Argentine comics are one of the most important comic traditions internationally, the most important within Latin America, living its "Golden Age" between the 1940s and the 1960s. Soon after, in 1970, the theorist Oscar Masotta synthesized its contributions in the development of their own models of action comics, humor comics and folkloric comics and the presence of other artists; the first cartoons to appear in Argentina were editorial cartoons in political satire magazines at the end of the 19th century. These cartoons single panels evolved to multiple panel constructions with sequential action. Many used methods such as text indicating dialogue emanating from the speaker's mouth, or text below the drawings for dialogue and explanation. In the 1900s, comics continued to be political satire and commentary, but strips about normal life, called cuentos vivos began to appear. Text still appeared below each drawing with dialogue or explanation. Comics continued to be published in magazines. During this time, translations of comics from the United States, such as Cocoliche by Frederick Burr Opper, showed up in Argentina.
During the 1910s, the amount of comics made in Argentina grew by bounds. In 1912, the first Argentine comic strip proper, with speech balloons and recurring characters, Las aventuras de Viruta y Chicharrón, by Manuel Redondo, began being published in Caras y Caretas. Comics, such as Aventuras de un matrimonio aun sin bautizar, by 1917, Las diabluras de Tijereta was one of the lone strips that still put text at the bottom of each picture. Billiken, a children's magazine started in 1919 included some cartoons; the popularity of comics grew in the 1920s, children's comics gained popularity. The newspaper La Nación started publishing comics daily in 1920, comics, both foreign and domestic, were a big reason for the popularity of the newspaper Crítica. In 1928, the first publication containing comics, the magazine El Tony, began its run of more than 70 years. The'20s saw the first characters created and drawn by Dante Quinterno. In 1928 Quinterno's most important character, Patoruzú, first appeared.
The 1930s saw most important newspapers featuring comic strips. Patoruzú had its own magazine, which began publication in November 1936, it became one of the most important humor magazines of the 1940s, with a record of over 300,000 copies printed for one edition. During the late 1930s superheroes from the United States, such as Superman and Batman, began appearing in local magazines such as Pif Paf, giving a place to action comics; the Argentine comic had its golden age between the mid-1940s and the 1960s, the so-called Golden Age of Argentine Comics, when a number of foreign artists, including many Italians, arrived in Argentina following World War II. José Antonio Guillermo Divito's magazine Rico Tipo, launched on 16 November 1944, contained many comic strips and was published until 1972, it included Oscar Conti's Amarroto and many others. Intervalo magazine appeared in 1945, containing longer dialogs and text in comparison with comics edited in other houses. Patoruzito magazine appeared in 1945, containing a number of children's comics in addition to the adventures of young Paturuzú.
In 1948, local superhero Misterix got his own magazine, which included other action comics, which would become one of the most important the time period. It contained several Italian comics translated into Spanish, but that gave way to local creations; the late 1940s saw the arrival to Argentina of a circle of Italian writers and artists, which further improved the quantity and quality of the comics in Argentina. These included Mario Faustinelli, Hugo Pratt, Ivo Pavone, Dino Battaglia, who were known as the Venice Group; some Argentines, notably Alberto Breccia and Solano López, were considered honorary members of the Venice Group. A number of new publications appeared, such as Fantasía. During this decade, Héctor Oesterheld, one of the most prolific writers, Solano López created the Hora Cero magazine. Between the mid-1950s and mid-1960s, some of the most important Argentine comics were created, such as Héctor Oesterheld's El Eternauta. Another illustrator, Landrú, launched Tía Vicenta in 1957.
Prominently featuring his own political cartoons and those of colleagues such as Oski and Hermenegildo Sábat, its circulation grew to nearly half a million and became the most read magazine in Argentina before its banning order by the military government installed in 1966. Around 1960, of the 6 best selling publications, only one was foreign; the arrival of foreign publications from Mexico, with better paper and ink quality and lower prices, started a financial crisis in the Argentine comic industry, several publishers, including Oesterheld's Ediciones Frontera, had to close or be sold, which forced several artists and writers to go abroad. After the 1966 coup d'état, the comics industry suffered from both some censorship and from recurring economic downturns; the 1968 biographic graphic novel of Che Guevara by Oesterheld and Breccia was removed from circulation by the government and the originals destroyed. Never
Culture of Argentina
The culture of Argentina is as varied as the country's geography and is composed of a mix of ethnic groups. Modern Argentine culture has been influenced by Italian and other European immigration, although there are lesser elements of Amerindian and African influences in the fields of music and art. Buenos Aires, its cultural capital, is characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, of conscious imitation of European styles in architecture. Museums and galleries are abundant in all the large urban centers, as well as traditional establishments such as literary bars, or bars offering live music of a variety of genres. Argentine writer Ernesto Sabato reflected on the nature of the culture of Argentina as follows: The spoken languages of Argentina number at least 40, although Spanish is dominant. Others include other immigrant languages; the most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense known as "Argentine Spanish", whose speakers are located in the basin of the Río de la Plata. Argentines are amongst the few Spanish-speaking countries that universally use what is known as voseo — the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú.
In many of the central and north-eastern areas of the country, the “rolling r” takes on the same sound as the ll and y. South Bolivian Quechua is a Quechuan language spoken by some 800,000 people immigrants who have arrived in the last years. There are 70,000 estimated speakers in Salta Province; the language is known as Central Bolivian Quechua, which has six dialects. It is classified as a Quechua II language, is referred to as Quechua IIC by linguists. Guaraní is spoken in the Mesopotamia, is an official language in the province of Corrientes. Argentina has a detailed literary history, as well as one of the region's most active publishing industries. Argentine writers have figured prominently in Latin American literature, since becoming a united entity in the 1850s, with a strong constitution and a defined nation-building plan; the struggle between the Federalists and the Unitarians, set the tone for Argentine literature of the time. The ideological divide between gaucho epic Martín Fierro by José Hernández, Facundo by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, is a great example.
Hernández, a federalist, was opposed to the centralizing and Europeanizing tendencies. Sarmiento wrote in support of immigration as the only way to save Argentina from becoming subject to the rule of a small number of dictatorial caudillo families, arguing such immigrants would make Argentina more modern and open to Western European influences, therefore a more prosperous society. Argentine literature of that period was fiercely nationalist, it was followed by the modernist movement, which emerged in France in the late 19th century, this period in turn was followed by vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes as an important reference. Jorge Luis Borges, its most acclaimed writer, found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate, his influence has extended to writers all over the globe. Borges is most famous for his works such as Ficciones and The Aleph; some of the nation's notable writers and intellectuals include: Juan Bautista Alberdi, Jorge Luis Borges, Roberto Arlt, Enrique Banchs, Adolfo Bioy Casares, Silvina Bullrich, Eugenio Cambaceres, Julio Cortázar, Esteban Echeverría, Leopoldo Lugones, Eduardo Mallea, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada, Tomás Eloy Martínez, Victoria Ocampo, Manuel Puig, Ernesto Sabato, Osvaldo Soriano, Alfonsina Storni, María Elena Walsh and Oliverio Girondo.
Argentine painters and sculptors have a rich history, dating from both before and since the development of modern Argentina in the second half of the 19th century. Artistic production did not come into its own, until after the 1852 overthrow of the repressive regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas. Immigrants like Eduardo Schiaffino, Eduardo Sívori, Reynaldo Giudici, Emilio Caraffa, Ernesto de la Cárcova left behind a realist heritage influential to this day. Impressionism did not make itself evident among Argentine artists until after 1900, never acquired the kind of following it did in Europe, though it did inspire influential Argentine post-impressionists such as Martín Malharro, Ramón Silva, Cleto Ciocchini, Fernando Fader, Pío Collivadino, Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós, aestheticism continued to set the agenda in Argentine painting and sculpture, noteworthy during this era for the sudden fame of sculptor Lola Mora, a student of Auguste Rodin's; as Lola Mora had been until she fell out of favor with local high society, monumental sculptors became in high demand after 1900 by municipal governments and wealthy families, who competed with each other in boasting the most evocative mausolea for their dearly departed.
Though most preferred French and Italian sculptors, work by locals Erminio Blotta, Ángel María de Rosa, Rogelio Yrurtia resulted in a proliferation of soulful monuments and memorials made them immortal. Not as realist as the work of some of his belle-époque predecessors in sculpture, Yrurtia's subtle impressionism inspired Argentine students like Antonio Pujía, whose internationally prized female torsos always surprise admirers with their whimsical and surreal touches, while
Music of Argentina
The music of Argentina includes a variety of traditional and popular genres. One of the country's most significant cultural contributions is the tango, which originated in Buenos Aires and its surroundings during the end of the 19th century and underwent profound changes throughout the 20th century. Folk music was popular during the 20th century, experiencing a "boom" in popularity during the 1950s and 1960s thanks to artists such as Atahualpa Yupanqui and Mercedes Sosa, prominent figures of the Nuevo cancionero movement. In the mid-to-late 1960s, the countercultural scene of Buenos Aires originated Argentine rock, considered the earliest incarnation of Spanish-language rock for having an autochthonous identity that differed from that of England or the United States, it was embraced by the youth and since has become part of the country's musical identity as much as traditional music. According to the Harvard Dictionary of Music, Argentina "has one of the richest art music traditions and the most active contemporary musical life.
Folk music—called música folklórica or folklore in Spanish, from the English folklore—comes in many forms, developed in different parts of Argentina with different European and indigenous influences. Among the first traditional folk groups to record extensively in Argentinia, three of the most influential were from the northwest: Los Chalchaleros from the Province of Salta Los Fronterizos from the Province of Salta and the Ábalos brothers from Santiago del Estero Province. Becoming nearly instant successes following their first albums around 1950, they inspired a revival of the genre in Argentinia; the folklorists Sixto Palavecino, Jorge Cafrune, Facundo Cabral and the folkloric group known as Los Manseros Santiagueños, as well as Los Nocheros are included in the genre. A famous soloist in the genre is guitarist Eduardo Falú, known for the many compositions that set traditional poetry into music. Traditional folk music became important during the protest movement against the military dictatorship and the community divisions of the 1970s, with artists like Mercedes Sosa and Atahualpa Yupanqui, contributing to the development of nueva canción.
Soledad Pastorutti has brought folklore to a new audience, in the early 21st century Juana Molina has proposed a fusion between electronic music and folklore with ambient sounds, a gentle voice and short zambas. In 2004 the album Cantor de Cantores, of Horacio Guarany was candidate to the Latin Grammy Award for Best Folk Album. A well-known venue for Argentine folklore music, the Cosquín National Folklore Festival, has been gathering musicians from the genre annually since 1961. A modest event at first, the festival has grown to include folk musicians from neighboring countries and Asia, as well as from throughout Argentina, itself. Focusing on folklore music, the festival features talent from the worlds of tango, acoustic music and international culture. On the same time of year is made the Cosquín Rock festival. Cosquín National Folklore Festival includes representatives from all musical genres created or developed in Argentina: In northern Argentina, on the borders with Bolivia and Chile, the music of the Andes reflects the spirit of the land with the sounds of local wind and string instruments.
Jaime Torres is a famous Argentine/Bolivian charango player. Originating in Santiago del Estero, this folk music is accompanied by Spanish guitars and bombo legüero; the name originates from the word "chacra", as it was danced in rural areas, but it made its way to the cities of that area. It is one of the few Argentine dances for couples where the woman has an equal opportunity to show off. Accordion-based Chamamé arose in the northeastern region an area with many settlers from Poland and Germany. Polkas and waltzes came with these immigrants, soon mixed with the Spanish music present in the area. Chamamé was not popular internationally in the 20th century, though some artists, such as Argentine superstar Raúl Barboza, became popular in the century. In the early 21st century Chango Spasiuk, a young Argentine of Ukrainian descent from Misiones province, has once again brought chamamé to international attention; the main basis of all the music of this area on the banks of the Paraná River is its roots in the music of Paraguay across the water.
Tango arose in the brothels and port areas of Buenos Aires, where waves of Europeans poured into the country mixing various forms of music. The result, came about as a fusion of disparate influences including: old milonga – songs of the rural gauchos habanera – Cuban music polka and mazurka – Slavic music contradanse – Spanish music flamenco – from Andalucia Italian folk music That combination of European rhythms, brought to Argentinia and Uruguay by traders and immigrants, developed into the swinging milonga around 1900; the milonga became the popular dance of Buenos Aires and evolved into modern tango. The golden age of tango mirrored the golden age of Jazz and Swing in the United States, featuring large orchestral tango groups, like the bands led, in particular, by Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caro, Osvaldo Pugliese, Aníbal Troilo, Juan d'Arienzo, Alfredo De Angelis. After 1955, as the Nueva canción and Argentine rock movements st
History of Argentina
The history of Argentina can be divided into four main parts: the pre-Columbian time or early history, the colonial period, the period of nation-building, the history of modern Argentina. Prehistory in the present territory of Argentina began with the first human settlements on the southern tip of Patagonia around 13,000 years ago. Written history began with the arrival of Spanish chroniclers in the expedition of Juan Díaz de Solís in 1516 to the Río de la Plata, which marks the beginning of Spanish occupation of this region. In 1776 the Spanish Crown established the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, an umbrella of territories from which, with the Revolution of May 1810, began a process of gradual formation of several independent states, including one called the United Provinces of Río de la Plata. With the declaration of independence on July 9, 1816 and the military defeat of the Spanish Empire in 1824, a federal state was formed in 1853-1861, known today as the Republic of Argentina; the area now known as Argentina was sparsely populated until the period of European colonization.
The earliest traces of human life are dated from the Paleolithic period, there are further signs in the Mesolithic and Neolithic. However, large areas of the interior and Piedmont were depopulated during an extensive dry period between 4000 and 2000 B. C; the Uruguayan archaeologist Raúl Campá Soler divided the indigenous peoples in Argentina into three main groups: basic hunters and food gatherers, without the development of pottery. The second group could be found in the pampas and south of Patagonia, the third one included the Charrúa and Minuane and the Guaraní; the major ethnic groups included the Onas at Tierra del Fuego, Yámana at the archipelago between the Beagle Channel and Cape Horn, Tehuelche in the Patagonia, many peoples at the literal, guaycurúes and, at Chaco. The Guaraní had expanded across large areas of South America, but settled in the northeastern provinces of Argentina; the Toba nation and the Diaguita which included the Calchaqui and the Quilmes lived in the North and the Comechingones in what is today the province of Cordoba.
The Charrúa, Bohán and Chaná were people located in the actual territory of Entre Ríos and the Querandí in Buenos Aires. In the late 15th century, the Native tribes of the Quebrada de Humahuaca were conquered by the Inca Empire, under Topa Inca Yupanqui, to secure the supply of metals such as silver and copper; the Incan domination of the area lasted for about half a century and ended with the arrival of the Spanish in 1536. Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 Portuguese voyage of Gonçalo Coelho and Amerigo Vespucci. Around 1512, João de Lisboa and Estevão de Fróis discovered the Rio de La Plata in present-day Argentina, exploring its estuary, contacting the Charrúa people, bringing the first news of the "people of the mountains", the Inca empire, obtained from the local natives, they traveled as far south as the Gulf of San Matias at 42ºS, on the northern shores of Patagonia. The Spanish, led by Juan Díaz de Solís, visited the territory, now Argentina in 1516. In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza established a small settlement at the modern location of Buenos Aires, abandoned in 1541.
A second one was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, Córdoba in 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera. Those regions were part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, whose capital was Lima, settlers arrived from that city. Unlike the other regions of South America, the colonization of the Río de la Plata estuary was not influenced by any gold rush, since it lacked any precious metals to mine; the natural ports on the Río de la Plata estuary could not be used because all shipments were meant to be made through the port of Callao near Lima, a condition that led to contraband becoming the normal means of commerce in cities such as Asunción, Buenos Aires, Montevideo. The Spanish raised the status of this region by establishing the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776; this viceroyalty consisted of today's Argentina and Paraguay, as well as much of present-day Bolivia. Buenos Aires, now holding the customs of the new political subdivision, became a flourishing port, as the revenues from the Potosí, the increasing maritime activity in terms of goods rather than precious metals, the production of cattle for the export of leather and other products, other political reasons, made it become one of the most important commercial centers of the region.
The viceroyalty was, short-lived due to lack of internal cohesion among its many regions and lack of Spanish support. Ships from Spain became scarce again after the Spanish defeat at the battle of Trafalgar, that gave the British maritime supremacy; the British tried to invade Buenos Aires and Montevideo in 1806 and 1807, but were defeated both times by Santiago de Liniers. Those victories, achieved without help from mainland Spain, boosted the confidence of the city; the beginning of the Peninsular War in Spain and the capture of the Spanish king Ferdinand VII created great concern all around the viceroyalty. It was thought; this idea led to multiple attempts to remove the local authorities at Chuquisaca, La Paz and Buenos Aires, all of which were short-lived. A new successful attempt, the May Revolution of 1810, took place when it was reported that all of Spain, with the exception of Cádiz and León, had been conquered; the May Revolution ousted the viceroy. Other forms of government, such as a constitutional monarchy or a Regency were considered.
Ámbito Financiero is an Argentine newspaper founded on December 9, 1976 by economist Julio A. Ramos, it was sold in downtown Buenos Aires, covering the daily prices of the U. S. dollar, stocks, etc. and included other editorials. The newspaper became successful, making it a reliable source of reference to investors and operators of the city. Ámbito Financiero was acquired by Orlando Vignatti in 2008. Ámbito Financiero
Argentine National Anthem
The "Argentine National Anthem" is the national anthem of Argentina. Its lyrics were written by the Buenos Aires-born politician Vicente López y Planes and the music was composed by the Spanish musician Blas Parera; the work was adopted as the sole official song on May 11, 1813, three years after the May Revolution. Some first, quite different, anthems were composed from 1810; the present, much shorter, anthem comprises only the first and last verses and the chorus of the 1813 Patriotic March, omitting much emotional text about the struggle for independence from Spain. The third Argentine national anthem was named "Marcha Patriótica" renamed "Canción Patriótica Nacional", "Canción Patriótica", it has been called "Himno Nacional Argentino" since it was published with that name in 1847. The first Argentine national anthem was the "Patriotic March", published on 15 November 1810 in the Gazeta de Buenos Ayres, it had lyrics by music by Blas Parera. This original composition made no reference to the name of Argentina or an independentist will, talked instead about Spain being conquered by France in the Peninsular War, the absolutist restoration begun by the Council of Regency, the need to keep the republican freedoms achieved so far in the Americas: "Spain was victim / of the plotting Gaul / because to the tyrants / she bent her neck / If there treachery / has doomed a thousands cities / let sacred freedom and union reign here / Let the father to the sons / be able to say / enjoy rights / that I did not enjoy".
In mid-1812, the ruling triumvirate ordered the Buenos Aires Cabildo to commission a national anthem. Cayetano Rodríguez, a Franciscan friar, wrote a text, approved on 4 August; the Catalan musician Blas Parera, music director of the local theater, set it to music and performed it for the first time with the orchestra he conducted on 1 November. Less than a year the Assembly of Year XIII estimated that the song was not effective enough to serve as a national anthem. On 6 March 1813 several poets were asked to submit lyrics; the poem by the lawyer Vicente López y Planes was unanimously considered the best. It was approved as the "sole national march" on May 11, 1813. Parera was asked to compose a new musical setting around the same date, he must have finished the piece in a few days. Oral tradition has it that the premiere took place on May 14, 1813 at the home of the aristocrat Mariquita Sánchez de Thompson, but there is no documentary evidence of that. If this episode is true Parera, contrary to certain misconceptions and under no visible coercion.
The published song sheet is dated 14 May 1813. He again conducted the official premiere in the theater on May 28, was paid 200 pesos; the composition was known as Canción Patriótica Nacional, simply as Canción Patriótica, but in Juan Pedro Esnaola's early arrangement, dated around 1848, it appeared under the title Himno Nacional Argentino, the name has been retained until today. In the complete version of the Anthem of May it is noted that the political vision portrayed is not only Argentine, but Latin American; the lyrics are ardently pro-independence and anti-Spanish, as the country was at that time fighting for its independence from Spain. The song became popular immediately. Within ten years documented performances took place throughout Argentina, in Chile and Colombia until they had their own national anthems. Different versions emerged. In 1860 Esnaola was commissioned to create an official version, he took the task to heart, making many changes to the music, including a slower tempo, a fuller texture, alterations to the melody, enrichment of the harmony.
In 1927 a committee produced a historicist version that undid several of Esnaola's changes, but introduced new problems in the sung line. After a heated public debate fueled by the newspaper La Prensa, this version was rejected and, following the recommendations of a second committee, Esnaola's arrangement was reinstated. In 1944 it was confirmed as the official state anthem. Throughout the 19th century the anthem was sung in its entirety. However, once harsh feelings against Spain had dissipated, the country had become home to many Spanish immigrants, a modification was introduced by a decree of President Julio Argentino Roca on March 30, 1900: "Without producing alterations in the lyrics of the National Anthem, there are in it verses that describe the concept that nations universally have regarding their anthems in peaceful times, that harmonize with the serenity and dignity of thousands of Spanish that share our living, those that can and must be preferred to be sung in official parties, for they respect the traditions and the law in no offense to anyone, the President of the Republic decrees that: In official or public parties, as well as in public schools, shall be sung only the first and last verses and the chorus of the National Song sanctioned by the General Assembly on May 11, 1813."
The song includes a line that has given rise to controversy: Buenos--Ayres se pone á la frente De los pueblos de la ínclita union. In the manuscript and an early printed song-sheet the word opone is used.
National symbols of Argentina
The National symbols of Argentina are the symbols used in Argentina and abroad to represent the nation and its people. The country has a number of national symbols, some of which are extensively defined by law