A martyr is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party. This refusal to comply with the presented demands results in the punishment or execution of the martyr by the oppressor. Applied only to those who suffered for their religious beliefs, the term has come to be used in connection with people killed for a political cause. Most martyrs are considered holy or are respected by their followers, becoming symbols of exceptional leadership and heroism in the face of difficult circumstances. Martyrs play significant roles in religions. Martyrs have had notable effects in secular life, including such figures as Socrates, among other political and cultural examples. In its original meaning, the word martyr, meaning witness, was used in the secular sphere as well as in the New Testament of the Bible; the process of bearing witness was not intended to lead to the death of the witness, although it is known from ancient writers and from the New Testament that witnesses died for their testimonies.
During the early Christian centuries, the term acquired the extended meaning of believers who are called to witness for their religious belief, on account of this witness, endures suffering or death. The term, in this sense, entered the English language as a loanword; the death of a martyr or the value attributed. The early Christians who first began to use the term martyr in its new sense saw Jesus as the first and greatest martyr, on account of his crucifixion; the early Christians appear to have seen Jesus as the archetypal martyr. The word martyr is used in English to describe a wide variety of people. However, the following table presents a general outline of common features present in stereotypical martyrdoms. In the Bahá'í Faith, martyrs are those who sacrifice their lives serving humanity in the name of God. However, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, discouraged the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life. Instead, he explained. Martyrdom was extensively promoted by the Kuomintang party in modern China.
Revolutionaries who died fighting against the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution and throughout the Republic of China period, furthering the cause of the revolution, were recognized as martyrs. In Christianity, a martyr, in accordance with the meaning of the original Greek martys in the New Testament, is one who brings a testimony written or verbal. In particular, the testimony is that of the Christian Gospel, or more the Word of God. A Christian witness is a biblical witness. However, over time many Christian testimonies were rejected, the witnesses put to death, the word martyr developed its present sense. Where death ensues, the witnesses follow the example of Jesus in offering up their lives for truth; the concept of Jesus as a martyr has received greater attention. Analyses of the Gospel passion narratives have led many scholars to conclude that they are martyrdom accounts in terms of genre and style. Several scholars have concluded that Paul the Apostle understood Jesus' death as a martyrdom.
In light of such conclusions, some have argued that the Christians of the first few centuries would have interpreted the crucifixion of Jesus as a martyrdom. In the context of church history, from the time of the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire, it developed that a martyr was one, killed for maintaining a religious belief, knowing that this will certainly result in imminent death; this definition of martyr is not restricted to the Christian faith. Though Christianity recognizes certain Old Testament Jewish figures, like Abel and the Maccabees, as holy, the New Testament mentions the imprisonment and beheading of John the Baptist, Jesus's possible cousin and his prophet and forerunner, the first Christian witness, after the establishment of the Christian faith, to be killed for his testimony was Saint Stephen, those who suffer martyrdom are said to have been "crowned." From the time of Constantine, Christianity was decriminalized, under Theodosius I, became the state religion, which diminished persecution.
As some wondered how they could most follow Christ there was a development of desert spirituality, desert monks, self-mortification, following Christ by separation from the world. This was a kind of white martyrdom, dying to oneself every day, as opposed to a red martyrdom, the giving of one's life in a violent death. In Christianity, death in sectarian persecution can be viewed as martyrdom. For example, there were martyrs recognised on both sides of the schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England after 1534, with two hundred and eighty Christians martyred for their faith by public burning between 1553 and 1558 by the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I in England leading to the reversion to the Church of England under Queen Elizabeth I in 1559 and three hundred Roman Catholics martyred by the Church authorities in England over the following hundred and fifty years in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. More modern day accounts of martyrdom for Christ exist, depicted in books such as Jesus Freaks though the numbers are disputed.
There are claims that the numbers of Christians killed for their faith annually are exaggerated. Despite the promotion of ahimsa within Sanatana Dharma
In Christianity, the translation of relics is the removal of holy objects from one locality to another. Translations could be accompanied by many acts, including all-night vigils and processions involving entire communities; the solemn translation of relics is not treated as the outward recognition of sanctity. Rather, miracles confirmed a saint's sanctity, as evinced by the fact that when, in the twelfth century, the Papacy attempted to make sanctification an official process. In the early Middle Ages, solemn translation marked the moment at which, the saint's miracles having been recognized, the relic was moved by a bishop or abbot to a prominent position within the church. Local veneration was permitted; this process is known as local canonization. The date of a translation of a saint's relics was celebrated as a feast day in its own right. For example, on January 27 is celebrated the translation of the relics of St. John Chrysostom from the Armenian village of Comana to Constantinople; the most celebrated feast days, are the dies natales.
Relics sometimes travelled far. The relics of Saint Thyrsus at Sozopolis, Pisidia, in Asia Minor, were brought to Constantinople and to Spain, his cult became popular in the Iberian Peninsula, where he is known as Santo Tirso. Some of his relics were brought to France: Thyrsus is thus the titular saint of the cathedral of Sisteron in the Basses Alpes, the Cathédrale Notre Dame et Saint Thyrse. Thyrsus is thus the patron saint of Sisteron. Liborius of Le Mans became patron saint of Paderborn, in Germany, after his relics were transferred there in 836. In the early church, the disturbance, let alone the division, of the remains of martyrs and other saints, was not of concern or interest, much less practised, it was assumed that they would remain permanently in their unidentified resting places in cemeteries and the catacombs of Rome. Martyriums began to be built over the site of the burial of saints, it came to be considered beneficial to the soul to be buried close to saintly remains, as such, several large "funerary halls" were built over the sites of martyr's graves, the primary example being the Old Saint Peter's Basilica.
The earliest recorded removal of saintly remains was that of Saint Babylas at Antioch in 354. However perhaps because Constantinople lacked the many saintly graves of Rome, translations soon became common in the Eastern Empire though it was still prohibited in the West; the Eastern capital was able to acquire the remains of Saints Timothy and Luke. The division of bodies began. An altar slab dated 357, found in North Africa but now in the Louvre, records the deposit beneath it of relics from several prominent saints. Non-anatomical relics, above all that of the True Cross, were divided and distributed from the 4th century. In the West a decree of Theodosius I only allowed the moving of a whole sarcophagus with its contents, but the upheavals of the barbarian invasions relaxed the rules, as remains needed to be relocated to safer places. In the 4th century, Basil the Great requested of the ruler of Scythia Minor, Junius Soranus, that he should send him the relics of saints of that region. Saran sent the relics of Sabbas the Goth to him in Caesarea, Cappadocia, in 373 or 374 accompanied by a letter, the'Epistle of the Church of God in Gothia to the Church of God located in Cappadocia and to all the Local Churches of the Holy Universal Church'.
The sending of Sabbas' relics and the writing of the actual letter has been attributed to Bretannio. This letter is the oldest known writing to be was written in Greek; the spread of relics all over Europe from the 8th century onward is explained by the fact that after 787, all new Christian churches had to possess a relic before they could be properly consecrated. New churches, situated in areas newly converted to Christianity, needed relics and this encouraged the translation of relics to far-off places. Relics became collectible items, owning them became a symbol of prestige for cities and monarchs, Relics were desirable as they generated income from pilgrims traveling to venerate them. According to one legend concerning Saint Paternian, the inhabitants of Fano competed with those of Cervia for possession of his relics. Cervia would be left with a finger; the translation of relics was a important event. In 1261, the relics of Lucian of Beauvais and his two companions were placed in a new reliquary by William of Grès, the bishop of Beauvais.
The translation took place in the presence of St. Louis IX, the king of France, Theobald II, the king of Navarre, as well as much of the French nobility; the memory of this translation was celebrated in the abbey of Beauvais as the fête des Corps Saints. On February 14, 1277, while work was being done at the church of St. John the Baptist in Cologne, the body of Saint Cordula, one of the companions of Saint Ursula, was discovered, her relics were found to be fragrant and on the forehead of the saint herself were written the words, “Cordula and Virgin.” When Albert the Great
Archbasilica of St. John Lateran
The Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, – known as the Papal Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, St. John Lateran, or the Lateran Basilica – is the cathedral church of the Diocese of Rome in the city of Rome and serves as the seat of the Roman Pontiff, it is the oldest and highest ranking of the four papal major basilicas, giving it the unique title of "archbasilica". Because it is the oldest public church in the city of Rome, it is the oldest and most important basilica of the Western world, houses the cathedra of the Roman bishop, it has the title of ecumenical mother church of the Catholic faithful; the current archpriest is Angelo De Donatis, Vicar General for the Diocese of Rome. The President of the French Republic Emmanuel Macron, is ex officio the "first and only honorary canon" of the archbasilica, a title that the heads of state of France have possessed since King Henry IV; the large Latin inscription on the façade reads: Clemens XII Pont Max Anno V Christo Salvatori In Hon SS Ioan Bapt et Evang.
This abbreviated inscription translates to: "Pope Clement XII, in the fifth year to Christ the Savior, in honor of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist". The inscription indicates, with its full title, that the archbasilica was dedicated to Christ the Savior and, centuries co-dedicated to St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist; as the Cathedral of the Pope as Bishop of Rome, it ranks superior to all other churches of the Roman Catholic Church, including St. Peter's Basilica; the archbasilica is sited in the City of Rome. It is outside Vatican City, 4 kilometres to its northwest, although the archbasilica and its adjoining edifices have extraterritorial status from Italy as one of the properties of the Holy See, pursuant to the Lateran Treaty of 1929; the archbasilica's Latin name is Archibasilica Sanctissimi Salvatoris ac Sancti Ioannis Baptistae et Ioannis Evangelistae ad Lateranum, which in English is the Archbasilica of the Most Holy Savior and Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist at the Lateran, in Italian Arcibasilica del Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano.
The archbasilica stands over the remains of the Castra Nova equitum singularium, the "New Fort of the Roman imperial cavalry bodyguards". The fort was established by Septimius Severus in AD 193. Following the victory of Emperor Constantine I over Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, the guard was abolished and the fort demolished. Substantial remains of the fort lie directly beneath the nave; the remainder of the site was occupied during the early Roman Empire by the palace of the gens Laterani. Sextius Lateranus was the first plebeian to attain the rank of consul, the Laterani served as administrators for several emperors. One of the Laterani, Consul-designate Plautius Lateranus, became famous for being accused by Nero of conspiracy against the Emperor; the accusation resulted in the redistribution of his properties. The Lateran Palace fell into the hands of the Emperor when Constantine I married his second wife Fausta, sister of Maxentius. Known by that time as the "Domus Faustae" or "House of Fausta," the Lateran Palace was given to the Bishop of Rome by Constantine I.
The actual date of the donation is unknown, but scholars speculate that it was during the pontificate of Pope Miltiades, in time to host a synod of bishops in 313, convened to challenge the Donatist schism, declaring Donatism to be heresy. The palace basilica was converted and extended, becoming the residence of Pope St. Silvester I becoming the Cathedral of Rome, the seat of the Popes as the Bishops of Rome. Pope Sylvester I presided over the official dedication of the archbasilica and the adjacent Lateran Palace in 324, changing the name from "Domus Fausta" to "Domus Dei" with a dedication to Christ the Savior; when a cathedra became a symbol of episcopal authority, the papal cathedra was placed in its interior, rendering it the cathedral of the Pope as Bishop of Rome. When Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian mission to England under Augustine of Canterbury, some original churches in Canterbury took the Roman plan as a model, dedicating a church both to Christ as well as one to St. Paul, outside the walls of the city.
The church name "Christ Church" so common for churches around the world today in Anglophone Anglican contexts came from this Roman church, central to pre-medieval Christian identity. On the archbasilica's front wall between the main portals is a plaque inscribed with the words "Sacrosancta Lateranensis ecclesia omnium urbis et orbis ecclesiarum mater et caput", which translate to "Most Holy Lateran Church and head of all the churches in the city and the world"; the archbasilica and Lateran Palace were re-dedicated twice. Pope Sergius III dedicated them to St. John the Baptist in the 10th century in honor of the newly consecrated baptistry of the archbasilica. Pope Lucius II dedicated them to John the Evangelist in the 12th century. Thus, St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist became co-patrons of the archbasilica, while the primary Patron is still Christ the Savior, as the inscription in the entrance indicates and as is traditional for patriarchal cathedrals; the archbasilica remains dedicated to the Savior, its titular feast is the Feast of
San Lorenzo fuori le Mura
The Basilica Papale di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura is a Roman Catholic Papal minor basilica and parish church, located in Rome, Italy. The Basilica is one of the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome and one of the five former "patriarchal basilicas", each of, assigned to the care of a Latin Church patriarchate; the Basilica was assigned to the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The Basilica is the shrine of the tomb of its namesake, Saint Lawrence, one of the first seven deacons of Rome, martyred in 258. Many other saints and Bl. Pope Pius IX are buried at the Basilica, the center of a large and ancient burial complex. Before the present-day Basilica was constructed, the former estate upon which it sits was once home to a small oratory built by Emperor Constantine I; the Emperor built it over the site on which it tradition held that St. Lawrence was buried in 258. In the 580s, Pope Pelagius II commissioned the construction of a church over the site in honor of the Saint. In the 13th century, Pope Honorius III commissioned the construction of another church in front of the older one.
It was adorned with frescos depicting the lives of Saint Lawrence and the first martyred deacon, St. Stephen, interred with St. Lawrence in the crypt, or confessio, under the high altar; the two structures were united during a program of urban renewal. Excavations have revealed several other crypts of various persons, buried below the contemporary street level. Pope St. Hilarius is buried here; the portico of circa 1220 has Cosmatesque decoration by the Vassalletto family of craftsmen. The 13th-century frescoes, which were reconstructed, depict scenes from the lives of St. Lawrence and St. Stephen, both being martyred, young deacons. There are two ancient sarcophagi in the portico: a Christian one decorated in the 7th century on an older sarcophagus, has a relief depicting putti picking grapes. While vines and grapes are symbols of the Holy Eucharist, these images are not symbols thereof. Further, two Romanesque stone lions were moved here from the old entrance; the campanile was built in the 12th century.
Inside the entrance is the tomb of Guglielmo Cardinal Fieschi, who died in 1256, but was entombed in an ancient sarcophagus, itself being incidentally carved with a relief depicting a pagan marital feast. Inside, the choir enclosure and pulpit have Cosmatesque decoration, there is a fine Cosmatesque Paschal candlestick from the 12th or 13th century; the antique Ionic capital on the column directly behind the pulpit has carvings of a frog and a lizard. On the triumphal arch are Byzantine mosaics from the 6th century, depicting Christ with saints; the confessio below the high altar is entered from the nave. Here, St. Lawrence and St. Stephen are enshrined; the latter was transferred from Constantinople by Pope Pelagius II during his restoration of the Basilica. Behind the high altar is a Papal altar with an inscription of the names of the makers, namely the Cosmati family, dating it to 1148; the Basilica was home to the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem from 1374 to 1847. In 1943 the Basilica was bombed during the Second World War.
Restoration continued until 1948. However, the frescoes on the facade were destroyed; the Basilica adjoins a major cemetery, therefore holds a large number of funerals. Deacon of Rome and martyr St. Lawrence Proto-martyr St. Stephen Pope St. Hilarius Bl. Pope Pius IX Italian Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi, a founding father of the European Union Pope Pius XII's parents. Claussan, D. Mondini, D. Senekovic, Die Kirchen der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter 1050-1300, Band 3, Stuttgart 2010, pp. 317–527, ISBN 978-3-515-09073-5 Webb, Matilda. "San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura and Catacomb". The Churches and Catacombs of Early Christian Rome. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. Pp. 240–245. ISBN 1-902210-58-1. A. Muñoz, La Basilica di S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Roma 1944. G. Da Bra, S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Roma 1952 R. Krautheimer, Corpus basilicarum christianarum Romae, S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Città del Vaticano 1962. High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of San Lorenzo fuori le Mura | Art Atlas
The Basilica of Saint Sabina is a historic church on the Aventine Hill in Rome, Italy. It is a titular minor basilica and mother church of the Roman Catholic Order of Preachers, better known as the Dominicans. Santa Sabina is perched high above the Tiber river to the Circus Maximus to the east, it is next to the small public park of Giardino degli Aranci, which has a scenic terrace overlooking Rome. It is a short distance from the headquarters of the Knights of Malta. Santa Sabina is the oldest extant Roman basilica in Rome that preserves its original colonnaded rectangular plan and architectural style, its decorations have been restored to their original restrained design. Other basilicas, such as Santa Maria Maggiore, are heavily and gaudily decorated; because of its simplicity, the Santa Sabina represents the crossover from a roofed Roman forum to the churches of Christendom. It is famous for its 5th-century carved wood doors, with a cycle of Christian scenes, one of the earliest to survive.
Its Cardinal Priest is Jozef Tomko. It is the stational church for Ash Wednesday. Santa Sabina was built by Peter of Illyria, a Dalmatian priest, between 422 and 432 near a temple of Juno on the Aventine Hill in Rome; the church was built on the site of early Imperial houses, one of, said to be of Sabina, a Roman matron from Avezzano in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Sabina was beheaded under the Emperor Vespasian, or Hadrian, because she had been converted to Christianity by her servant Seraphia, stoned to death, she was declared a Christian Saint. In the 9th century, it was enclosed in a fortification area; the interior was renovated by Domenico Fontana in 1587 and by Francesco Borromini in 1643. Italian architect and art historian Antonio Muñoz restored the original medieval appearance of the church; the bell tower was remade in the Baroque period. The church was the seat of a conclave in 1287, although the prelates left the church after a plague had killed six of them, they returned in the church only on 1288 February.
The exterior of the church, with its large windows made of selenite, not glass, looks much as it did when it was built in the 5th century. The wooden door of the basilica is agreed to be the original door from 430–432, although it was not constructed for this doorway. Eighteen of its wooden panels survive — all but one depicting scenes from the Bible. Most famous among these is one of the earliest certain depictions of Christ's crucifixion, although other panels have been the subjects of extensive analysis because of their importance for the study of Christian iconography. Above the doorway, the interior preserves an original dedication in Latin hexameters; the campanile dates from the 10th century. The doors on the exterior of Santa Sabina are made of cypress wood, had a layout of twenty-eight panels. Out of these panels, ten of the original have been lost, are left without ornamentation. Seventeen out of the original remaining eighteen panels depict a scene from the Old Testament or the New Testament, leaving one panel that does not directly correlate to a Biblical story This panel, found near the bottom of the door, depicts an homage to a man wearing a chlamys, is thought to depict a historical event relating to a powerful ruler, though the exact story depicted is unknown.
One of the smaller top panels depicts the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and two other figures in front of a building that alludes to the architecture of a Roman mausoleum. The panels are carved in two distinct styles, one including more detail and adherence to the style of classical art, one adopting a simpler style, indicating that several artists may have worked on the doors; the abstract vegetal designs on the panels' frames are consistent with a Mesopotamian style, suggesting the origin of at least one of the artists was from this region. Due to the cramped composition of the panels and the thin outer frame, it is that the door was bigger cut down to fit into the frame of Santa Sabina; this makes it unclear as to whether the door was intended to be used for this specific structure. However, the door was most constructed near the same time as the erection of the Church of Santa Sabina in 432, as the powerful figure in the chlamys scene carving shares stylistic similarities with depictions of Theodosius II, the emperor at the time of the consecration of Santa Sabina.
Dendrochronologic and radiocarbon dating confirmed that the wood used for the door panels is from the beginning of the 5th century, therefore the carvings could date from the reigns of Celestine I or Sixtus III. The original fifth-century apse mosaic was replaced in 1559 by a similar fresco by Taddeo Zuccari; the composition remained unchanged: Christ is flanked by a good thief and a bad thief, seated on a hill while lambs drink from a stream at its base. The iconography of the mosaic was similar to another 5th-century mosaic, destroyed in the 17th century, in Sant'Andrea in Catabarbara. An interesting feature of the interior is a framed hole in the floor, exposing a Roman era temple column that pre-dates Santa Sabina; this appears to be the remnant of the Temple of Juno erected on the hilltop site during Roman times, razed to allow co
Papal tombs in old St. Peter's Basilica
The papal tombs in old St. Peter's Basilica were the final resting places of the popes, most which dated from the fifth to sixteenth centuries; the majority of these tombs were destroyed during the sixteenth through seventeenth century demolition of old St. Peter's Basilica, except for one, destroyed during the Saracen Sack of the church in 846; the remainder were transferred in part to new St. Peter's Basilica, which stands on the site of the original basilica, a handful of other churches of Rome. Along with the repeated translations from the ancient catacombs of Rome and two fourteenth century fires in Basilica of St. John Lateran, the rebuilding of St. Peter's is responsible for the destruction of half of all papal tombs; as a result, Donato Bramante, the chief architect of modern St. Peter's Basilica, has been remembered as "Mastro Ruinante". Although the original basilica's construction was begun during the reign of emperor Constantine I and completed in the fourth century, Pope Leo I was the first pope buried in the Constantian basilica.
Over the centuries, both the atrium and the nave of the basilica were packed with papal tombs, which were juggled between different sections of the church as construction took place on each section of the basilica. All that remains of the original tombs are sculptural fragments. Pope Julius II, the pope who initiated the destruction of the Constantinian basilica, wished to clear space for a "monstrous" tomb of his own by Michelangelo. Little is known about the placement and appearance of the original tombs: one of the most valuable accounts is that of church canon and historian Giacomo Grimaldi, who sketched the tombs as they were moved around the basilica on the way to their destruction. A few destroyed papal tombs are detailed in the writings of Alphonsus Ciacconius. Not all popes were buried in Rome. See list of non-extant papal tombs Partially extant, moved, or rebuilt tombs are shown with a darkened background. Index of Vatican City-related articles Papal tombs St. Peter's tomb Gardner, The Tomb and the Tiara, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 978-0-19-817510-0 Mann, H. K.
Tombs and Portraits of the Popes of the Middle Ages, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7661-2903-0 Reardon, Wendy J. 2004. The Deaths of the Popes. Macfarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-1527-4 Information and images on papal tombs from the Requiem project
Pope Anicetus was the Bishop of Rome from c. 157 to his death in 168. According to the Annuario Pontificio, the start of his papacy may have been 153. Anicetus opposed Gnosticism and Marcionism, he welcomed Polycarp of Smyrna to Rome, to discuss the controversy over the date for the celebration of Easter. His name is Greek for unconquered. According to the Liber Pontificalis, Anicetus was a Syrian from the city of Emesa. According to St. Irenaeus, it was during his pontificate that the aged Polycarp of Smyrna, a disciple of St. John the Evangelist, visited Rome to discuss the celebration of Passover with Anicetus. Polycarp and his Church of Smyrna celebrated the crucifixion on the fourteenth day of Nisan, which coincides with Pesach regardless of which day of the week upon this date fell, while the Roman Church celebrated the Pasch on Sunday—the weekday of Jesus's resurrection; the two did not agree on a common date, but St. Anicetus conceded to St. Polycarp and the Church of Smyrna the ability to retain the date to which they were accustomed.
The controversy was to grow heated in the following centuries. The Christian historian Hegesippus visited Rome during Anicetus's pontificate; this visit is cited as a sign of the early importance of the Roman See. St. Anicetus opposed the Gnostics and Marcionism; the Liber Pontificalis records that St. Anicetus decreed that priests are not allowed to have long hair. According to Church Tradition, St. Anicetus suffered martyrdom during the reign of the Roman Co-Emperor Lucius Verus, but there are no historical grounds for this account. 16, 17 and 20 April are all cited as the date of his death, but 20 April is celebrated as his feast day. Before 1970, the date chosen was 17 April; the Liber Pontificalis states. List of popes Quartodeciman Campbell, Thomas Joseph. "Pope St. Anicetus". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Duff, Eamon. Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes, Yale University Press, 2001, p. 13. ISBN 0-300-09165-6 Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. Chronicle of the Popes: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Papacy from St. Peter to the Present, Thames & Hudson, 2002, p. 19.
ISBN 0-500-01798-0. Anicetus in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints Collected works of Migne Patrologia Latina