of the Quileute River live the Quileute, the beach has unbroken stretches of wilderness ranging from 10 to 20 miles. While some beaches are sand, others are covered with heavy rock. Bushy overgrowth, slippery footing and misty rain forest weather all hinder foot travel, the coastal strip is more readily accessible than the interior of the Olympics, due to the difficult terrain, very few backpackers venture beyond casual day-hiking distances. The most popular piece of the strip is the 9-mile Ozette Loop. The Park Service runs a registration and reservation program to control levels of this area. From the trailhead at Ozette Lake, a 3-mile leg of the trail is a path through near primal coastal cedar swamp. Arriving at the ocean, it is a 3-mile walk supplemented by headland trails for high tides and this area has traditionally been favored by the Makah from Neah Bay. The third 3-mile leg is enabled by a boardwalk which has enhanced the loops popularity, there are thick groves of trees adjacent to the sand, which results in chunks of timber from fallen trees on the beach.
The mostly unaltered Hoh River, toward the end of the park, discharges large amounts of naturally eroded timber and other drift. The removal of driftwood – logs, dead-heads and root-wads from streams, even today driftwood deposits form a commanding presence, biologically as well as visually, giving a taste of the original condition of the beach viewable to some extent in early photos. Drift-material often comes from a distance, the Columbia River formerly contributed huge amounts to the Northwest Pacific coasts. The smaller coastal portion of the park is separated from the larger, President Franklin D. Roosevelt originally had supported connecting them with a continuous strip of park land
Roanoke Island is an island in Dare County on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, United States. It was named after the historical Roanoke Carolina Algonquian people who inhabited the area in the 16th century at the time of English exploration, the town of Manteo is located on the northern portion of the island, and is the county seat of Dare County. Fort Raleigh National Historic Site is on the end of the island. There is an area of 17.95 square miles. Located along U. S. Roanoke Island was the site of the Roanoke Colony, a group of about 120 men and children arrived in 1587. Shortly after arriving in this New World, colonist Eleanor Dare, daughter of Governor John White and she was the first English child born in North America. Governor White returned to England that year for supplies, due to impending war with Spain, White was unable to return to Roanoke Island until 1590. When he arrived, the colony had vanished, the fate of those first colonists remains a mystery to this day and is one of Americas most intriguing unsolved mysteries.
Archaeologists and other researchers continue to work to resolve the mystery, Roanoke Island is one of the three oldest surviving English place-names in the U. S. Along with the Chowan and Neuse rivers, it was named in 1584 by Captains Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe and it was, for thousands of years, the site of ancient Indian settlements. Archeological excavations in the early 1980s at the Tillett Site at Wanchese have revealed evidence of various cultures dating back to 8000 BC, Wanchese was used as a seasonal fishing village for 1500 years before English colonial settlement. Ancestors of the Algonquian-speaking Roanoke coalesced as a people in about 400, another colony, which was much more populous than that of Raleighs, was developed at the island during the American Civil War. After Union forces took over the island in 1862, slaves migrated there for freedom, as they were considered contraband by the military. The Army established the Roanoke Island Freedmens Colony in 1863, an important social experiment as part of the US governments developing policies related to the future of the slaves in freedom.
The Congregational chaplain Horace James was appointed superintendent of the colony, with a view to making it self-sustaining, he had a sawmill built, and freedmen were allotted lands to cultivate. Those who worked for the Army were paid wages, when the United States Colored Troops were founded, many men from the colony enlisted. A corps of Northern teachers was sponsored by the American Missionary Association, today the residents of Roanoke Island are governed by the Dare County Board of Commissioners. They are located within Congressional District 1 of North Carolina, Roanoke Island was the site of the 16th-century Roanoke Colony, the first English colony in the New World
Kennedy Space Center
The John F. Kennedy Space Center is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers. Since December 1968, Kennedy Space Center has been NASAs primary launch center of human spaceflight, Launch operations for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs were carried out from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 and managed by KSC. Located on the east coast of Florida, KSC is adjacent to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the management of the two entities work very closely together, share resources, and even own facilities on each others property. Additionally, the center manages launch of robotic and commercial missions, researches food production and In-Situ Resource Utilization for off Earth exploration. Since 2010, the center has worked to become a multi-user spaceport through industry partnerships, there are about 700 facilities grouped across the centers 144,000 acres. There is a Visitor Complex open to the public on site, the military had been performing launch operations since 1949 at what would become Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
In December 1959, the Department of Defense transferred 5,000 personnel, President John F. Kennedys 1961 goal of a manned lunar landing before 1970 required an expansion of launch operations. On July 1,1962, the Launch Operations Directorate was separated from MSFC to become the Launch Operations Center, the decision was made to build a new LOC site located adjacent to Cape Canaveral on Merritt Island. NASA began land acquisition in 1962, buying title to 131 square miles, the major buildings in KSCs Industrial Area were designed by architect Charles Luckman. Construction began in November 1962, and Kennedy visited the site twice in 1962, on November 29,1963, the facility was given its current name by President Lyndon B. Johnson under Executive Order 11129. Johnsons order joined both the civilian LOC and the military Cape Canaveral station under the designation John F. Kennedy Space Center, spawning some confusion joining the two in the public mind. Located on Merritt Island, the center is north-northwest of Cape Canaveral on the Atlantic Ocean and it is 34 miles long and roughly six miles wide, covering 219 square miles.
KSC is a major central Florida tourist destination and is one hours drive from the Orlando area. The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex offers public tours of the center, Center workers can encounter bald eagles, American alligators, wild boars, eastern diamondback rattlesnakes, the endangered Florida panther and Florida manatees. From 1967 through 1973, there were 13 Saturn V launches, the first of two unmanned flights, Apollo 4 on November 9,1967, was the first rocket launch from KSC. The Saturn Vs first manned launch on December 21,1968 was Apollo 8s lunar orbiting mission, the next two missions tested the Lunar Module, Apollo 9 and Apollo 10. Apollo 11, launched from Pad A on July 16,1969, Apollo 12 followed four months later. From 1970–1972, the Apollo program concluded at KSC with the launches of missions 13 through 17, on May 14,1973, the last Saturn V launch put the Skylab space station in orbit from Pad 39A