|1||Abrolhos Marine National Park||1983||688||Bahia||Coastal marine|
|2||Acari National Park||2016||8,964||Amazonas||Amazon|
|3||Amazônia National Park||1974||9,940||Amazonas / Pará||Amazon|
|4||Anavilhanas National Park||1981||3,505||Amazonas||Amazon|
|5||Alto Cariri National Park||2010||182||Bahia||Atlantic Forest|
|6||Aparados da Serra National Park||1959||102||Rio Grande do Sul / Santa Catarina||Atlantic Forest|
|7||Araguaia National Park||1959||5,623||Tocantins||Amazon|
|8||Araucárias National Park||2005||128||Santa Catarina||Atlantic Forest|
|9||Boa Nova National Park||2010||142||Bahia||Atlantic Forest|
|10||Brasília National Park||1961||300||Distrito Federal||Cerrado|
|11||Cabo Orange National Park||1980||6,190||Amapá||Amazon|
|12||Campos Amazônicos National Park||2006||8,760||Rondônia||Amazon|
|13||Campos Gerais National Park||2006||215||Paraná||Atlantic Forest|
|14||Caparaó National Park||1961||318||Espírito Santo/Minas Gerais||Atlantic Forest|
|15||Catimbau National Park||2002||623||Pernambuco||Caatinga|
|16||Cavernas do Peruaçu National Park||1999||568||Minas Gerais||Cerrado|
|17||Chapada das Mesas National Park||2005||1,600||Maranhão||Cerrado|
|18||Chapada Diamantina National Park||1985||1,520||Bahia||Caatinga|
|19||Chapada dos Guimarães National Park||1989||330||Mato Grosso||Pantanal|
|20||Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park||1961||600||Goiás||Cerrado|
|21||Descobrimento National Park||1999||211||Bahia||Atlantic Forest|
|22||Emas National Park||1961||1,318||Goiás||Cerrado|
|23||Fernando de Noronha Marine National Park||1988||112||Pernambuco||Coastal marine|
|24||Furna Feia National Park||2012||85||Rio Grande do Norte||Caatinga|
|25||Grande Sertão Veredas National Park||1989||833||Bahia / Minas Gerais||Cerrado|
|26||Guaricana National Park||2014||493||Paraná||Atlantic Forest|
|27||Iguaçu National Park||1939||1,852||Paraná||Atlantic Forest|
|28||Ilha Grande National Park||1997||788||Mato Grosso do Sul / Paraná||Pantanal|
|29||Ilhas dos Currais Marine National Park||2013||1,360||Paraná||Coastal marine|
|30||Itatiaia National Park||1937||300||Minas Gerais / Rio de Janeiro||Atlantic Forest|
|31||Jamanxim National Park||2006||8,597||Pará||Amazon|
|32||Jaú National Park||1980||22,720||Amazonas||Amazon|
|33||Jericoacoara National Park||2002||200||Ceará||Coastal marine|
|34||Jurubatiba Sandbank National Park||1996||148||Rio de Janeiro||Coastal marine|
|35||Juruena National Park||2006||19,602||Amazonas / Mato Grosso||Amazon|
|36||Lagoa do Peixe National Park||1986||344||Rio Grande do Sul||Coastal marine|
|37||Lençóis Maranhenses National Park (location on map incorrect)||1981||1,550||Maranhão||Coastal marine|
|38||Mapinguari National Park||2008||15,624||Rondônia||Amazon|
|39||Monte Pascoal National Park||1961||225||Bahia||Atlantic Forest|
|40||Monte Roraima National Park||1989||1,160||Roraima||Amazon|
|41||Nascentes do Lago Jari National Park||2008||8,121||Amazonas||Amazon|
|42||Nascentes do Rio Parnaíba National Park||2002||7,298||Bahia /Maranhão / Piauí / Tocantins||Cerrado|
|43||Pacaás Novos National Park||1979||7,658||Rondônia||Amazon|
|44||Pantanal Matogrossense National Park||1971||1,350||Mato Grosso / Mato Grosso do Sul||Pantanal|
|45||Pau Brasil National Park||2000||115||Bahia||Atlantic Forest|
|46||Pico da Neblina National Park||1979||22,000||Amazonas||Amazon|
|47||Rio Novo National Park||2006||5,382||Pará||Amazon|
|48||Saint-Hilaire/Lange National Park||2001||245||Paraná||Atlantic Forest|
|49||São Joaquim National Park||1961||493||Santa Catarina||Atlantic Forest|
|50||Sempre Vivas National Park||2002||1,245||Minas Gerais||Cerrado|
|51||Serra da Bocaina National Park||1974||1,318||Rio de Janeiro / São Paulo||Atlantic Forest|
|52||Serra da Bodoquena National Park||2000||764||Mato Grosso do Sul||Cerrado|
|53||Serra da Canastra National Park||1972||2,000||Minas Gerais||Cerrado|
|54||Serra da Capivara National Park||1979||979||Piauí||Atlantic Forest|
|55||Serra da Cutia National Park||2001||2,836||Rondônia||Amazon|
|56||Serra da Mocidade National Park||1998||805||Roraima||Amazon|
|57||Serra das Confusões National Park||1998||8,234||Piauí||Caatinga|
|58||Serra das Lontras National Park||2010||113||Bahia||Atlantic Forest|
|59||Serra de Itabaiana National Park||2005||79||Sergipe||Atlantic Forest|
|60||Serra do Cipó National Park||1984||310||Minas Gerais||Cerrado|
|61||Serra do Divisor National Park||1989||8,430||Acre||Amazon|
|62||Serra do Gandarela National Park||2014||313||Minas Gerais||Atlantic Forest|
|63||Serra do Itajaí National Park||2004||573||Santa Catarina||Atlantic Forest|
|64||Serra do Pardo National Park||2005||4,473||Pará||Amazon|
|65||Serra dos Órgãos National Park||1939||110||Rio de Janeiro||Atlantic Forest|
|66||Serra Geral National Park||1992||173||Rio Grande do Sul / Santa Catarina||Atlantic Forest|
|67||Sete Cidades National Park||1961||62||Piauí||Caatinga|
|68||Superagui National Park||1989||210||Paraná||Coastal marine|
|69||Tijuca National Park||1961||39||Rio de Janeiro||Atlantic Forest|
|70||Tumucumaque Mountains National Park||2002||38,874||Amapá / Pará||Amazon|
|71||Ubajara National Park||1959||62||Ceará||Caatinga|
|72||Viruá National Park||1998||2,159||Roraima||Amazon|
Pará is a state in northern Brazil traversed by the lower Amazon River. It borders the Brazilian states of Amapá, Maranhão, Mato Grosso and Roraima. To the northwest it borders Suriname; the capital and largest city is Belém, at the mouth of the Amazon at the Atlantic Ocean and the 11th most populous city in the country. Pará is the most populous state of the northern region, with a population of over 7.5 million, being the ninth-most populous state in Brazil. It is the second-largest state of Brazil in area, with 1.2 million km², second only to Amazonas upriver. Its most famous icons are the Amazon Rainforest. Pará produces rubber, tropical hardwoods such as mahogany, minerals such as iron ore and bauxite. A new commodity crop is cultivated in the region of Santarém; every October, Belém receives tens of thousands of tourists for the year's most important religious celebration: the procession of the Círio de Nazaré. Another important attraction of the capital is the Marajó-style ceramics, based on pottery from the extinct Marajó indigenous culture, on an island in the Amazon River.
These designs have gained increased international awareness. Toponym of the word pará has its origin in the Tupi language and means "river-sea"; the state's name comes from the river of the same name. In 1500, the Spanish navigator Vicente Yañez Pinzón was the first European to navigate the mouth of the Amazon River. On 26 August 1542, the Spaniard Francisco de Orellana reached the mouth of the Amazon River, waterway by river from Quito, Ecuador. On 28 October 1637, the Portuguese Pedro Teixeira left Belem and went to Quito: during the expedition, he placed a landmark in the confluence of the Napo and Aguarico, in the current border between Ecuador and Peru, to Portugal, to Brazil, getting the possession of most of the Amazon, including all of the current territory of Pará. Archaeologists divide the ancient inhabitants of prehistory Brazil into groups according to their way of life and tools: hunter-gatherers of the coast and farmers; these groups were subsequently named by European settlers as "Indians".
There are archaeological records proving the human presence in Brazil and the region of Santarém since 3000 BC. Marajó people lived in farmer's houses 3,500 years ago; these people knew ceramics, natural medicinal compounds. Their culture remains in Marajoara pottery, which has peculiar decoration; the period from 500 to 1300 was the height of the Marajoara culture. The region of the Amazon valley, by the Treaty of Tordesillas, was in possession of the Spanish Crown, the Portuguese expeditionaries, with the purpose of consolidating the region as Portuguese territory, founded the Fort of the Nativity in 1616, in what was called Santa Maria de Belém do Grão-Pará; the building was the first of the model on Amazon and the most significant in the Amazon territory until 1660. Despite the construction of fort, the occupation of territory was marked by early Dutch and English incursions in search of spices, hence the need of the Portuguese to fortify the area. In the 17th century, the region, integrated into the captaincy of Maranhão, was prosperous with crops and livestock.
In 1616 the captaincy of Grão-Pará was created, belonging to the Portuguese colonial state of Maranhão. In the same year the state of Grão-Pará and Maranhão transferred capital to Belem and attaching the captaincy of Rio Negro in 1755 by creating the State of Grão-Pará and Rio Negro. In 1751, with the expansion to the west, the colonial state of Grão-Pará, which besides the captaincy of Grão Pará would host the captaincy of São José do Rio Negro. In 1823, the Pará decided to join the independent Brazil, separated during the colonial period, reporting directly to Lisbon. However, political infighting continued; the most important of them, the Cabanagem, decreed the independence of the province of Pará. This was, along with the revolution Farroupilha, Rio Grande do Sul, the only to lift the regency period when the power was taken. Cabanagem was the only revolt led by the popular strata. Cabanagem, a popular and social revolt during the Empire of Brazil, in the Amazon region, was influenced by the French Revolution.
It was due to extreme poverty and disease that devastated the Amazon at the beginning of the period, in the former province of Grão-Pará, which included the current Amazonian states of Pará, Amapá, Roraima and Rondônia. The revolt spread from 1835 until January 1840, due to the process of independence of Brazil, which did not occur in the province due to political irrelevance to which the region was relegated by Prince Regent Pedro I. After independence, the strong Portuguese influence remained stable, giving political irrelevance in this province to the Brazilian central government. Indians and mestizos, all named cabanos, teamed against the Regent Government and rebelled, to increase the importance of the region in Brazil's central government addressing the issue of poverty as one of the reasons. All lived in mud huts. At the bottom of the rebellion, there was a mobilization of the Brazilian Empire against the reactionary forces of the province of Grão-Pará in expelling the insurgents who wanted to keep the region as a Portuguese colo
Lagoa do Peixe National Park is a national park in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It was created in 1986 to protect a wintering zone for migratory birds along the Lagoa dos Patos, the estuary of the Guaiba river or Guaíba Lake about 200 kilometres south of Porto Alegre; the Lagoa do Peixe National Park is in the coastal marine biome, has been registered as a Ramsar Site. It has an area of 36,721 hectares; the park was created by decree nº 93.546 of 6 November 1986, is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. It covers parts of the municipalities of Mostardas, São José do Norte and Tavares in the state of Rio Grande do Sul; the park lies between two parallel lines of dunes on the Atlantic coast. It is 35 kilometres long and on average 1 kilometre wide. Altitudes range from sea level to 17 metres. There are two fresh water lagoons in the northern section and Pai João, while other lagoons and marshes are salt; the park includes areas influenced by rivers or lakes, marine areas and intermediate areas, has a mix of flora growing on the dunes, sandy fields, flood plains and salt and freshwater marshes.
Average annual rainfall is 1,250 millimetres. Temperatures range from 0 to 40 °C, with an average of 21 °C; the park is an important resting place for birds on the migratory route between Patagonia and the United States. Migratory species include red knot, common tern, white-rumped sandpiper, two-banded plover, tawny-throated dotterel, rufous-chested plover, Chilean flamingo and Andean flamingo; the tuco-tuco is endemic. The park is classified as IUCN protected area category II; the basic objectives are preservation of natural ecosystems of great ecological relevance and scenic beauty and enabling scientific research, environmental education, outdoor recreation and eco-tourism. On 16 April 1991 the park was recognized as an International Reserve of the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network. On 24 May 1993 it was registered as Ramsar Site No. 603. In 1999 it became. Protected species in the park include cinereous harrier, Olrog's gull, dot-winged crake and royal tern
Araucárias National Park is a national park in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The Araucárias National Park is located in the Santa Catarina municipalities of Passos Maia and Ponte Serrada; the protected area has an area of 12,841 hectares. The park is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. Annual rainfall averages 1,930 millimetres. Average temperature is 17 °C; the park is on the Campos Gerais, a plateau that slopes down to the west. The land ranges in altitude from 805 to 1,218 metres; the vegetation in the area directly influenced by the park is native secondary formations in different stages of regeneration, exploited primary forest, reforestation with exotic species, agricultural areas and pastures. The protected area is surrounded by a 500 metres buffer zone holding small farms and agrarian reform settlements as well as soy plantations and cattle ranches. In addition to the characteristic Araucaria angustifolia of the mixed rainforest there are other endangered species such as Dicksonia sellowiana and Ocotea porosa.
The forest helps maintain water quality in the Chapecó, Chapecozinho and Caratuva rivers. The park is classed as IUCN protected-area category II; the basic objective is to preserve the natural environments, which hold remnants of the Araucária Forest and plants of the Atlantic Forest biome that are threatened by human activity. The park supports environmental education, outdoor recreation and eco-tourism; the parks is threatened by wild boars, abandoned domestic animals, disturbed areas and the practice of hunting wild animals. Protected species include maned wolf, helmeted woodpecker and cougar
Monte Pascoal is a mountain to the south of the city of Porto Seguro, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. According to history, it was the first part of land viewed by Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral the first European to arrive in Brazil, in 1500, it was described as a rounded mountain arising from the ocean. Monte Pascoal is a national symbol to Brazilians and gives its name to a national park, Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal; the name "Pascoal" refers to "Páscoa", as the sighting of the mount happened around the date of that festival. It is one of the locations where the old growth Atlantic Forest remains, has been preserved. Media related to Monte Pascoal at Wikimedia Commons
Rio Grande do Sul is a state located in the southern region of Brazil. It is the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Uruguayan departments of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo and Artigas to the south and southwest, the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones to the west and northwest; the capital and largest city is Porto Alegre. The state has the highest life expectancy in Brazil, the crime rate is considered to be low. Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high and according to census data, it is one of the most difficult states in Brazil for foreigners to find jobs; the state has a gaucho culture like its foreign neighbors. It was inhabited by Guarani people; the first Europeans there were Jesuits, followed by settlers from the Azores. In the 19th century it was the scene of conflicts including the Farroupilha Revolution and the Paraguayan War.
Large waves of German and Italian migration have shaped the state. Rio Grande do Sul is bordered to the northeast by the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, on the southwest by Uruguay, to the northwest by the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones; the northern part of the state lies on the southern slopes of the elevated plateau extending southward from São Paulo across the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, is much broken by low mountain ranges whose general direction across the trend of the slope gives them the appearance of escarpments. A range of low mountains extends southward from the Serra do Mar of Santa Catarina and crosses the state into Uruguay. West of this range is a vast grassy plain devoted principally to stock-raising — the northern and most elevated part being suitable in pasturage and climate for sheep, the southern for cattle. East of it is a wide coastal zone only elevated above the sea; the coast is one great sand beach, broken only by the outlet of the two lakes, called the Rio Grande, which affords an entrance to navigable inland waters and several ports.
There are two distinct river systems in Rio Grande do Sul – that of the eastern slope draining to the lagoons, that of the Río de la Plata basin draining westward to the Uruguay River. The larger rivers of the eastern group are the Jacuí, Sinos, Caí, Gravataí and Camaquã, which flow into the Lagoa dos Patos, the Jaguarão which flows into the Lagoa Mirim. All of the first named, except the Camaquã, discharge into one of the two arms or estuaries opening into the northern end of Lagoa dos Patos, called the Guaíba River, though technically it is not a river but a lake; the Guaíba River is broad, comparatively deep and about 56 kilometres long, with the rivers discharging into it affords upwards of 320 kilometres of fluvial navigation. The Jacuí is one of the most important rivers of the state, rising in the ranges of the Coxilha Grande of the north and flowing south and southeast to the Guaíba estuary, with a course of nearly 480 kilometres It has two large tributaries, the Vacacaí from the south and the Taquari from the north, many small streams.
The Jaguarão, which forms part of the boundary line with Uruguay, is navigable 42 km up to and beyond the town of Jaguarão. In addition to the Lagoa dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim there are a number of small lakes on the sandy, swampy peninsulas that lie between the coast and these two, there are others of a similar character along the northern coast; the largest lake is the Lagoa dos Patos, which lies parallel with the coastline and southwest, is about 214 kilometres long exclusive of the two arms at its northern end, 40 58 km long and of its outlet, the Rio Grande, about 39 km long. Its width varies from 35 to 58 km; the lake is comparatively shallow and filled with sand banks, making its navigable channels tortuous and difficult. The Lagoa Mirim occupies a similar position farther south, on the Uruguayan border, is about 175 kilometres long by 10 to 35 km wide, it is more irregular in outline and discharges into Lagoa dos Patos through a navigable channel known as the São Gonçalo Channel. A part of the lake lies in Uruguayan territory, but its navigation, as determined by treaty, belongs to Brazil.
Both of these lakes are evidently the remains of an ancient depression in the coastline shut in by sand beaches built up by the combined action of wind and current. They are of the same level as the ocean, but their waters are affected by the tides and are brackish only a short distance above the Rio Grande outlet. One-third of the state belongs to the Río de la Plata drainage basin. Of the many streams flowing northward and westward to the Uruguay, the largest are the Ijuí of the plateau region, the Ibicuí, which has its source near Santa Maria in the central part of the state and flows westward to the Uruguay a short distance above Uruguaiana, the Quaraí River which forms part of the boundary line with Uruguay; the Uruguay River itself is formed by the confluence of the Pelotas rivers. The Pelotas, which has its source in the Serra do Mar on the Atlantic coast, the Uruguay River forms the northern and western boundary line of the state down to the mouth of the Quaraí, on the Uruguayan frontier.
Mount Roraima is the highest of the Pakaraima chain of tepui plateaus in South America.:156 First described to Europeans by the English explorer Sir Walter Raleigh during his 1595 expedition, its 31-square-kilometre summit area:156 is bounded on all sides by cliffs rising 400 metres. The mountain serves as the tripoint of Venezuela and Brazil.:156 Raleigh learned about it from indigenous peoples, who lived there before the European invasion of the 15-1600's. Mount Roraima lies on the Guiana Shield in the southeastern corner of Venezuela's 30,000-square-kilometre Canaima National Park forming the highest peak of Guyana's Highland Range; the highest point in Guyana and the highest point of the Brazilian state of Roraima lie on the plateau, but Venezuela and Brazil have higher mountains elsewhere. The triple border point is at 5°12′08″N 60°44′07″W, but the mountain's highest point is Laberintos del Norte. Many of the species found on Roraima are unique to the tepui plateaus with two local endemic plants found on Roraima summit.
Plants such as pitcher plants and the rare Rapatea heather are found on the escarpment and summit.:156–157 It rains every day of the year. The entire surface of the summit is bare sandstone, with only a few bushes and algae present.:517:464:63 Low scanty and bristling vegetation is found in the small, sandy marshes that intersperse the rocky summit.:517 Most of the nutrients that are present in the soil are washed away by torrents that cascade over the edge, forming some of the highest waterfalls in the world. There are multiple examples of unique fauna atop Mount Roraima. Oreophrynella quelchii called the Roraima Bush Toad, is a diurnal toad found on open rock surfaces and shrubland, it is a species of breeds by direct development. The species is listed as vulnerable and there is a need for increased education among tourists to make them aware of the importance of not handling these animals in the wild. Close population monitoring is required since this species is known only from a single location.
The species is protected in Monumento Natural Los Tepuyes in Venezuela, Parque Nacional Monte Roraima in Brazil. Since long before the arrival of European explorers, the mountain has held a special significance for the indigenous people of the region, it is central to many of their myths and legends; the Pemon and Kapon natives of the Gran Sabana see Mount Roraima as the stump of a mighty tree that once held all the fruits and tuberous vegetables in the world. Felled by Makunaima, their mythical trickster, the tree crashed to the ground, unleashing a terrible flood. Roroi in the Pemon language means ma means great, it is said to have inspired Paradise Falls from the Pixar film Up. Although the steep sides of the plateau make it difficult to access, it was the first recorded major tepui to be climbed: Sir Everard im Thurn walked up a forested ramp in December 1884 to scale the plateau; this is the same route. A report by the noted South American researcher Robert Schomburgk inspired the Scottish author Arthur Conan Doyle to write his novel The Lost World about the discovery of a living prehistoric world full of dinosaurs and other primordial creatures.
The only non-technical route to the top is the Paraitepui route from Venezuela. Mount Roraima has been climbed on a few occasions from the Guyana and Brazil sides, but as the mountain is bordered on both these sides by enormous sheer cliffs that include high overhanging stretches, these are difficult and technical rock climbing routes; such climbs would require difficult authorizations for entering restricted-access national parks in the respective countries. In Brazil the Monte Roraima National Park lies within the Raposa Serra do Sol Indigenous Territory, is not open to the public without permission; the 2013 Austrian documentary Jäger des Augenblicks - Ein Abenteuer am Mount Roraima shows rock climbers Kurt Albert, Holger Heuber, Stefan Glowacz climbing to the top of Mount Roraima from the Guyana side. In 2010 Brazilian climbers Eliseu Frechou, Fernando Leal and Márcio Bruno opened a new route on the Guyanese side, climbing to the top in 12 days of a difficult vertical wall climb, they called the new route Guerra de Luz e Trevas and classed it as 6° VIIa A3 J4.
A 28-minute Vimeo video called. Mount Roraima Information Mount Roraima on SummitPost.org National Geographic's 2004 Biological Exploration of the Cliffs A walk around the top of Mount Roraima Dias de Tempestade - 28-minute short documentary on Vimeo showing the 2010 climb of Mount Roraima from the Guyana side by Brazilian climber Eliseu Frechou and his team