Murfreesboro is a city in, the county seat of, Rutherford County, United States. The population was 108,755 according to the 2010 census, up from 68,816 residents certified in 2000. In 2017, census estimates showed a population of 136,372; the city is home to both the center of population of Tennessee, the geographic center of Tennessee. Murfreesboro is located 34 miles southeast of downtown Nashville in the Nashville metropolitan area of Middle Tennessee, it is one of the fastest growing cities in the country. Murfreesboro is home to Middle Tennessee State University, the second largest undergraduate university in the state of Tennessee, with 22,729 total students as of fall 2014. In 2006, Murfreesboro was ranked by Money as the 84th best place to live in the United States, out of 745 cities with a population over 50,000. In 2018, Murfreesboro was ranked by Money as the 19th best place to live in the United States. On October 27, 1811, the Tennessee General Assembly designated the location for a new county seat for Rutherford County, giving it the name Cannonsburgh in honor of Newton Cannon, then-representative to the Assembly for the local area.
At the suggestion of William Lytle, it was renamed Murfreesborough on November 29, 1811, after Revolutionary War hero Colonel Hardy Murfree. The name was shortened to Murfreesboro in January 1812. Author Mary Noailles Murfree was his great-granddaughter; as Tennessee settlement expanded to the west, the location of the state capital in Knoxville became inconvenient for most newcomers. In 1818, Murfreesboro was designated as the capital of Tennessee and its population boomed. Eight years however, it was itself replaced by Nashville. On December 31, 1862, the Battle of Stones River called the Battle of Murfreesboro, was fought near the city between the Union Army of the Cumberland and the Confederate Army of Tennessee; this was a major engagement of the American Civil War, between December 31 and January 2, 1863, the rival armies suffered a combined total of 23,515 casualties. It was the bloodiest battle of the war by percentage of casualties. Following the Confederate retreat after the drawn Battle of Perryville in central Kentucky, the Confederate army moved through East Tennessee and turned northwest to defend Murfreesboro.
General Braxton Bragg's veteran cavalry harassed Union General William Rosecrans' troop movements and destroying many of his supply trains. However, they could not prevent supplies and reinforcements from reaching Rosecrans. Despite the large number of casualties, the battle was inconclusive, it is considered a Union victory, since afterwards General Bragg retreated 36 miles south to Tullahoma. So, the Union army did not move against Bragg until a full six months in June 1863; the battle was significant since it did provide the Union army with a base to push the eventual drive further south, which allowed the advances against Chattanooga and Atlanta. These allowed the Union to divide the Eastern and Western theaters, followed by Sherman's March to the Sea; the Stones River National Battlefield is now a national historical site. General Rosecrans' move to the south depended on a secure source of provisions, Murfreesboro was chosen to become his supply depot. Soon after the battle, Brigadier General James St. Clair Morton, Chief Engineer of the Army of the Cumberland, was ordered to build Fortress Rosecrans, some 2 miles northwest of the town.
The fortifications were the largest built during the war. Fortress Rosecrans consisted of four redoubts and connecting fortifications; the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and the West Fork of the Stones River both passed through the fortress, while two roads provided additional transportation. The fort's interior was a huge logistical resource center, including sawmills, quartermaster maintenance depots, ammunition magazines, living quarters for the 2,000 men who handled the operations and defended the post; the fortress was completed in June 1863, only did Rosecrans dare to move south. The fortress was never attacked, in part because the Union troops held the town of Murfreesboro hostage by training their artillery on the courthouse. Major portions of the earthworks still have been incorporated into the battlefield site. Murfreesboro had begun as a agricultural community, but by 1853 the area was home to several colleges and academies, gaining the nickname the "Athens of Tennessee". Despite the wartime trauma, the town's growth had begun to recover by the early 1900s, in contrast to other areas of the devastated South.
In 1911, the state legislature created Middle Tennessee State Normal School, a two-year institute to train teachers. It would soon merge with the Tennessee College for Women. In 1925 the Normal School was expanded to a four-year college. In 1965 it became Middle Tennessee State University. MTSU now has the largest undergraduate enrollment in the state, including many international students. World War II resulted in Murfreesboro diversifying into industry and education. Growth has been steady since that time. Murfreesboro has enjoyed substantial residential and commercial growth, with its population increasing 123.9% between 1990 and 2010, from 44,922 to 100,575. The city has been a destination for many immigrants leaving areas affected by warfare; the city has become more cosmopolitan by attracting more numerous international students to the university. The city council has six members, all elected at-large for four-year term
Clarksville is the county seat of Montgomery County, United States. It is the fifth-largest city in the state behind Nashville, Memphis and Chattanooga; the city had a population of 132,929 at the 2010 census, an estimated population of 153,205 in 2017. It is the principal central city of the Clarksville, TN–KY metropolitan statistical area, which consists of Montgomery and Stewart Counties in Tennessee, Christian and Trigg Counties in Kentucky; the city was founded in 1785 and incorporated in 1807, named for General George Rogers Clark, frontier fighter and Revolutionary War hero, brother of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Clarksville is the home of Austin Peay State University. Site of the 101st Airborne Division, Fort Campbell is located about 10 miles from downtown Clarksville, straddling the Tennessee-Kentucky state line. While the post office for the base is located on the Kentucky side, the majority of the base's acreage is on the Tennessee side; the area now known as Tennessee was first settled by Paleo-Indians nearly 11,000 years ago.
The names of the cultural groups that inhabited the area between first settlement and the time of European contact are unknown, but several distinct cultural phases have been named by archaeologists, including Archaic and Mississippian, whose chiefdoms were the cultural predecessors of the Muscogee people who inhabited the Tennessee River Valley prior to Cherokee migration into the river's headwaters. When Spanish explorers first visited Tennessee, led by Hernando de Soto in 1539−43, it was inhabited by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi people; because of European diseases devastating the native tribes, which would have left a population vacuum, from expanding European settlement in the north, the Cherokee moved south from the area now called Virginia. As European colonists spread into the area, the native populations were forcibly displaced to the south and west, including all Muscogee and Yuchi peoples, the Chickasaw, Choctaw. From 1838 to 1839, nearly 17,000 Cherokees were forced to march from "emigration depots" in Eastern Tennessee, such as Fort Cass, to Indian Territory west of Arkansas.
This came to be known as the Trail of Tears. The area around Clarksville was first surveyed by Thomas Hutchins in 1768, he identified Red Paint Hill, a rock bluff at the confluence of the Cumberland and Red Rivers, as a navigational landmark. In the years between 1771 and 1775, John Montgomery, the namesake of the county, along with Kasper Mansker, visited the area while on a hunting expedition. In 1771, James Robertson led a group of 12 or 13 families involved with the Regulator movement from near where present-day Raleigh, North Carolina now stands. In 1772, Robertson and the pioneers who had settled in northeast Tennessee met at Sycamore Shoals to establish an independent regional government known as the Watauga Association. However, in 1772, surveyors placed the land within the domain of the Cherokee tribe, who required negotiation of a lease with the settlers. Tragedy struck as the lease was being celebrated, when a Cherokee warrior was murdered by a white man. Through diplomacy, Robertson made peace with the Cherokee, who threatened to expel the settlers by force if necessary.
In March 1775, land speculator and North Carolina judge Richard Henderson met with more than 1,200 Cherokees at Sycamore Shoals, including Cherokee leaders such as Attacullaculla and Dragging Canoe. In the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals, Henderson purchased all the land lying between the Cumberland River, the Cumberland Mountains, the Kentucky River, situated south of the Ohio River in what is known as the Transylvania Purchase from the Cherokee Indians; the land thus delineated, 20 million acres, encompassed an area half as large as the present state of Kentucky. Henderson's purchase was in violation of North Carolina and Virginia law, as well as the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited private purchase of American Indian land. Henderson may have mistakenly believed that a newer British legal opinion had made such land purchases legal. All of present-day Tennessee was once recognized as North Carolina. Created in 1777 from the western areas of Burke and Wilkes Counties, Washington County had as a precursor a Washington District of 1775–76, the first political entity named for the Commander-in-Chief of American forces in the Revolution.
In 1779, James Robertson brought a group of settlers from upper East Tennessee via Daniel Boone's Wilderness Road. Robertson built an iron plantation in Cumberland Furnace. A year John Donelson led a group of flat boats up the Cumberland River bound for the French trading settlement, French Lick, that would be Nashville; when the boats reached Red Paint Hill, Moses Renfroe, Joseph Renfroe, Solomon Turpin, along with their families, branched off onto the Red River. They traveled to the mouth of Parson's Creek, near Port Royal, went ashore to settle down. However, an attack by Indians in the summer drove them back. Clarksville was designated as a town to be settled in part by soldiers from the disbanded Continental Army that served under General George Washington during the American Revolutionary War. At the end of the war, the federal government lacked sufficient funds to repay the soldiers, so the Legislature of North Carolina, in 1790, designated the lands to the west of the state line as federal lands that could be used
Gallatin is a city in and the county seat of Sumner County, Tennessee. The population was 30,678 at the 2010 census and 32,307 in 2013. Named for U. S. Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin, the city was established on the Cumberland River and made the county seat of Sumner County in 1802, it is located about 30.6 miles northeast of the state capital of Tennessee. Several national companies have facilities or headquarters including Gap, Inc.. RR Donnelley and Servpro Industries, Inc. Gallatin was the headquarters of Dot Records; the city is home to Volunteer State Community College, a two-year college with more than 70 degree programs. Gallatin was established in 1802 as the permanent county seat of Sumner County, Tennessee, in what is called the Middle Tennessee region; the town was named after Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury to presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Andrew Jackson became one of the first to purchase a lot when the town was surveyed and platted in 1803; the town was built around a traditional plan of an open square.
Jackson founded the first general store in Gallatin. In 1803 the first county courthouse and jail were built on the central town square. In 1815, the town was incorporated. In the mid-20th century, it operated under a charter established by a 1953 Private Act of the State Legislature. During the secession crisis just prior to the Civil War, the citizens of Gallatin hoped to remain neutral. Once the fighting began, they gave unanimous support to the Confederacy and volunteered to serve in defense of their state; the Union Army captured Gallatin in February 1862, following Ulysses S. Grant's capture of Fort Donelson. Gallatin was strategic because of the railroad and its location on the Cumberland River, both of which the Union Army sought to control. In July 1862, General John Hunt Morgan recaptured Gallatin and held it until the Confederate forces fell back to Chattanooga in October. In November 1862, Union general Eleazar A. Paine retook the town, Union troops occupied it throughout the remainder of the war.
Paine was notoriously cruel and was replaced in command before the end of the war because of his behavior. Alice Williamson, a 16-year-old girl, kept a diary during this time and described Paine's execution of alleged spies in the town square. Following the Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863, enslaved African Americans left plantations with their families to join the Union troops, they established a "contraband camp" at Gallatin. The slaves were provided food and housing, put to work. Schools were set up in the camp so that both children could learn to read and write; the long enemy occupation drained the area of resources. Union troops lived off the land. By the end of the war, there was widespread social and economic breakdown and dislocation in the area, accompanied by a rise in crime. Occupation forces of the Union Army remained in Gallatin for some time after the war, still living off the land. In the aftermath of the war, many freedmen moved from the farms into town, in order to gather in black communities away from white oversight.
At the same time, many white residents moved from town out to farms in order to avoid the occupying troops. The area took many years to recover from the disruption of the war years, its continued reliance on agriculture slowed the economy, planters and other employers struggled with the shift to a free labor system. In the summer of 1873, Gallatin was devastated by an epidemic of cholera. In the single month of June, 68 people died, including many children; the epidemic swept through the South, with the disease brought by immigrants arriving in New Orleans, spread by passengers traveling in the region by steamboat and rail. The poor sanitation of the period resulted in contamination of water sources. Sumner County had an estimated 120 deaths that year from cholera, with four-fifths of them suffered by African Americans. Nashville had 603 fatal cases with 72 people dying on the day of highest fatalities. Through the late 19th century and its surroundings regained some steady growth; the area was agricultural until the middle of the 20th century.
By 1970, industrialization and urbanization had resulted in half the county population being considered urban. In 1992, Gallatin was surpassed by Hendersonville as the largest city in the county, though the former remains the county seat. Today it serves in part as a bedroom commuter suburb to the larger city and state capital of Nashville, some 30.6 miles to the southwest. In April 7, 2006, a tornado struck the city, killing nine people and injuring 150. Volunteer State Community College sustained major damage; this tornado was part of the April 6 -- 2006 Tornado Outbreak. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.5 square miles, of which 22.0 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. Gallatin has variety of natural landscapes: open fields, forests and lakes; the city is located on Station Camp Creek, three miles north of the Cumberland River, the chief route of transportation in the county's early years of settlement. Old Hickory Lake, a man-made lake, built by the U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers, is located south of the city. Gallatin was on the path of the total solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. Totality of the eclipse, lasting 2 minutes, 38.7 seconds, occurred just before 1:30 PM local DST time that afternoon High temperatures average 49 °F during the winter months, 69 °F in spring, 88 °F in summer, 72 °F in fall. The coolest month
Greeneville is a town in, the county seat of Greene County, United States. The population as of the 2010 census was 15,062; the town was named in honor of Revolutionary War hero Nathanael Greene. It is the only town with this spelling in the United States, although there are numerous U. S. towns named Greenville. The town was the capital of the short-lived State of Franklin in the 18th-century history of the Tennessee region. Greeneville is notable as the town where United States President Andrew Johnson began his political career when elected from his trade as a tailor, he and his family lived there most of his adult years. It was an area of strong abolitionist and Unionist views and yeoman farmers, an environment which influenced Johnson's outlook; the Greeneville Historic District was established in 1974. The U. S. Navy Los Angeles-class submarine USS Greeneville was named in honor of the town. Greeneville is part of the Johnson City-Kingsport- Bristol TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – known as the "Tri-Cities" region.
Greeneville is located at 36°10′6″N 82°49′21″W. It lies in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains; these hills are part of the Appalachian Ridge-and-Valley Province, characterized by fertile river valleys flanked by narrow, elongate ridges. Greeneville is located halfway between Bays Mountain to the northwest and the Bald Mountains— part of the main Appalachian crest— to the southeast; the valley in which Greeneville is situated is part of the watershed of the Nolichucky River, which passes a few miles south of the town. Several federal and state highways now intersect in Greeneville, as they were built to follow old roads and trails. U. S. Route 321 follows Main Street through the center of the town and connects Greeneville to Newport to the southwest. U. S. Route 11E, which connects Greeneville with Morristown to the west, intersects U. S. 321 in Greeneville and the merged highway proceeds northeast to Johnson City. Tennessee State Route 107, which follows Main Street and Andrew Johnson Hwy, Greeneville to Erwin to the east and to the Del Rio area to the south.
Tennessee State Route 70 connects Greeneville with Interstate 81, Rogersville to the north and Asheville, North Carolina to the south. Tennessee State Route 172 connects Baileyton to the north. Tennessee State Route 93 connects Greeneville to Interstate 81, Fall Branch and Kingsport to the north. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 17.01 square miles, all land. Buckingham Heights Cherrydale Oak Hills Windy Hills Harrison Hills Native Americans were hunting and camping in the Nolichucky Valley as early as the Paleo-Indian period. A substantial Woodland period village existed at the Nolichucky's confluence with Big Limestone Creek. By the time the first Euro-American settlers arrived in the area in the late 18th century, the Cherokee claimed the valley as part of their hunting grounds; the Great Indian Warpath passed just northwest of modern Greeneville, the townsite is believed to have once been the juncture of two lesser Native American trails. Permanent European settlement of Greene County began in 1772.
Jacob Brown, a North Carolina merchant, leased a large stretch of land from the Cherokee, located between the upper Lick Creek watershed and the Nolichucky River, in what is now the northeastern corner of the county. The "Nolichucky Settlement" aligned itself with the Watauga Association as part of Washington County, North Carolina. After voting irregularities in a local election, however, an early Nolichucky settler named Daniel Kennedy led a movement to form a separate county, granted in 1783; the county was named after Nathanael Greene, reflecting the loyalties of the numerous Revolutionary War veterans who settled in the Nolichucky Valley from Pennsylvania and Virginia. The first county court sessions were held at the home of Robert Kerr, who lived at "Big Spring". Kerr donated 50 acres for the establishment of the county seat, most of, located in the area bounded by Irish, College and Summer streets. "Greeneville" was recognized as a town in 1786. In 1784, North Carolina attempted to resolve its debts by giving the U.
S. Congress its lands west of the Appalachian Mountains, including Greene County, abandoning responsibility for the area to the federal government. In response, delegates from Greene and neighboring counties convened at Jonesborough and resolved to break away from North Carolina and establish an independent state; the delegates agreed to meet again that year to form a constitution, rejected when presented to the general delegation in December. Reverend Samuel Houston had presented a draft constitution which restricted the election of lawyers and other professionals. Houston's draft met staunch opposition from Reverend Hezekiah Balch. John Sevier was elected governor, other executive offices were filled. A petition for statehood for what would have become known as the State of Franklin was drawn at the delegates session in May 1785; the delegates submitted a petition for statehood to Congress, which failed to gain the requisite votes needed for admission to the Union. The first state legislature of Franklin met in December 1785 in a crude log courthouse in Greeneville, named the capital city t
Elizabethton is a city in, the county seat of Carter County, United States. Elizabethton is the historical site of the first independent American government located west of both the Eastern Continental Divide and the original Thirteen Colonies; the city is the historical site of the Transylvania Purchase, a major muster site during the American Revolutionary War for both the Battle of Musgrove Mill and the Battle of Kings Mountain. It was within the secessionist North Carolina "State of Franklin" territory; the population of Elizabethton was enumerated at 14,008 during the 2010 census. Elizabethton is located within the "Tri-Cities" area of northeast Tennessee. Time offset from Coordinated Universal Time: UTC-5. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.9 square miles, of which 9.7 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles, or 1.62%, is water. The elevation at Elizabethton Municipal Airport is 1,593 feet ASL, the airport is located on the eastern side of the city along State Highway 91 Stoney Creek Exit.
Elizabethton is connected to larger commercial and cargo flights out of Tri-Cities Regional Airport northwest of Johnson City. Lynn Mountain reaches 2,060 feet ASL at the summit and is located directly across the U. S. Highway 19E from the downtown Elizabethton business district. Elizabethton is bordered on the west by Johnson City. While most of the Tennessee public water-supply systems withdrawing spring water for their supplies are found in East Tennessee, the Elizabethton municipal water system during 2010 extracted and distributed 5.39 Mgal/d of clean spring water from three springs owned by the city --- a unique local supply of flowing spring water that exceeds the volume of spring water extracted and distributed than any other local water resource system across the entire state of Tennessee. The Doe River forms in Carter County, near the North Carolina line, just south of Roan Mountain State Park; the river flows north and is first paralleled by State Route 143. S. Route 19E; the Doe River flows to the east of Fork Mountain.
Below the confluence of the Doe River and the Little Doe River at Hampton, the Doe River travels in a northern downstream direction through the Valley Forge community, is rejoined by U. S. Route 19E. Pushing through a mountain gap just north of Hampton, the volume of the river is amplified by the waters flowing from McCathern Spring. Further downstream, the Doe River flows by the East Side neighborhood parallel with Tennessee State Route 67 and underneath the historic Elizabethton Covered Bridge, built in 1882 and located within the Elizabethton downtown business district. Connecting 3rd Street and Hattie Avenue, the covered bridge is adjacent to a city park and spans the Doe River; the covered bridge, although now closed to motor traffic, is still open for bicycles and pedestrians. Most of Elizabethton's downtown is listed on the National Register of Historic Places for its historical and architectural merits; the Elizabethton Historic District contains a variety of properties ranging in age from the late 18th century through the 1930s.
The Elizabethton Covered Bridge is a well-known landmark in the state. In addition to the covered bridge, the downtown historic district contains the 1928 Elk Avenue concrete arch bridge, just a little further downstream on the Doe River, Tennessee State Route 67 passes another similar concrete arch bridge locally known as the Broad Street Bridge. Elizabethton celebrates in the downtown business area for one week each June with the Elizabethton Covered Bridge Days featuring country and gospel music performances, activities for children, Elk Avenue car club show, many food and crafts vendors. Two Tennessee Valley Authority reservoirs in Carter County—impounded behind the Watauga Dam and the downstream Wilbur Dam—are located southeast and upstream of Elizabethton on the Watauga River; the Appalachian Trail crosses the Watauga River and the TVA reservation in Carter County to the southeast of Elizabethton. The Watauga River flows westward past Elizabethton, which lies on the south bank of the Watauga and along either side of its principal tributary, the Doe River.
The downtown business district is located one-quarter mile upstream of the confluence of the Doe River and the Watauga River. The Doe River flows underneath the historic wooden covered bridge, located within the Elizabethton downtown business district; the city of Elizabethton was at one time promoted as "The City of Power", as the town is located just southeast of the Wilbur Dam hydrogeneration site spanning the Watauga River. Construction of Wilbur Dam first began during 1909, two hydroelectric generating units were online with power production at Wilbur Dam when it was completed in 1912. A third generating unit was added to Wilbur Dam in 1926, a fourth hydrogeneration unit was added to Wilbur Dam after the Tennessee Valley Authority acquired the power production facility in 1945; the Bee Cliff Rapids—a popular summer destination on the Watauga River for whitewater rafters during the summer months—are located southeast of Elizabethton and downstream of the TVA Wilbur Dam. The Watauga River downstream of the western side of Elizabethton has one of the
Columbia is a city in and the county seat of Maury County, United States. The population was 34,681 at the 2010 census and in 2013 the population was 35,558; the "Mule capital of the world," Columbia annually celebrates the city-designated Mule Day each April. Columbia and Maury County are acknowledged as the "Antebellum Homes Capital of Tennessee", with more pre-Civil War homes than any other county in the state; the city is home to one of the last two surviving residences of the 11th President of the United States, James Knox Polk, the other being the White House. Columbia was the site of significant racial violence against African Americans: three black men were lynched in the early 20th century, a race riot was conducted against blacks in 1946 that resulted in two deaths and destroyed their business district. Twenty-five black men were charged with attempted murder of four police who were wounded, were defended by civil rights lawyer Thurgood Marshall of the NAACP, he gained acquittals for most of the men with all-white juries.
A year after the organization of Maury County in 1807 by European Americans, Columbia was laid out in 1808 and lots were sold. The original town, on the south bank of the Duck River, consisted of four blocks; the town was incorporated in 1817. For decades during the antebellum years, it was the county seat when Maury County was the richest county in the state, based on its agricultural wealth. Plantations used slave labor to cultivate and process commodity crops of tobacco and hemp, as well as raising high-quality livestock. There were many farms for breeding thoroughbred race horses. To support these industries, the county slaveholders held a significant proportion of slave workers. Although Tennessee had competitive voting during the Reconstruction era, in the late 19th century, the white-dominated state legislature passed laws to disenfranchise African Americans by raising barriers to voter registration; this political exclusion continued deep into the 20th century. This adversely affected racial relations for decades in Maury County.
The county had 5 documented lynchings in the period from 1877 to 1950. In 1924 a black man was shot and killed in the courthouse by his alleged victim's brother after his sentence was set aside. In 1927 and 1933, young black men were lynched in Maury County for alleged assaults against white women. In 1933 Cordie Cheek, a 19-year-old black man, was falsely accused of raping a white girl. After a grand jury declined to indict him, he was abducted from Nashville by white men including law officials, taken back to Columbia, where he was castrated and lynched by a white mob. During World War II there was an expansion in Columbia of phosphate mining and the chemical industry to support the war effort. By the 1940 census, the total city population was 10,579, of whom more than 3,000 were African American. Chemical plants were a site of labor unrest between white and black workers after the war, as veterans sought to re-enter the economy. Black veterans did not want second-class status after having fought in the war.
This period led to a more active campaign for civil rights during the 1950s and 1960s throughout the state. Today, the county is a heritage tourist destination, because of its numerous historic sites. Attractions include the James K. Polk Home, the Columbia Athenaeum, Mule Day, nearby plantation homes. Columbia is the location of Tennessee's first two-year college, Columbia State Community College, established in 1966. President Lyndon B. Johnson and his wife Lady Bird Johnson dedicated the new campus on March 15, 1967. Clifton Place is a historic plantation mansion located southwest of the city on the Mt. Pleasant Pike. Master builder Nathan Vaught started construction in 1838, the mansion and other buildings were completed in 1839, for Gideon Johnson Pillow on land inherited from Gideon Pillow. On February 25, 1946, a civil disturbance dubbed "the Columbia Race Riot" broke out in the county seat, it was covered by the national press as the first "major racial confrontation" following World War II.
The black community well remembered Cheek's lynching in 1933 and were determined to defend themselves when threatened. In a fight instigated by William "Billy" Fleming, a white repair apprentice, black Navy veteran James Stephenson fought back and wounded him. Stephenson had accompanied his mother to the repair store, which had mistakenly sold a radio which she had left for repair to John Calhoun Fleming, father to the aforementioned Billy. A white mob gathered and the apprentice's father convinced the sheriff to charge both Stephensons with attempted murder. Rumors were rife; as whites gathered in the square talking about the incident, blacks armed themselves and planned to defend their business district known as "the Bottom" by the black community, starting about one block south of the square. That evening whites drove around the area, shooting randomly into it. Armed black men turned out the street lights and shot out others, patrolling the area for defense. Four policemen who entered the area were retreated, increasing white rage.
Worried that the small police force could not control the mob, the mayor called in the State Guard and the sheriff called in the state Highway Patrol that night. The Guard resisted Patrol requests to arm the white mob. In an uncoordinated effort, the Highway Patrol entered the district early the next morning before a planned time. Through the next day, they an
Knoxville is a city in the U. S. state of Tennessee, the county seat of Knox County. The city had an estimated population of 186,239 in 2016 and a population of 178,874 as of the 2010 census, making it the state's third largest city after Nashville and Memphis. Knoxville is the principal city of the Knoxville Metropolitan Statistical Area, which, in 2016, was 868,546, up 0.9 percent, or 7,377 people, from to 2015. The KMSA is, in turn, the central component of the Knoxville-Sevierville-La Follette Combined Statistical Area, which, in 2013, had a population of 1,096,961. First settled in 1786, Knoxville was the first capital of Tennessee; the city struggled with geographic isolation throughout the early 19th century. The arrival of the railroad in 1855 led to an economic boom. During the Civil War, the city was bitterly divided over the secession issue, was occupied alternately by both Confederate and Union armies. Following the war, Knoxville grew as a major wholesaling and manufacturing center.
The city's economy stagnated after the 1920's as the manufacturing sector collapsed, the downtown area declined and city leaders became entrenched in partisan political fights. Hosting the 1982 World's Fair helped reinvigorate the city, revitalization initiatives by city leaders and private developers have had major successes in spurring growth in the city the downtown area. Knoxville is the home of the flagship campus of the University of Tennessee, whose sports teams, called the "Volunteers" or "Vols", are popular in the surrounding area. Knoxville is home to the headquarters of the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for East Tennessee and the corporate headquarters of several national and regional companies; as one of the largest cities in the Appalachian region, Knoxville has positioned itself in recent years as a repository of Appalachian culture and is one of the gateways to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The first people to form substantial settlements in what is now Knoxville arrived during the Woodland period.
One of the oldest artificial structures in Knoxville is a burial mound constructed during the early Mississippian culture period. The earthwork mound is now surrounded by the University of Tennessee campus. Other prehistoric sites include an Early Woodland habitation area at the confluence of the Tennessee River and Knob Creek, Dallas Phase Mississippian villages at Post Oak Island, at Bussell Island. By the 18th century, the Cherokee had become the dominant tribe in the East Tennessee region, although they were at war with the Creek and Shawnee; the Cherokee people called the Knoxville area kuwanda'talun'yi, which means "Mulberry Place." Most Cherokee habitation in the area was concentrated in the Overhill settlements along the Little Tennessee River, southwest of Knoxville. The first white traders and explorers were recorded as arriving in the Tennessee Valley in the late 17th century, though there is significant evidence that Hernando de Soto visited Bussell Island in 1540; the first major recorded Euro-American presence in the Knoxville area was the Timberlake Expedition, which passed through the confluence of the Holston and French Broad into the Tennessee River in December 1761.
Henry Timberlake, en route to the Over hill settlements along the Little Tennessee River, recalled being pleasantly surprised by the deep waters of the Tennessee after having struggled down the shallow Holston for several weeks. The end of the French and Indian War and confusion brought about by the American Revolution led to a drastic increase in Euro-American settlement west of the Appalachians. By the 1780's, white settlers were established in the Holston and French Broad valleys; the U. S. Congress ordered all illegal settlers out with little success; as settlers continued to trickle into Cherokee lands, tensions between the settlers and the Cherokee rose steadily. In 1786, James White, a Revolutionary War officer, his friend James Connor built White's Fort near the mouth of First Creek, on land White had purchased three years earlier. In 1790, White's son-in-law, Charles McClung—who had arrived from Pennsylvania the previous year—surveyed White's holdings between First Creek and Second Creek for the establishment of a town.
McClung drew up 64 0.5-acre lots. The waterfront was set aside for a town common. Two lots were set aside for a graveyard. Four lots were set aside for a school; that school was chartered as Blount College and it served as the starting point for the University of Tennessee, which uses Blount College's founding date of 1794, as its own. In 1790, President George Washington appointed North Carolina surveyor William Blount governor of the newly created Territory South of the River Ohio. One of Blount's first tasks was to meet with the Cherokee and establish territorial boundaries and resolve the issue of illegal settlers; this he accomplished immediately with the Treaty of Holston, negotiated and signed at White's Fort in 1791. Blount wanted to place the territorial capital at the confluence of the Clinch River and Tennessee River, but when the Cherokee refused to cede this land, Blount chose White's Fort, which McClung had surveyed the previous year. Blount named the new capital Knoxville after Revolutionary War general and Secretary of War Henry Knox, who at the time was Blount's immediate superior.
Problems arose from the Holston Treaty. Blount believed that he had "purchased" mu