Ray Charles Robinson was an American singer, songwriter and composer. Among friends and fellow musicians he preferred being called "Brother Ray", he was referred to as "The Genius". Charles started losing his vision at the age of 5, by 7 he was blind, he pioneered the soul music genre during the 1950s by combining blues and blues, gospel styles into the music he recorded for Atlantic. He contributed to the integration of country music and blues, pop music during the 1960s with his crossover success on ABC Records, notably with his two Modern Sounds albums. While he was with ABC, Charles became one of the first black musicians to be granted artistic control by a mainstream record company. Charles cited Nat King Cole as a primary influence, but his music was influenced by Louis Jordan and Charles Brown, he became friends with Quincy Jones. Their friendship lasted until the end of Charles's life. Frank Sinatra called Ray Charles "the only true genius in show business", although Charles downplayed this notion.
In 2002, Rolling Stone ranked Charles number ten on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", number two on their November 2008 list of the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time". Billy Joel said, "This may sound like sacrilege, but I think Ray Charles was more important than Elvis Presley". Ray Charles Robinson was the son of Bailey Robinson, a laborer, Aretha Williams, his mother was a teenage orphan making a living as a sharecropper. They lived in Florida with Robinson's father and his wife, Mary Jane Robinson; the Robinson family had informally adopted Aretha, she took the surname Robinson. When she became pregnant by Bailey, incurring scandal, she left Greenville late in the summer of 1930 to be with family members in Albany, Georgia for the baby's birth, after which mother and child returned to Greenville, she and Mary Jane shared in Ray's upbringing. He was devoted to his mother and recalled her perseverance, self-sufficiency, pride as guiding lights in his life, his father abandoned the family, left Greenville, married another woman elsewhere.
In his early years, Charles showed an interest in mechanical objects and would watch his neighbors working on their cars and farm machinery. His musical curiosity was sparked at Wylie Pitman's Red Wing Cafe, at the age of three, when Pitman played boogie woogie on an old upright piano. Charles and his mother were always welcome at the Red Wing Cafe and lived there when they were in financial distress. Pitman would care for Ray's younger brother George, to take some of the burden off their mother. George drowned in his mother's laundry tub. Charles started to lose his sight at the age of four or five, was blind by the age of seven as a result of glaucoma. Destitute and mourning the loss of her younger son, Aretha Robinson used her connections in the local community to find a school that would accept a blind African-American pupil. Despite his initial protest, Charles attended school at the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind in St. Augustine from 1937 to 1945. Charles further developed his musical talent at school and was taught to play the classical piano music of J.
S. Bach and Beethoven, his teacher, Mrs. Lawrence, taught him how to use braille music, a difficult process that requires learning the left hand movements by reading braille with the right hand and learning the right hand movements by reading braille with the left hand, combining the two parts. While Charles was happy to play classical music, he was more interested in the jazz and country music he heard on the radio. On Fridays, the South Campus Literary Society held assemblies at which Charles would play piano and sing popular songs. On both Halloween and George Washington's birthday, the black department of the school held socials at which Charles would play, it was here he established "RC Robinson and the Shop Boys" and sang his own arrangement of "Jingle Bell Boogie". During this time, he performed on WFOY radio in St. Augustine. Ray Charles' mother died in the Spring of 1944, when Ray was 14, her death came as a shock to him. Charles returned to school after the funeral but was expelled in October for playing a prank on his teacher.
After leaving school, Charles moved to Jacksonville with a couple, friends with his late mother. He played the piano for bands at the Ritz Theatre in LaVilla for over a year, he joined the musicians' union in the hope. He befriended many union members, but others were less kind to him because he would monopolize the union hall's piano, since he did not have one at home, he started to build a reputation as a talented musician in Jacksonville, but the jobs did not come fast enough for him to construct a strong identity. He decided to move to a bigger city with more opportunities. At age 16, Charles moved to Orlando, where he lived in borderline poverty and went without food for days, it was difficult for musicians to find work, as since World War II had ended there were no "G. I. Joes" left to entertain. Charles started to write arrangements for a pop music band, in the summer of 1947 he unsuccessfully auditioned to play piano for Lucky Millinder and his sixteen-piece band. In 1947, Charles moved to Tampa, where he had two jobs: one as a pianist for Charles Brantley's Honeydippers.
In his early career, he modeled himself on Nat King Cole. His first four recordings—"Wondering and Wondering", "Walking and Talkin
Tender Lover is the second studio album by American R&B singer-songwriter and musician Babyface. It is the follow-up to his debut Lovers, it was his first album with SOLAR after the label entered into a distribution deal with Epic Records. In some regions of Europe, Tender Lover was released with a different cover picture and titled Babyface. Babyface and fellow songwriter/producer Daryl Simmons first met each other as teenagers in Indianapolis, Indiana; the two played in a couple of bands together and joined the funk outfit Manchild. The band recorded two albums before disbanding in the late 1970s. Cincinnati based band Midnight Star came to perform in Indianapolis, which became good friends with Babyface and Simmons. Babyface left Indianapolis for Cincinnati to write songs with Midnight Star - one of which became the song "Slow Jam" from their 1983 album No Parking on the Dance Floor as well as a couple of songs produced by Midnight Star founding member Reggie Calloway on The Whispers' 1984 album So Good.
Around that same time, Calloway was producing the debut album for the band The Deele, who had just gotten signed to SOLAR Records. Group members L. A. Reid and Darnell Bristol asked Babyface to join, which led him to ask Simmons to help with songwriting and touring duties. After joining The Deele and Simmons tried getting songs to other acts on SOLAR such as Shalamar and Lakeside, but all of the acts turned them down. Although they were signed to a label, Reid and Simmons kept paying dues on the production side in order to make something happen for them, they spent three years in Los Angeles working with The Deele and writing songs, as Babyface and Simmons were determined not to go back to Indianapolis. After a few years of trying to gain some recognition, at least one of their songs was accepted and recorded in 1986, "Personality" by Dynasty, from their "Daydreamin'" album and produced by L. A. and Babyface. In 1987, the team secured another production placement by writing and producing the song "Rock Steady" for The Whispers from their 1987 album Just Gets Better with Time.
Simmons went back to Cincinnati, which caused Reid and Babyface to call him for more collaborations, as their production career started taking off. Just as he had done in The Deele, Reid became the driving force of the newly established production team. Under his control, he made the decisions on what songs went to certain artists and who they wanted to work with, they went on to work on albums from Sheena Easton, Johnny Gill and Paula Abdul. Although the production of the album was credited to L. A. Reid & Babyface, Simmons revealed that Babyface produced the bulk of it with Reid handling the uptempo songs as he came from a funk background, while he and Babyface were more focused on ballads, they would record the songs with Reid overseeing the production of the music while Babyface concentrated on the aspect of lead and background vocals. According to Simmons, they would work long hours with Reid being in the studio many sleepless nights fine tuning the songs. Tender Lover was mixed by Jim Zumpano, Jon Gass and Barney Perkins, the latter of which worked on Anita Baker's album Rapture as well as DeBarge's In a Special Way.
Released midsummer 1989, Tender Lover contains Babyface's debut Top 10 hit, "It's No Crime", which reached #7 on the U. S. Hot 100 and single "Whip Appeal", which reached #6 in the same chart. To date, Tender Lover is his highest charting R&B album as it topped that chart for eight nonconsecutive weeks. On June 28, 2001, Tender Lover was certified 3x Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. Tender Lover was a critical and commercial success, reaching number fourteen on the US Billboard 200 and opened at number one on the Top R&B Albums chart. Babyface received numerous nominations for Favorite Soul/R&B New Artist at the 17th American Music Awards and three Grammy nominations, the top-ten US singles "Whip Appeal" received a nomination for Best Male R&B Vocal Performance, "It's No Crime" for Best R&B Instrumental Performance and a nomination for Producer of the Year with L. A. Reid. A couple of songs from this album have been covered by a few artists. Short-lived A&M Records group B.
B. O. T. I. Covered "Where Will You Go" from their first and only album Bad Boyz of the Industry in 1993. Singer Bobby Valentino covered ``, 2007's Special Occasion. "Soon as I Get Home" appeared in the 2010 film, Our Family Wedding which starred Forest Whitaker and America Ferrera. Note: Perri "Pebbles" Reid is credited as Perri Smith in the original liner notes of Tender Lover. Babyface – lead vocals, keyboards Kayo – bass, synthesizer, synthesized bass De'rock – percussion L. A. Reid – drums, percussion Donald Parks – Fairlight programming, Synclavier programming After 7 – backing vocals Troop – backing vocals Jon Gass – engineer, mixing engineer David Rideau – engineer Donnell Sullivan – assistant engineer Rich Caughron – assistant engineer Joseph M. Palmaccio – mastering List of number-one R&B albums of 1989 List of number-one R&B albums of 1990 Babyface-Tender Lover at Discogs
I'll Be Good to You
"I'll Be Good to You" is a 1976 hit song by R&B duo The Brothers Johnson. George Johnson, one of the two Johnson brothers in the band, wrote the song after deciding to commit to a relationship with one woman, instead of dating several at a time. While George was recording a demo for the song, family friend Senora Sam came by and added some lyrics. Brothers Johnson producer and mentor Quincy Jones heard the song, liked it, convinced George to sing lead on the finished track. Released from their debut album, Look Out for #1, it was a top-ten hit on the Billboard Hot Singles Charts, peaking at number three, a number one song on the Billboard R&B Charts during the summer of 1976; the single was certified gold by the RIAA. Thirteen years in 1989, it became a number one R&B hit again, with Chaka Khan and Ray Charles doing the lead vocals on Quincy Jones' Back on the Block album, went to number eighteen on the Billboard Hot 100 Singles chart, it topped the American dance chart in early 1990. This was Ray Charles' first No. 1 R&B hit in twenty-four years.
It was covered by Vanessa Williams and James "D. Train" Williams on Vanessa's 2005 studio album Everlasting Love. Boney James covered. Ray Charles, Chaka Khan: lead vocals featured rap artist on remix Kyle "Magic" Jackson Quincy Jones: producer and rhythm arranger David Paich, Greg Phillinganes, Ian Prince: keyboards Louis Johnson: Moog synthesizer bass, Fender slap bass, background vocals Ian Underwood, Larry Williams, Michael Boddicker, Steve Porcaro: synthesizer programming Bruce Swedien: drum programming Harvey Mason: hi-hat, cymbals George Johnson: guitar, background vocals James Ingram, James Gilstrap, Phil Perry, Siedah Garrett, Syreeta Wright: background vocals List of number-one R&B singles of 1976 List of number-one R&B singles of 1989 List of number-one dance singles of 1990
Troop is an R&B group from Pasadena, California. The group has had five number-one singles and ten top-ten singles on the Billboard R&B Singles chart, they have completed five albums, which include three certified gold and one certified platinum album. TROOP is an acronym for "Total Respect Of Other People"; the group is most notable for a series of number-one R&B hits, including popular cover versions of the songs "All I Do Is Think of You" and "Sweet November" performed by musical acts The Jackson 5 and The Deele, respectively. They had a number-one hit with the original song "Spread My Wings"; the group got its start in the late 1980s after they won a televised Puttin' on the Hits talent contest that drew interest from record labels. Troop, consisting of childhood friends Steve Russell, Allen McNeil, John Harreld, Rodney Benford, Reggie Warren, soon signed to Atlantic Records and released their debut single "Mamacita" from their self-titled debut album in 1988. "Mamacita" reached Number 2 on the Billboard's R&B Chart.
Troop's second album Attitude included the hit singles "Spread My Wings" and "All I Do Is Think of You", which were both number one on the Billboard R&B singles chart, remained in the top 10 for several weeks. Attitude was certified platinum in 1990, their third album Deepa was released in 1992, from which the single "Sweet November" made number one on the Billboard R&B singles chart. The group followed up Deepa with two more albums, A Lil' Sumpin' Sumpin' and Mayday, both of which were re-released in 2005. After the release of Mayday in 1998, Troop took a hiatus as individual members worked behind the scenes on various writing and producing projects and other business endeavors. In 2004 Troop began touring the United States and finishing up their sixth album. Since returning, Troop has headlined a number of shows and shared the stage with artists they had toured with in the past, such as Boyz II Men, Brian McKnight, Keith Sweat, Silk and Jon B.. Troop have been showcased on The Late Show with David Letterman, Soul Train, The Arsenio Hall Show, It's Showtime at the Apollo, appeared in the feature film New Jack City singing a cappella.
Additionally, the group appeared on the New Jack City soundtrack with Queen Latifah and Levert, in a medley featuring cover versions of The O'Jays' "For the Love of Money" and Stevie Wonder's "Living for the City". In October 2006, Troop contacted the Internet Radio Station The Mixx and have worked together to make The Mixx the radio home of Troop. Steve Russell dubs the singing voices of several minor characters in the 2006 film version of the Broadway musical Dreamgirls. Steve Russell wrote "Take You Down" for Chris Brown, "No Air" for Jordin Sparks, the Grammy Award-winning "Invisible" for Jennifer Hudson. In February, 2010 he released his debut solo CD titled So Random, the first release from his own label Motel Music Media. Allen McNeil released his debut solo album Hybernation in January, 2010. Allen McNeil released his sophomore solo album Send For Me in November, 2011. In addition to releasing music, Allen McNeil is said to have been auditioning for acting roles and accepting scripts.
In 2014, John "Jon Jon" Harreld announced that he would be working on a solo project, released a single covering Luther Vandross' "Never Too Much", which should appear on the project. Jon Jon's Official Website Steven Russell Website TROOP's Official MySpace Page Allen McNeil aka Mr. AL MAC Website AL MAC Send For Me Album Troop at AllMusic
Whitney Elizabeth Houston was an American singer and actress. She was cited as the most awarded female artist of all time by Guinness World Records and remains one of the best-selling music artists of all time with 200 million records sold worldwide, she released seven studio albums and two soundtrack albums, all of which have been certified diamond, multi-platinum, platinum, or gold by the Recording Industry Association of America. Houston's crossover appeal on the popular music charts—as well as her prominence on MTV, starting with her video for "How Will I Know"—influenced several African-American women artists who followed in her footsteps. Houston became a background vocalist while in high school. With the guidance of Arista Records chairman Clive Davis, she signed to the label at the age of 19, her first two studio albums, Whitney Houston and Whitney, both reached number one on the Billboard 200 in the United States and became two of the world's best-selling albums of all time. She became the only artist to have seven consecutive number-one singles on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, from "Saving All My Love for You" in 1985 to "Where Do Broken Hearts Go" in 1988.
Houston made her screen acting debut in the romantic thriller film The Bodyguard. She recorded seven songs for the film's soundtrack, including "I Will Always Love You", which received the Grammy Award for Record of the Year and became the best-selling single by a woman in music history; the soundtrack album received the Grammy Award for Album of the Year and remains the world's best-selling soundtrack album of all time. Houston made other high-profile film appearances, including Waiting to Exhale and The Preacher's Wife; the theme song "Exhale" became her eleventh and final number-one single on the Hot 100 chart, while The Preacher Wife's soundtrack became the best-selling gospel album in history. Following the critical and commercial success of My Love Is Your Love, Houston signed a $100 million contract with Arista Records. However, her personal struggles began overshadowing her career, the album Just Whitney received mixed reviews, her drug use and tumultuous marriage to Bobby Brown were publicized in media.
After a six-year break from recording, Houston returned to the top of the Billboard 200 chart with her final studio album, I Look to You. On February 11, 2012, Houston was found dead in the Beverly Beverly Hills, California; the coroner's report showed that she had accidentally drowned in the bathtub, with heart disease and cocaine use as contributing factors. News of her death coincided with the 2012 Grammy Awards which she was scheduled to perform and featured prominently in international media. Whitney Houston was born on August 9, 1963, in what was a middle-income neighborhood in Newark, New Jersey, she was the daughter of Army serviceman and entertainment executive John Russell Houston, Jr. and gospel singer Emily "Cissy" Houston. Her elder brother Michael is a singer, her elder half-brother is former basketball player Gary Garland, her parents were both African American. Through her mother, Houston was a first cousin of Dee Dee Warwick, her godmother was Darlene Love and her honorary aunt was Aretha Franklin, whom she met at age 8 or 9 when her mother took her to a recording studio.
Houston was raised a Baptist, but was exposed to the Pentecostal church. After the 1967 Newark riots, the family moved to a middle-class area in East Orange, New Jersey, when she was four, her parents' marriage ended in divorce. At the age of 11, Houston started performing as a soloist in the junior gospel choir at the New Hope Baptist Church in Newark, where she learned to play the piano, her first solo performance in the church was "Guide Me, O Thou Great Jehovah". Houston attended a Catholic girls' high school in Caldwell, New Jersey. Houston graduated from Mount Saint Dominic in 1981. While Houston was still in school, her mother, continued to teach her how to sing. Houston spent some of her teenage years touring nightclubs where Cissy was performing, she would get on stage and perform with her. Houston was exposed to the music of Chaka Khan, Gladys Knight, Roberta Flack, most of whom would have an influence on her as a singer and performer. In 1977, at age 14, she became a backup singer on the Michael Zager Band's single "Life's a Party".
In 1978, at age 15, Houston sang background vocals for Lou Rawls. In the early 1980s, Houston started working as a fashion model after a photographer saw her at Carnegie Hall singing with her mother, she appeared in Seventeen and became one of the first women of color to grace the cover of the magazine. She was featured in layouts in the pages of Glamour, Young Miss, appeared in a Canada Dry soft drink TV commercial, her looks and girl-next-door charm made her one of the most sought after teen models of that time. While modeling, she continued her burgeoning recording career by working with producers Michael Beinhorn, Bill Laswell and Martin Bisi on an album they were spearheading called One Down, credited to the group Material. For that project, Houston contributed the ballad "Memories", a cover of a song by Hugh Hopper of Soft Machine. Robert Christgau of The Village Voice called her contribution "one of the most gorgeous ballads you've heard", she appeared as a lead vocalist on one track on a Paul Jabara album, entitled Paul Jabara and Friends, released by Columbia Records in 1983.
In 1983, Gerry Gri
Al B. Sure!
Albert Joseph Brown III, known professionally as Al B. Sure!, is an American singer, record producer, radio host and former record executive. He was raised in Mount Vernon, New York. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Brown was one of new jack swing's most popular romantic singers and record producers. Brown is the son of Albert Joseph Brown II, a nuclear medical technician, Cassandra Brown, an accountant. Brown was a star football quarterback at Mount Vernon High School in New York, who rejected an athletic scholarship to the University of Iowa to pursue a music career. In 1987, Quincy Jones selected Brown as the first winner of the Sony Innovators Talent Search. Subsequently, he went on to work with Jones on several projects, most notably the platinum 1990 single "The Secret Garden" from Jones' double-platinum-certified album Back on the Block. On this recording, Brown was one of a quartet with Barry White, El DeBarge, James Ingram. Brown's 1988 debut album In Effect Mode sold more than three million copies, topping the Billboard R&B chart for seven straight weeks.
It included the single "Nite and Day," which topped the R&B chart and reached No. 7 on the Billboard Hot 100, "Off on Your Own", which top the R&B chart. He received numerous Grammy and American Music Award nominations, won an AMA for Best New R&B Artist, he received several Soul Train Award nominations, won the award for Best New Artist. Brown won several New York Music Awards. In addition, his 1-900 phone line was third in generating revenue, following those for New Kids on the Block and Run-D. M. C; as a writer and producer, Brown introduced to the music industry such multi-platinum acts as Jodeci and teen R&B performer Tevin Campbell, as well as Faith Evans, Dave Hollister and Usher. In 2009, Brown signed with Hidden Beach Recordings, his first single for the label, "I Love It," entered the Radio & Records Urban AC chart at No. 33. The album Honey, I'm Home was released on June 23, 2009. In 1991, Brown co-starred with Martin Lawrence in a television pilot titled Private Times. Other cast members included The Five Heartbeats' Michael Wright.
Brown's various talk show appearances include The Oprah Winfrey Show, Late Night with David Letterman, The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, Good Morning America, The Arsenio Hall Show and Donahue. Brown's television and acting performances include It's Showtime at the Apollo!, Soul Train and The Soul Train Music Awards, the Grammys, the American Music Awards, The Fresh Prince of Bel Air, The Magic Johnson Special from Hawaii. He hosted MTV Jams. In 2000, Brown's ABS Entertainment launched a television development division, he served as co-executive producer of an HBO Comedy Special starring Jamie Foxx, filmed at the Paramount Theater in Oakland, California. More Brown teamed with the ABC Radio Network to produce and host a romantically themed nighttime music program, The Secret Garden, featuring a blend of music and celebrity guests. Brown participated in Bless the Children Foundation's celebrity auction along with NFL stars Charles Woodson and Anthony Dorsett, he was presented with the key to the city of Oakland by city council member Laurence E. Reid in recognition of the participation of Brown's ABS Ken-Struk-Shen in refurbishing parts of the city.
Reid proclaimed October 19 Al B. Sure! Day. Brown was a DJ on the Los Angeles radio station KHHT, played old-school hip hop and R&B, he hosts a daily morning-radio show on iHeart Radio. His eldest son Al Brown known as Lil' B. Sure!, was featured on the MTV series Rock the Cradle. In 2010, Brown appeared as one of the 12 contestants on the TV One reality television dating game show The Ultimate Merger; the series was produced by Donald Trump and starred former Apprentice contestant Omarosa Manigault-Stallworth, whom Brown dated previously. Brown has three sons. Albert Brown IV is a singer who performs under the stage name Lil' B. Sure. A second son, Devin, is a music producer and hip-hop artist based in Atlanta, who goes by the name Devin LOUD. Brown is the father of actor and musician Quincy, named after Quincy Jones, with former model Kim Porter. Quincy was raised as his own. Brown co-wrote and produced the 1991 song "Forever My Lady" by Jodeci in honor of Porter and his son Quincy. Official website
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45