This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited as a city. The age claims listed are disputed. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of "city" as well as "continuous habitation" and historical evidence is disputed. Caveats to the validity of each claim are discussed in the "Notes" column. Continuous habitation since the Chalcolithic is vaguely possible but problematic to prove archaeologically for several Levantine cities. Cities became more common outside the Fertile Crescent with the Early Iron Age from about 1100 BC; the foundation of Rome in 753 BC is conventionally taken as one of the dates initiating Classical Antiquity. Historical urban community sizes List of cities in the Americas by year of foundation List of cities of the ancient Near East List of largest cities throughout history, including ones no longer inhabited List of oldest known surviving buildings "What is the oldest city in the world?"
Unpopularity is the opposite of popularity. Therefore, it is the quality of lacking approval by one's peers or society as a whole; the importance of peer relations in an adolescent's normal psychosocial development has been well-researched. The impact of peers is hardly surprising, given that high school students spend the majority of their days with peers rather than with adults, both during and outside of class. More peer groups provide contexts separate from the home for experimentation; this makes peers crucial in the development of a sense of identity and a capacity for intimacy. But while normal peer relations are an enjoyable alternative to the home, a subset of adolescents experiences this social network as distinctly unpleasant; these adolescents are considered unpopular or deviant early in childhood, are rejected as such. In adolescence, they are uncharacteristic of any crowd and lack the close friendships of their more popular peers. There has been considerable research documenting the effects of peer rejection, such as low academic achievement, delinquent behavior, mental health problems in adulthood.
Other research has focused on identifying stable subgroups of unpopular adolescents. A common distinction is that made between aggressive and aggressive–withdrawn individuals. However, less is known about how these traits lead to aggressive or withdrawn children to become unpopular and to experience adjustment problems. Indeed, the causality of this relationship is uncertain, it is suggested that both behavioral traits and unpopularity are as stable as they are due to various reinforcement processes; because peer relations are so essential to developing identity and intimacy, the normal psychosocial maturation of unpopular adolescents lags behind their peers. Attempts to "catch up" by reentry into the dominant network of peer groups are likely to fail and result in greater rejection. In seeking to compensate for the lack of peer relations, the unpopular adolescent may be forced to turn to other sources of support that cannot replace the peer group and may, in fact, encourage the adolescent's unpopular traits.
Indeed, unpopular adolescents may be unable to achieve a genuine sense either of identity or intimacy either in their initial peer relations, or in their attempted compensation involving family members, antisocial contacts, or fantasy. Children who are neglected are not rejected by their peers, they are ignored; the neglected child does not enjoy being at school, but the long-term harm does not result. The child does the best at rebounding from this neglect if they have "a supportive family and outstanding talent" to use as a support system from which to move on. Aggressive-Rejected children are unpopular because, as the name would suggest, are aggressive and confrontational towards others; this type of unpopularity can result in psychological harm to the rejected child and an "increased risk of depression and uncontrolled anger over the years of middle childhood" Children who are categorized as being aggressive-rejected are the children who are to become Bully Victims: People who are attacked or harassed, who go and attack or harass someone else.
They are victims who become bullies. Withdrawn-Rejected children are rejected by their peers because they are "timid and anxious." This type of unpopularity can result in psychological harm to the rejected child and give them an "increased risk of depression and uncontrolled anger over the years of middle childhood" To understand the stability of peer rejection, it is first necessary to trace unpopularity back to the original interactions between future antisocial adolescents and their popular peers. Rubin, Chen, McDougall, McKinnon examined the predictability of both withdrawal and aggression; the researchers argued that early social withdrawal as well as aggression can preclude unpopular children from normal levels of social and emotional competence. At the time their study began, withdrawal was not considered to predict maladjustment in adolescence and adulthood. Rather than make specific hypotheses the study's aim was to confirm that withdrawn as well as aggressive children suffer from more adolescent maladaptations than popular peers, to show that the particular social and emotional problems of each of the two groups are unique.
The study, called the Waterloo Longitudinal Project, followed a group of 88 middle-class male and female children from grade 2 to grade 9. As a result of attrition, only 60 of the subjects remained in the study for the full seven years; the main independent variable in the study was a classification of second-grade children by social type. To differentiate between the aggressive and competent second-grade children, the researchers constructed aggregates of several measures. On one scale, the Revised Class Play method pioneered by Masten and Pellegrini, children were asked to nominate peers who best fit into each of the three social categories. Three of the seven items designed to measure isolation were deleted, because they seemed to record peer rejection rather than withdrawal, in two cases were as applicable to aggressive children as to their withdrawn peers—underscoring the tendency of the two groups of unpopular children to overlap. Other indicators added to the aggregate measures of aggression and social competence were a peer-assessed sociometric rating of each child's popularity, teacher ratings, observations by the researchers during 15-minute play sessions.
The dependent measures consisted of ques
Geoffrey Maxwell Wheeler was an Australian rules footballer who played with Hawthorn in the Victorian Football League. He played only one VFL game, against Melbourne; the son of Herbert John Wheeler, Eliza Lousia Wheeler, née James, Geoffrey Maxwell Wheeler was born at Coleraine, Victoria on 21 May 1912. He married Margaret Isabel Lingham in 1937, they had three children: Maxine and Mabel. He enlisted in the Second AIF on 24 July 1940, served in the 2/2 Pioneer Battalion, he was killed in action, at Merdjayoun, in French Lebanon, on 17 June 1941, serving with the Second AIF. List of Victorian Football League players who died in active service World War One Service Record: Private Herbert John Wheeler, National Archives of Australia. Egyptian Toy Camel: Private G M Wheeler, 2/2 Pioneer Battalion, Collection of the Australian War Memorial. Roll of Honour: Private Geoffrey Maxwell Wheeler, Australian War Memorial. Epic of The Pioneers: History Made at Merdjayoun, The Age, p.6. Private Geoffrey Maxwell Wheeler, Commonwealth War Graves Commission.
World War Two Nominal Roll: Private Geoffrey Maxwell Wheeler, Department of Veterans' Affairs. Holmesby, Russell & Main, Jim; the Encyclopedia of AFL Footballers. 7th ed. Melbourne: Bas Publishing. Quinlan, Kim, "Footy Stars of the Battlefield", The Courier, 4 April 2002. Max Wheeler's playing statistics from AFL Tables