Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format released in 1982 and co-developed by Philips and Sony. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was later adapted for storage of data. The first commercially available Audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan, standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data. The Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres, they are used for CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio. At the time of the introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive. By 2010, hard drives commonly offered as much space as a thousand CDs. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs, by 2007,200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record information on an optical transparent foil that is lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russells patent application was first filed in 1966, and he was granted a patent in 1970, following litigation, Sony and Philips licensed Russells patents in the 1980s. The compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Philips and Sony independently in the late 1970s, although originally dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled. In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980, after their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were extremely popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984, by 1988 CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, and by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes. The success of the disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, who came together to agree upon and develop compatible hardware. The unified design of the disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company. In 1974, L. However, due to the performance of the analog format
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
The Police were an English new wave band formed in London in 1977. For most of their history the band consisted of Sting, Andy Summers and they are also considered one of the leaders of the Second British Invasion of the United States. They disbanded in 1986, but reunited in early 2007 for a world tour that ended in August 2008. Their 1978 debut album, Outlandos dAmour, reached No.6 in the UK and their second album Reggatta de Blanc became the first of five consecutive UK No.1 albums with its lead single, Message in a Bottle, their first UK number one. Their next two albums, Zenyatta Mondatta and Ghost in the Machine, saw further critical and commercial success and their final studio album, Synchronicity, was No.1 in both the UK and the US, selling over 8 million copies in the US alone. Every Breath You Take became their fifth UK number one single, the Police have sold over 75 million records, making them one of the worlds best-selling artists of all time. They were the worlds highest-earning musicians in 2008, thanks to their reunion tour, four of their five studio albums appeared on Rolling Stones list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. The Police were included among both Rolling Stones and VH1s lists of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time, on 12 January 1977, Sting relocated to London and the very same day of his arrival, he sought out Copeland for a jam session. Curved Air had recently split up and Copeland, inspired by the then-current punk rock movement, was eager to form a new band and join the burgeoning London punk scene. While less keen, Sting acknowledged the commercial opportunities, so the duo formed the Police as a power trio with Corsican guitarist Henry Padovani recruited as the third member. After their debut concert on 1 March 1977 at Alexanders in Newport, Wales and their first single Fall Out, recorded at Pathway Studios in Islington, North London on 12 February 1977 with a budget of £150, was released in May 1977 by Illegal Records. Also in May 1977, former Gong musician Mike Howlett invited Sting to join him in the band project Strontium 90, the drummer Howlett had in mind, Chris Cutler, was unavailable to play, so Sting brought Copeland. The bands fourth member was guitarist Andy Summers from Lancashire in northwest England, a decade older than Sting and Copeland, Summers was a music industry veteran who had played with Eric Burdon and the Animals and Kevin Ayers among others. Strontium 90 performed at a Gong reunion concert in Paris on 28 May 1977, the band also recorded several demo tracks, these were released 20 years later in 1997 on the archive album Strontium 90, Police Academy. Summers musicality impressed Sting, who was becoming frustrated with Padovanis rudimentary abilities, shortly after the Strontium 90 gig, Sting approached Summers to join the band. He agreed, on the condition the band remain a trio, shortly after these two gigs, Summers delivered an ultimatum and Padovani was dismissed from the band. The Polices power trio line-up of Copeland, Sting, and Summers performed for the first time on 18 August 1977 at Rebeccas club in the English city of Birmingham in the West Midlands. A trio was unusual for the time, and this line-up endured for the rest of the bands history, few punk bands were three-pieces, while contemporary bands pursuing progressive rock, symphonic rock and other sound trends usually expanded their line-ups with support players
Supertramp are an English rock band formed in London in 1969. Though their music was initially categorised as progressive rock, they incorporated a combination of traditional rock, pop. The bands work is marked by the songwriting of founders Rick Davies and Roger Hodgson and they reached their commercial peak with 1979s Breakfast in America, which has sold more than 20 million copies. The band attained significant popularity in the United States, Canada, Europe, South Africa, since co-founder Hodgsons departure in 1983, Rick Davies has led the band by himself. In 1969 Stanley Sam August Miesegaes, a Dutch millionaire, ceased support to a band called The Joint as he was disappointed with them. He offered Swindon-born keyboardist Rick Davies, whose talent he felt had been bogged down by the group, Davies assembled Roger Hodgson, Richard Palmer, and Keith Baker after placing an advertisement in the weekly music newspaper, Melody Maker. Despite this, they hit it off during the auditions and began writing all of their songs together. Hodgson and Davies collaborated on the songwriting while Palmer composed the lyrics, the group initially dubbed themselves Daddy. One 10-minute performance there of All Along The Watchtower was filmed by Haro Senft, the rehearsals had been less than productive, and their initial repertoire consisted of only four songs, two of which were covers. To avoid confusion with the similarly named Daddy Longlegs, the changed its name to Supertramp. Supertramp were one of the first groups to be signed to the UK branch of A&M Records and their first album, Supertramp, was released on 14 July 1970 in the UK and Canada. Stylistically, the album was fairly typical of rock of the era. Despite receiving a deal of critical praise, the album did not attract a large audience. Dave Winthrop joined the group after the release of the first record, the membership continued to change in the six months following the albums release, Palmer left the band followed by Millar, who had suffered a nervous breakdown following a disastrous tour of Norway. With Palmers departure, Hodgson and Davies wrote and composed separately for this, the record sold even less than their debut. In the aftermath, all members gradually quit except Hodgson and Davies, a search for new members brought aboard Dougie Thomson, who had done stand-in gigs with the band for almost a year before auditions resumed. In 1973, auditions restarted and introduced Bob Siebenberg and John Helliwell, Hodgson would also begin introducing compositions featuring keyboards in the band in addition to guitar. This lineup of Supertramp would remain in place for the ten years
Mocedades is a Spanish singing group from the Basque Country, who represented Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest in 1973 with the hit song Eres Tú. Since June 2014, Mocedades has been the name of two bands, one with Izaskun Uranga as its leader and the other with Javier Garay. A third group, El Consorcio, is composed of former Mocedades members who left the group but have continued a career together outside the Mocedades brand. In 1967, in the Basque city of Bilbao, three sisters, Amaya, Izaskun and Estibaliz Uranga, formed a vocal trio named Las Hermanas Uranga. They sang in various locations at Bilbao, during their rehearsals, their brothers and friends joined. Eventually they decided to form a group named Voces y guitarras with folk and spiritual music. The members of Voces y guitarras were Amaya Uranga, Izaskun Uranga, Estibaliz Uranga, Roberto Uranga, Rafael Blanco, Sergio Blanco, José Ipiña, Javier Garay and they spent a year performing around their hometown before sending a demo cassette to producer Juan Carlos Calderón in Madrid. He took an immediate interest in the group and renamed them Mocedades, meaning youths, from the Spanish word mocedad, Javier Garay could not join them because of his military service, and so Mocedades started out as an eight-member group. In 1970, both Ipiña and Panera left Mocedades, Javier Garay who had previously belonged to Voces y Guitarras rejoined the group in 1970 after serving in the Spanish military in Africa. Estíbaliz Uranga and the Blanco brothers followed in 1971, and in 1972 Ipiña returned and it was with this configuration of six, known in Spain as The Six Historic Ones, that Mocedades achieved its greatest successes. The group was now on its way to making a string of hits, most notably Eres tú, runner up in 1973 and the next year a massive hit in Europe. The B-side of the single was the English-language version of the song, there were also several cover versions of the tune in both English and Spanish, only one of which, charted, becoming a minor Adult Contemporary hit. The song was re-released in English as Touch The Wind in later years and it was subsequently released in German, French, Italian, and Basque. The song was the only U. S. Billboard hit for Mocedades, the 1973 Eurovision Song Contest was marked by a scandal, with charges that Eres tú was plagiarized and merely a rewrite of the Yugoslav entry from the 1966 contest. Nevertheless, Eres tú was not disqualified, after winning second place in the contest, and as of 2013 the highest score for Spain with 125 points, the song went on to become a huge international hit. However, many more followed in Latin America and Spain, most notably Tómame o déjame, El vendedor, La otra España. In 1984, the singer, Amaya Uranga, left the group to pursue a solo career. For the third album, also José Ipiña and Carlos Zubiaga had left the group and this Mocedades made in 1995 another album entitled Suave luz before the new members left it again in 1996
...Famous Last Words...
…Famous Last Words… is the seventh album by English rock band Supertramp and was released in October 1982. It was the studio follow-up to 1979s Breakfast in America and the last album with vocalist/keyboardist/guitarist Roger Hodgson, thus, it was the final album to be released by the classic lineup of the band. The album reached number 5 on the Billboard Pop Albums Charts in 1982 and was certified Gold for sales in excess of 500,000 copies there and it also peaked at number 6 in the UK where it was certified Gold for 100,000 copies sold. A remastered CD version of …Famous Last Words… was released on 30 July 2002 on A&M Records, the remastered CD comes with all of the original artwork and the CD art features a green pair of scissors and a black background. Though Rick Davies and Roger Hodgson had long been writing their songs separately, they had conceived the theme. According to Bob Siebenberg, In the end, they kind of changed their formats and their picture of what they thought this album should be. It became a version of what it started out to be. It was really neither here nor there, in particular, the band decided to leave out Brother Where You Bound, since it was too heavy to fit alongside Hodgsons pop compositions. Supertramp used Brother Where You Bound for their album, Brother Where You Bound, though it had by that point evolved from 10 minutes to 16. As usual, the songs are all credited as being written by Davies/Hodgson. However, the sleeve notes color-code the songs lyrics by individual author, Davies wound up recording his vocal and keyboard parts at his home studio, The Backyard Studios, in Encino, California. Other overdubs were at Bill Schnee Recording Studios in Los Angeles, Hodgson later said that he regrets recording the album, calling it a last-ditch attempt to try and make things happen after the life had gone out of the band. At the time of the release, many interpreted the title. In fact, there was no threat of a break-up at this point in the bands history. To help dispel the rumour, John Helliwell explained the meaning of the title. We always like to have titles like Crime of the Century. This last LP we thought was going to be real quick and we thought we were going to rehearse it and record it real quick and it ended up taking longer than any other so we had to eat our words again. For the past three or four LPs weve been saying, Lets be well prepared, so the title sprung out of that as well
Christopher Chris Cross is an American singer-songwriter from San Antonio, Texas. His debut album earned him five Grammy Awards and he is perhaps best known for his US Top Five hit songs, Ride Like the Wind, Sailing, and Arthurs Theme, the latter recorded by him for the film Arthur starring Dudley Moore. Sailing earned three Grammys in 1981, while Arthurs Theme won the Oscar for Best Original Song in 1981, Cross first played with a San Antonio-based cover band named Flash before signing a solo contract with Warner Bros. in 1978. Cross released his debut album, Christopher Cross, in 1979. The Billboard Hot 100 top 20 hits from this album included Ride Like the Wind, Sailing, Never Be the Same, due to the almost immediate success and popularity gained by his first album, he was nominated for several Grammy Awards, garnering five. Crosss second album, Another Page, included the hit songs Arthurs Theme, All Right, No Time for Talk, Another Page sold well, getting Gold Certification. He also co-wrote and sang the song A Chance For Heaven for the 1984 Summer Olympic Games, after 1984, Crosss star quickly dimmed. Crosss next two albums, 1985s Every Turn of the World and 1988s Back of My Mind did not produce any top 40 hits or reach Gold or Platinum status. Cross made three albums in the 1990s, and although some of his releases have gained critical response. After his decline in fame in the mid-1980s, he toured and opened for acts during the 1990s. In 2002 he released his Very Best of, album, and in 2007 he completed a Christmas album, A Christopher Cross Christmas. In 2008 recorded a new album of his hits titled The Cafe Carlyle Sessions. In 2011 Cross released a new album titled Doctor Faith. In 2013 he released A Night in Paris, a 2-CD live album he recorded and filmed in April 2012 at the Theatre Le Trianon in Paris, the song Ride Like The Wind was featured on the Anchorman 2, The Legend Continues original movie soundtrack, released in 2013. In September 2014 he released his latest album, Secret Ladder, Cross married Jan Bunch in 1988. They have two children, son Rain and daughter Madison and that home had earlier belonged to the Cummins family. Another notable San Antonian, the historian and author Light Townsend Cummins, had grown up in that house a decade earlier. He was joined by Michael McDonald, whom he has worked with in the past, as the credits were rolling, Cross, McDonald and The Roots, the Fallon house band, broke into Sailing, which he also performed in an online-only performance on NBC
Edmond Montague Eddy Grant is a Guyanese British musician. He was a member of The Equals, one of the United Kingdoms first racially integrated pop groups. He is also known for a solo career that includes the platinum single Electric Avenue. He also pioneered the genre ringbang, Grant was born in Plaisance, British Guiana, later moving to Linden. His father, Patrick, was a trumpeter who played in Nello, while at school, his parents lived and worked in the United Kingdom, sending back money for his education. In 1960, he emigrated to join his parents to London and he lived in Kentish Town and went to school at the Acland Burghley Secondary Modern at Tufnell Park, where he learned to read and write music. He became a big fan of Chuck Berry, and after seeing him play at the Finsbury Park Astoria decided on a career in music. The tune also topped the UK Singles Chart in 1994, when covered by Pato Banton featuring Robin, the Equals had five further top 40 hits in the UK up to the end of 1970. The Baby Come Back album featured a song by Grant titled, willie Nile released his cover of Police on My Back on his Streets of New York CD. The Equals song Green Light co-written by Grant from their 1968 album Supreme, was covered by The Detroit Cobras, on their 2007 album, Tied & True. He produced The Pioneers 1976 album Feel the Rhythm, as well as recordings by his younger brother Rudy. A self-titled solo album released in 1975 made little impact, nor did the proto-soca Message Man, completed and released in 1977, on which Grant played all the instruments himself. His breakthrough as a solo artist came two years later with the album Walking on Sunshine, which spawned the UK top 20 hit Living on the Frontline. He returned to the charts in 1980 with the top 10 hit Do You Feel My Love, the track of Cant Get Enough. The album included two hit singles, Cant Get Enough of You and I Love You, Yes I Love You. 2 in both the UK and the US and he also began producing and promoting local artists such as David Rudder, Mighty Gabby, Tamu Hibbert, and Grynner. A lean period followed, his 1984 theme song for Romancing the Stone was cut from the film and stalled outside the UK top 50 when released as a single, although it fared better in the US. His albums Going for Broke, Born Tuff, and File Under Rock failed to chart and he returned to the charts in 1988 with the anti-apartheid single Gimme Hope Joanna, a no.7 hit in the UK, his last hit to date
The Kids from "Fame"
The Kids from Fame was the group name of several cast members from the US TV series Fame who had a number of hit singles and albums at the height of the shows success in the UK. This success culminated in tours of the UK where they performed live in concert, a live album was subsequently released. The group came to prominence in the summer of 1982 when the series first aired in the UK, along with this an album was released, The Kids from Fame, which reached No.1 for 12 weeks. A series of singles and albums followed over the next 12 months with songs taken from the shows first three seasons, by the summer of 1983, interest in the show was beginning to wane and the releases abruptly stopped, although the TV series carried on until 1987. The main vocalists of the group were Debbie Allen, Valerie Landsburg, Erica Gimpel, Carlo Imperato, Gene Anthony Ray, Lee Curreri, and Lori Singer. In late 1982 the cast members as The Kids from Fame performed some shows in the UK. These included a show at the Royal Albert Hall in London which was recorded and released as an album and it was during the 1983 tour that stories began to emerge in the press that things were not so harmonious off-stage with stories of drug-taking, alcohol abuse and backstage rows. During the tour Erica Gimpell and Debbie Allen had a disagreement over the choice of a song which ultimately led to Gimpell walking out of the tour and heading back to the US. The tour carried on without her, but led to press reports of how Allen was being domineering over the others and was labelled in one article as a bitch. Allen later commented on the saying that they upset her. Several members commented that they were unaware of the success of the show until they arrived in London, which they found overwhelming. Prior to this, Valerie Landsburg did some promotional work alone in the UK during the summer of 1982 to promote the Hi Fidelity single, in 2003 a BBC TV special reunited several members of the group to talk about their time on the show and as the performing group. The special culminated in them performing the song Starmaker to Lee Curreris piano accompaniment and this was Gene Anthony Rays last on-screen appearance before his death some months later. Subsequently in 2008, television presenter Justin Lee Collins travelled to America to unite members of the group in a show titled Bring Back. Fame. They spoke of their success as a group in the UK and their live shows, lansburg also talked about her surprise at the success of Hi Fidelity. Curreri spoke about the music, saying that he was the member to contribute to the writing of the songs. However, Lori Singer also played the cello on some of the recordings, the show was transmitted on 27 December 2008. 2Lead vocals by Gene Anthony Ray, 5Lead vocals by Carlo Imperato and Erica Gimpel The albums Again and Sing for You were not released in the U. S