O Estado de S. Paulo
O Estado de S. Paulo known as O Estadão or Estadão, is a daily newspaper published in the Metropolitan region of São Paulo and distributed nationally, it is owned by Grupo Estado, a holding company which publishes the Jornal da Tarde and owns the radios Rádio Eldorado AM and FM and the Agência Estado, largest news agency in Brazil. It has the second largest circulation in the City of São Paulo, only behind Folha de S. Paulo, the fourth largest overall in Brazil, it is nicknamed the Estadão. The journal was founded relying on republican ideals on January 4, 1875, was firstly called A Província de São Paulo. In a 2007 ad campaign, the motto of the newspaper is Estadão, o jornal que pensa ÃO. -ão is a Portuguese augmentative suffix. The current publisher is "O Estado de S. Paulo S. A." The term Província was preserved until January 1890, one month after the fall of the monarchy and the regime change to the republican institution in Brazil. Although the newspaper supported the change, it showed that it was independent, refusing to serve its interests to the ascendant Republican Party of São Paulo.
When the editor in chief Francisco Rangel Pestana left to work in a project of the Constitution, in Petrópolis, the young editor Julio de Mesquita took on the direction of Estado and initiated a series of innovations. One of the innovations was the engagement of the agency Havas, back the largest in the world; the Estadão pioneered the newspaper selling system in 1875, when it was sold on the streets, instead of the subscription-only system adopted by all other newspapers in Brazil before. As first, this new way of selling motivated many jokes and mockery, but all rivals adopted the same system. Today, newspapers in Brazil are sold in small street newspapers/magazines shops, by single sellers located in main avenues of the biggest cities. Back in the 19th century, the Estadão was sold by only one man, a French immigrant, who carried his newspapers in a bag, while riding a horse, announcing himself with a cornet. In the end of the 19th century, the Estado was the largest newspaper in São Paulo, overcoming the Correio Paulistano.
Property of the Mesquita family since 1902, the Estado supported the Allied cause in World War I, suffering reprisal from the German community in the city, which removed all advertising announcements pertaining to them from the newspaper. Despite this, the Mesquitas maintained their eidtorial position. During the war, the afternoon edition of the newspaper began to circulate around the country, it was known as Estadinho, directed by the young Júlio de Mesquita Filho. In 1924, the newspaper Estado was banned from circulating for the first time, after the defeat of the tenants' rebellion that shook the entire city. Julio Mesquita, who tried to mediate a dialogue between the rebels and the government, was imprisoned and taken to Rio de Janeiro, being freed shortly later. With the death of the old director of 1927, his son Julio de Mesquita Filho assumed the directory along with his brother Franscisco, the latter taking care of the financial parts of the newspaper. In 1930 the Estado, connected to the Democratic Party, supported the candidature of Getúlio Vargas for the Liberal Alliance.
With the victory of Vargas, the newspaper saw the Brazilian Revolution of 1930 as a mark of the end of the oligarchy system. The so-called Grupo Estado assumed in 1932 the leadership of the constitutionalist revolution. With its defeat, many people from the directory were exiled, including Júlio de Mesquita Filho and Francisco Mesquita One year in the month of August, Getúlio Vargas invited Armando de Salles Oliveira to be the governor in São Paulo. Armando Salles, son-in-law of Júlio Mesquita, imposed as a condition to accept the job the amnesty of the rebels of 1932 and a convocation of a constituent assembly. Vargas agreed and Júlio de Mesquita Filho and Francisco Mesquita, as well as other exiled people returned to Brazil. Years with the appearance of the "Estado Novo", the newspaper maintained the opposition to the regime and, in March 1940, it was invaded by DOPS and the paper was altered by them to state that, with absurdity and mockery, "guns were arrested" in the redaction; the newspaper was closed and afterwards was confiscated by the dictatorship, being administrated by DIP until 1945, when the Estado was given back by the Supreme Federal Court to its legitimate owners.
The numbers published during this governmental intervention are not considered part of the actual history of the paper. Shortly after World War II the Estado enjoyed great advances, with the increase in editing and of its good reputation. In the 1950s, the Major Quedinho Street headquarters were built, adjacent to the Hotel Jaraguá; that was the phase when the section Internacional of the newspaper, directed by the journalist Giannino Carta and by Ruy Mesquita, became known as the most complete in any national newspaper. From that time until the 1970s, O Estado showed exclusively international news on its first page. Đ During the República Nova the Estado profiled itself to the National Democratic Union of Carlos Lacerda and opposed all the other governments João Goulart. In 1954, O Estado de S. Paulo led a national campaign against the elected democratic President, Getúlio Vargas, forcing him unto suicide. In
Paulo Afonso is a city in Bahia, Brazil. It was founded in 1958; the city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Paulo Afonso. The city is served by Paulo Afonso Airport; the municipality contains part of the Raso da Catarina ecoregion. The municipality holds part of the 26,736 hectares Rio São Francisco Natural Monument, which protects the spectacular canyons of the São Francisco River between the Paulo Afonso Hydroelectric Complex and the Xingó Dam, it contains part of the 104,842 hectares Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, created in 2001
Juazeiro do Norte
Juazeiro do Norte Portuguese pronunciation: is a city in the state of Ceará state in northeastern Brazil. It is located 528 km south of the state capital Fortaleza in the semiarid sertão; the municipality has a population of 246.515 and covers 248 km². Juazeiro do Norte is best known as the base of politician Padre Cícero. A pilgrimage in his honour takes place every November; the city is served by Orlando Bezerra de Menezes Airport. Juazeiro do Norte is connected to the nearby city of Crato by a commuter rail line called the Cariri Metro that opened in 2009–2010. Juazeiro do Norte was a district of the nearby city of Crato, until a young Padre Cícero Romão Batista decided to stay as a cleric in the village. Padre Cícero was responsible for the independence and emancipation of the city; because of the so-called "milagre de Juazeiro", the priest was associated with mystical characteristics and began to be venerated by the people as a saint. Today the city is the second largest in the state and a reference in the Northeast region thanks to the priest.
On July 6, 2013, during the worst drought in 60 years in the Brazilian Wilderness, a Christian music band Diante do Trono recorded its sixteenth work in Juazeiro do Norte, Tu Reinas album was recorded at Park Events Padre Cicero brought together 50,000 people who came from all parts of Brazil, was the largest event in Juazeiro do Norte and across the Sertão region
Manaus known as Manaós before 1939 and Barra do Rio Negro, is the capital city of the state of Amazonas in the North Region of Brazil. It is situated near the confluence of the Solimões rivers. With a population of more than 2 million, it is the most populous city of both the Brazilian state of Amazonas and the Amazon rainforest; the city was founded in 1669. It was elevated to a town in 1832 with the name of "Manaus", an altered spelling of the indigenous Manaós peoples, transformed into a city on October 24, 1848, with the name of Cidade da Barra do Rio Negro, Portuguese for "The City of the Margins of the Black River". On September 4, 1856 it returned to its original name. Manaus is located in the middle of the Amazon rainforest, access to the city is by boat or airplane; this isolation helped preserve both the natural environment as well as the culture of the city. The culture of Manaus, more than in any other urban area of Brazil, preserves the habits of Native Brazilian tribes; the city is the main access point for visiting the flora of the Brazilian Amazon.
Few places in the world afford such a variety of plants, birds and fishes. It was known at the beginning of the century, as "Heart of the Amazon" and "City of the Forest", its main economic engine is the Industrial Park of Manaus, a Free Economic Zone. The city has an international airport, its manufactures include electronics, chemical products, soap. Manaus exports Brazil nuts, rubber and rosewood oil, it has a cathedral, opera house and botanical gardens, an ecopark and regional and native peoples museums. With a population of 2,145,444 people in 2018, Manaus is the most populous city in the Brazilian Amazon area and the 7th most populous in the country, it is located on the north bank of the Negro River, 18 km above the meeting of the rivers where the Negro merges with the Solimões, to form the Amazon proper. Manaus is 1,400 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean, it is the hub of tourism for the jungle lodges and the river cruises. The Solimões and Negro rivers join to form the Amazon River. Rubber made it the richest city in South America during the late 1800s.
Rubber helped Manaus earn its nickname, the "Paris of the Tropics". Many wealthy European families settled in Manaus and brought their love for sophisticated European art and culture with them. Manaus is a duty-free zone, which has encouraged development in the region; the name Manaus comes from the native people called Manaós. The history of the European colonization of Manaus began in 1499 with the Spanish discovery of the mouth of the Amazon River; the Spanish continued to colonize the region north of Brazil. Development continued in 1668-1669 with the building of the Fort of São José da Barra do Rio Negro by the Portuguese in order to ensure its predominance in the region against the Dutch, at that time headquartered in what is today Suriname; the fort was constructed with four cannon guarding the curtains. It continued to function for more than 100 years. Next to the fort there were many indigenous mestizos, who helped in its construction and began to live in the vicinity; the population grew so much that in 1695, the missionaries built a nearby chapel dedicated as Nossa Senhora da Conceição, who in time became the patron saint of the city.
A Royal Charter of March 3 of 1755, created the captaincy of São José do Rio Negro, with capital in Mariuá, but with the governor, Lobo D'Almada fearing a Spanish invasion, the seat went back to Lugar de Barra in 1791. Being located at the confluence of the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers, it was a strategic point. On November 13 of 1832, Lugar da Barra was named Manaus. On October 24 of 1848, under Law 145 of the Provincial Assembly of Para, it was renamed City of Barra do Rio Negro. On September 4 of 1856 the governor Herculano Ferreira Pena gave it the name "Manaus"; the Cabanagem was the revolt in which blacks, Native Americans and mestizos fought against the white political elite and took power in 1835. The Cabanagem reduced the population of the state of Grão-Pará from about 100,000 to 60,000; the involvement of rebels from the Upper Amazon in what was a movement based in Belém was crucial for the birth of the current state of the Amazon. During the brief period of revolution, the Cabanos of the Upper Amazon, bands of rebels, roamed throughout the region, occupying Manaus twice, in most settlements their arrival was greeted by the non-white population spontaneously joining their ranks, leading to a greater number of adherents to the movement.
With that there was an integration of people in the region thus forming the state. Manaus was at the center of the Amazon region's rubber boom during the late 19th century. For a time, it was "one of the gaudiest cities of the world". Historian Robin Furneaux wrote of this period, "No extravagance, however absurd, deterred" the rubber barons. "If one rubber baron bought a vast yacht, another would install a tame lion in his villa, a third would water his horse on champagne." The city built a grand opera house, with vast domes and gilded balconies, using marble and crystal, from around Europe. The opera house cost ten million dollars. In one season, half the members of one visiting opera troupe died of yellow f
Amazonas (Brazilian state)
Amazonas is a state of Brazil, located in the North Region in the northwestern corner of the country. It is the largest Brazilian state by area and the 9th largest country subdivision in the world, is greater than the areas of Uruguay and Chile combined. Located in the Southern Hemisphere, it is the third largest country subdivision in the Southern Hemisphere after the Australian states of Western Australia and Queensland, it would be the sixteenth largest country in land area larger than Mongolia. It is larger than the whole of the Northeast Region of Brazil with its nine states. Amazonas is 90% the size of the U. S. is equivalent to 2.25 times the area of Texas. Neighbouring states are Roraima, Pará, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Acre, it borders the nations of Peru and Venezuela. This includes the Departments of Amazonas, Vaupés and Guainía in Colombia, as well as the Amazonas state in Venezuela, the Loreto Region in Peru. Amazonas is named after the Amazon River, was part of the Spanish Empire's Viceroyalty of Peru, a region called Spanish Guyana.
It was settled by the Portuguese moving northwest from Brazil in the early 18th century and incorporated into the Portuguese empire after the Treaty of Madrid in 1750. It became a state under the First Brazilian Republic in 1889. Most of the state is tropical jungle; the capital and largest city is Manaus, a modern city of 2.1 million inhabitants in the middle of the jungle on the Amazon River 1,500 km upstream from the Atlantic Ocean. Nearly half the state's population lives in the city; the name was given to the Amazon River that runs through the state by the Spaniard Francisco de Orellana in 1541. Claiming to have come across a warlike tribe of Indians, with whom he fought, he likened them to the Amazons of Greek mythology, giving them the same name of Río de las Amazonas. See also: Timeline of Amazon history and History of Amazonas See Also History of South America#Amazon and Amazon Rainforest#HistoryAt one time the Amazon River flowed westward as part of a proto-Congo river system from the interior of present-day Africa when the continents were joined as part of western Gondwana.
Fifteen million years ago, the Andes were formed by the collision of the South American Plate with the Nazca Plate plate. The rise of the Andes and the linkage of the Brazilian and Guyana bedrock shields, blocked the river and caused the Amazon to become a vast inland sea; this inland sea became a massive swampy, freshwater lake and the marine inhabitants adapted to life in freshwater. For example, over 20 species of stingray, most related to those found in the Pacific Ocean, can be found today in the fresh waters of the Amazon. About ten million years ago, waters worked through the sandstone to the west and the Amazon began to flow eastward. At this time the Amazon rainforest was born. During the Ice Age, sea levels dropped and the great Amazon lake drained and became a river. Three million years the ocean level receded enough to expose the Central American isthmus and allow mass migration of mammal species between the Americas; the Ice Ages caused tropical rainforest around the world to retreat.
Although debated, it is believed that much of the Amazon reverted to montane forest. Savanna divided patches of rainforest into "islands" and separated existing species for periods long enough to allow genetic differentiation; when the ice ages ended, the forest was again joined, the species that were once one, had diverged enough to be designated as separate species, adding to the tremendous diversity of the region. About 6,000 years ago, sea levels rose about 130 meters, once again causing the river to be inundated like a long, giant freshwater lake; the pre-Columbian Amazonas was inhabited by seminomadic peoples whose livelihood mixed occasional agriculture with a fishing and hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Because of Christopher Columbus' misunderstanding of the continent at which he had arrived, the native population were and are denominated "índios" by the Portuguese. Two thousand Indian tribes lived in the region in the sixteenth century amounting to some millions of people, but phenomena such as disease and assimilation to Brazilian culture caused their numbers to fall to three hundred thousand, two hundred tribes, by the end of the twentieth century.
Certain uncontacted tribes still exist in the region. In the colonial time, the territory which today belongs to the State of Amazonas, was a combination of treaties, expeditions and military occupations. Scarce but recorded claims and indigenous uprisings in the region, were made by the Spanish Empire through the Treaty of Tordesillas and after the Portuguese Empire by the First Treaty of San Ildefonso; the State includes territory from failed attempts at colonization by the European powers, such as England and the Dutch empire. The first Spanish expedition was by Francisco de Orellana in conjunction with Catholic priest Gaspar de Carvajal, who documented the expedition, he reported a conflict against indigenous women which led to the current name of the river, to the current name of the region and the state. The second Spanish expedition was by
Vitória da Conquista
Vitória da Conquista is a city in Bahia, which serves as a regional center for the smaller cities Barra do Choça, Planalto and Poções. These cities on the plateau, all at around 1,000 metres elevation, form the basis of a strong, coffee-producing region, as well as a expanding center for new businesses. Vitória da Conquista is the third largest city in the state of Bahia, after the state’s capital and Feira de Santana, its population, according to IBGE was 308,204 in April 2007. It was named after the colony of Vitória da Conquista; the city has a subtropical highland climate dry and moderated in temperature by the elevation. It borders a tropical savanna climate; the altitude of the city itself varies 950 meters. Precipitation from April to August is characterized by fine, misty rain, while heavier rains fall from October to March. Winters tend to lack much precipitation but are cool and humid, with cold air coming up to the plateau from the ocean and producing fog. Mean temperature varies from a low of 17.8 °C in July to 21.8 °C in March.
Mean rainfall ranges from 17.9 mm in July to 127.8 mm in December.. The vegetation ranges from dry and coarse to an array of grasses and palms at lower elevations on the plateau; this is the coffee-growing elevation. Vitória da Conquista was founded in 1783, after several battles against the native Imboré and Mongoió tribes by João Gonçalves da Costa, born in Chaves, Trás-os-Montes, Portugal. Costa had served the portuguese crown during Joseph I's kingdom, fighting the natives, conquering their land, attempting to convert them to Christianity, he founded the Arraial da Conquista near the site of the last battles and began the building of a church in honour of the Holy Mother of Victory. At the same time, João Gonçalves da Costa was ordered to lead the construction of two of the principal roads in the state of Bahia, one from Vitória da Conquista to the city of Ilhéus on the coast and another from Vitória da Conquista to the Jequitinhonha River in Minas Gerais. Today, the latter road has become part of the larger federal highway system, is known as the Rio-Bahia — BR-116.
The major economic activities are commerce, medical services, coffee growing. The city is home to the main campus of Southwest Bahia State University; the business atmosphere is energetic and in full blown expansion mode. From larger businesses such as Grupo Marinho de Andrade, Coca-Cola, Dilly Calçados, BahiaFarma and Café Maratá, to the smallest cottage industries, the area continues to attract strong interest; the best place for holding events in the city is the Miraflores Arena. The entrepreneurial Ymborés Industrial Park lies on the outskirts of the city along with industries such as ceramics, granite/marble, toilet valves, cleaning products and many others. Micro industries produce safes, clothing and hundreds of other products for local consumption and export; as a business center, Vitoria da Conquista serves the entire southwestern region of the state of Bahia and the northern part of the state of Minas Gerais. Vitória da Conquista is served by Pedro Otacílio Figueiredo Airport. Antônio Rodrigo Nogueira aka "Minotauro" — mixed martial artist Antônio Rogério Nogueira aka "Minotouro" — mixed martial artist Glauber Rocha — film director and screenwriter
Macapá is a city in Brazil, population 397,913. It is the capital of Amapá state in the country's North Region, it is located on the northern channel of the Amazon River near its mouth on the Atlantic Ocean. The city is on a small plateau on the Amazon in the southeast of the state of Amapá; the only access by road from outside the province is from French Guiana, although there are regular ferries to Belem, Brazil. Macapá is linked by road with some other cities in Amapá; the equator runs through the middle of the city, leading residents to refer to Macapá as "The capital of the middle of the world." It covers 6,407.12 square kilometres and is located northwest of the large inland island of Marajó and south of the border with French Guiana. Macapá is a corruption of the Tupi word macapaba, or "place of many bacabas", the fruit of the local palm tree; the Spaniard Francisco de Orellana called it Nueva Andalucía. The modern town began as the base of a Portuguese military detachment, stationed there in 1738.
On February 4, 1758 Sebastião Veiga Cabral, the illegitimate child of the military governor of Trás-os-Montes, Sebastião Veiga Cabral, founded the town of São José de Macapá, under the authority of the governor of Pará, Francisco Xavier de Mendonça Furtado. The fortress of São José de Macapá was first laid out in 1764, but took 18 years to complete, due to illness among the Indian workers, numerous escapes made by black slaves. Macapá was elevated to city status in 1854. Macapá gained international notoriety in December 2001 when international yachtsman Peter Blake, from New Zealand, was murdered while anchored on his explorer yacht Seamaster in Macapá port. According to Business Insider, Macapá is the 45th most violent city in the world, with 32.06 homicides per 100,000 people. Macapá has a population of 499,166 in the third largest in the North Region; the city alone accounts for 60% of the population of state of Amapá and 3.50% of the population of the entire northern region of Brazil. According to the 2010 census, the city has a population of 397,913, of which 97.92% live in urban areas and 2.08% live in rural districts.
With an area of 6,563 square kilometres, the population density of Macapá is 60.62 inhabitants per km². Macapá has a few roads to other cities in Brazil and is connected to the rest of the country by air and sea. Macapá is located 345 kilometres from Belém, but the cities are separated by the large inland island of Marajó and have no direct highway connections. Macapá is connected to French Guiana by the Brazilian federal highway BR-156, which runs north of the city through the Amazonian jungle; the city is connected with the rest of the North Region via the following highways: the AP-010, linking Macapá to Santana to the southwest. The Oyapoque River Bridge has been open to traffic since 20 March 2017, linking Brazil and French Guiana by road for the first time. Macapá International Airport is located 3 kilometres from the city center and serves as a vital link between Macapá and other cities in Brazil. Commercial flights connect the Macapá to Belém, Brasília, Recife Airport, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo.
The airport traces its history to a small air base built by the United States during World War II to secure strategic bases in the South Atlantic region. Macapá is an economic center of northern Brazil and serves as a commercial hub of the state of Amapá. Gold, lumber, oil and tin ore from the interior of the state pass through Amapá on to Port Santana in the neighboring municipality of Santana, it is the fifth wealthiest city in northern Brazil, with a GDP of R$2,826,458,000. The city has a notably high rate of economic growth and a per capita income of R$7,950. Portuguese is the official national language, thus the primary language taught in schools; however and French are part of the official high school curriculum due to Macapá's proximity to French Guiana and Guyana. Universidade Federal do Amapá Universidade Estadual do Amapá Instituto Federal do Amapá Faculdade de Macapá Faculdade de Tecnologia do Amapá Instituto Macapaense do Melhor Ensino Superior Faculdade Seama The fortress of St. Joseph is a Vauban-style star fort built between 1764 and 1782 to replace two previous fortifications located in the city.
It was built to control the estuary of the Amazon. It is one of the main sights of the city of Macapa; the Marco Zero monument was built to mark the position of the equator in the city and to show the passage of the sun. At the spring and the autumn equinox the sun rises and sets on the line of the equator and shines on the monument along the Avenue Equatorial, which runs for a mile due east of it; the Estádio Milton Corrêa known as the Zerão, is a multi-purpose stadium located in central Macapá on the R. Ilvaldo Alves Veras east of the university; the stadium has a maximum capacity of 10,000 people and was built in 1990. It is used for football matches and hosts the home matches of several local teams; the municipality contains the 111-hectare Parazinho Biological Reserve, created in 1985 to protect an island in the Amazon river. It contains the 21,676-hectare Rio Curiaú Environmental Protection Area, created in 1992 to protect an area near the urban center