Everything2, or E2 for short, is a collaborative Web-based community consisting of a database of interlinked user-submitted written material. E2 has no formal policy on subject matter. Writing on E2 covers a wide range of topics and genres, including encyclopedic articles, diary entries, poetry and fiction; the predecessor of E2 was a similar database called Everything, started around March 1998 by Nathan Oostendorp and was closely aligned with and promoted by the technology-related news website Slashdot sharing some administrators. The Everything1 software offered vastly more features, the Everything1 data was twice incorporated into E2: once on November 13, 1999, again in January 2000; the Everything2 server used to be colocated with the Slashdot servers. However, some time after OSDN acquired Slashdot, moved the Slashdot servers, this hosting was terminated on short notice; this resulted in Everything2 being offline from November 6 to December 9, 2003. Everything2 was hosted by the University of Michigan for a time.
As the Everything2 site put it on October 2, 2006: Now, we have an arrangement with the University of Michigan, located in Ann Arbor. We exist thanks to their generosity, they gave us some servers and act as our ISP, free of charge, all they ask in exchange is that we not display advertisements. The Everything2 servers were moved to the nearby Michigan State University in February 2007. E2 was owned by the Blockstackers Intergalactic company, but does not make a profit and is viewed by its long-term users as a collaborative work-in-progress; until mid-2007 it accepted donations of money and, on occasion, of computer hardware but no longer does so. Some of its administrators are affiliated with Blockstackers, some are not; the site is not a democracy, the degree to which users influence decisions depends on the nature of the decisions and the administrators making them. As of January 23, 2012, it was announced that the site had been sold to long-time user and coder Jay Bonci under the name Everything2 Media LLC.
Writeups in E1 were limited to 512 bytes in size. This, plus the predominantly "geek" membership back and the lack of chat facilities, meant the early work was of poor quality and was filled with self-referential humor; as E2 has expanded, stricter quality standards have developed, much of the old material has been removed, the membership has become broader in interest, although smaller in number. Many noders prefer to write encyclopedic articles similar to those on Wikipedia; some write fiction or poetry, some discuss issues, some write daily journals, called "daylogs." Unlike Wikipedia, E2 does not have an enforced neutral point of view. An informal survey of noder political beliefs indicates that the user base tends to lean left politically. There are conservative voices as well and while debate nodes are tolerated, well-formed points of view from any part of the political or cultural spectrum are. According to E2's "Site Trajectory", traffic has dropped from 9976 new write-ups created in the month of August 2000, down to 93 new write-ups in February 2017.
Some of the management regard Everything2 as a publication. Although Everything2 does not seek to become an encyclopedia, a substantial amount of factual content has been submitted to Everything2. Policy states that "Everything2 is not a bulletin board." Writeups which exist as replies to other writeups, or which add a minor point to them or which otherwise do not stand well alone are discouraged, not least because the deletion of the original writeup orphans any replies. This policy helps to moderate flame wars on controversial topics. Everything2 is not a wiki, there is no direct way for non-content editors to make corrections or amendments to another author's article. Avenues for correction involve discussing the writeup with its author. Like other online communities, E2 has a social hierarchy and code of behavior, to which it is sometimes difficult for a newcomer to adjust. Moreover, some people complain that new users are held to a different standard from established contributors, that their writeups are singled out for deletion regardless of content.
Another complaint is that all too site administrators remove articles that they do not agree with or which they do not see explicit value in, thus biasing the content of the database. Others dismiss such complaints as unjustified. There is no consistent, written site policy on acceptable behavior, although the usual intolerance for trolling or hatemongering remains, as is the case with most web-based communities. Bans have occurred for antisocial and/or insulting behaviour, albeit rarely and only after a more personal approach to change the offender's behavior. Though these decisions are broadly accepted, some current and ex-members of the site believe that this amounts to mismanagement, point to accumulation of disgruntled ex-users as evidence of a problem. A noder will request their E2 account be locked, preventing them from logging in; the causes for this are varied as the causes f
The Encyclopædia Britannica published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by more than 4,000 contributors; the 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition. The Britannica is the English-language encyclopaedia/encyclopedia, in print for the longest time: it lasted 244 years, it was first published between 1768 and 1771 as three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, by its fourth edition it had expanded to 20 volumes, its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, the 9th and 11th editions are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Beginning with the 11th edition and following its acquisition by an American firm, the Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal to the North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted, with every article updated on a schedule.
In March 2012, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced it would no longer publish printed editions, would focus instead on Encyclopædia Britannica Online. The 15th edition had a three-part structure: a 12-volume Micropædia of short articles, a 17-volume Macropædia of long articles, a single Propædia volume to give a hierarchical outline of knowledge; the Micropædia was meant as a guide to the Macropædia. Over 70 years, the size of the Britannica has remained steady, with about 40 million words on half a million topics. Though published in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has for the most part maintained British English spelling. Since 1985, the Britannica has had four parts: the Micropædia, the Macropædia, the Propædia, a two-volume index; the Britannica's articles are found in the Micro- and Macropædia, which encompass 12 and 17 volumes each volume having one thousand pages. The 2007 Macropædia has 699 in-depth articles, ranging in length from 2 to 310 pages and having references and named contributors.
In contrast, the 2007 Micropædia has 65,000 articles, the vast majority of which contain fewer than 750 words, no references, no named contributors. The Micropædia articles are intended for quick fact-checking and to help in finding more thorough information in the Macropædia; the Macropædia articles are meant both as authoritative, well-written articles on their subjects and as storehouses of information not covered elsewhere. The longest article is on the United States, resulted from the merger of the articles on the individual states; the 2013 edition of Britannica contained forty thousand articles. Information can be found in the Britannica by following the cross-references in the Micropædia and Macropædia. Hence, readers are recommended to consult instead the alphabetical index or the Propædia, which organizes the Britannica's contents by topic; the core of the Propædia is its "Outline of Knowledge", which aims to provide a logical framework for all human knowledge. Accordingly, the Outline is consulted by the Britannica's editors to decide which articles should be included in the Micro- and Macropædia.
The Outline is intended to be a study guide, to put subjects in their proper perspective, to suggest a series of Britannica articles for the student wishing to learn a topic in depth. However, libraries have found that it is scarcely used, reviewers have recommended that it be dropped from the encyclopaedia; the Propædia has color transparencies of human anatomy and several appendices listing the staff members and contributors to all three parts of the Britannica. Taken together, the Micropædia and Macropædia comprise 40 million words and 24,000 images; the two-volume index has 2,350 pages, listing the 228,274 topics covered in the Britannica, together with 474,675 subentries under those topics. The Britannica prefers British spelling over American. However, there are exceptions such as defense rather than defence. Common alternative spellings are provided with cross-references such as "Color: see Colour." Since 1936, the articles of the Britannica have been revised on a regular schedule, with at least 10% of them considered for revision each year.
According to one Britannica website, 46% of its articles were revised over the past three years. The alphabetization of articles in the Micropædia and Macropædia follows strict rules. Diacritical marks and non-English letters are ignored, while numerical entries such as "1812, War of" are alphabetized as if the number had been written out. Articles with identical names are ordered first by persons by places by things. Rulers with identical names are organized first alphabetically by country and by chronology. Places that share names are
Know Your Meme
Know Your Meme is a website and video series which uses wiki software to document various Internet memes and other online phenomena, such as viral videos, image macros, internet celebrities and more. It investigates new and changing memes through research, as it commercializes on the culture. Produced by Rocketboom, the website was acquired in March 2011 by Cheezburger Network. Know Your Meme includes sections for confirmed, deadpooled and popular memes; the Know Your Meme project started in September 2007 as a recurring segment inside of the Rocketboom video series and a wiki destination site to support the documentation of Internet memes. Created by Kenyatta Cheese, Elspeth Rountree, Jamie Wilkinson and Andrew Baron, "meme experts" in white lab coats used a scientific laboratory metaphor for analyzing and deconstructing the top memes of the day. At the end of 2008, after more than a year of growth, Rocketboom released an expanded database with Jamie Wilkinson as the lead developer; as of January 2017, the database contained more than 2,700 entries of "confirmed" memes.
The administrators have a say on what gets "Deadpooled" or rejected. Some of the meme entries are graphic and Not Safe For Work. NSFW entries have warnings placed along the top of the entry and ads are disabled; these warnings may differ from consequences, such as bans. Know Your Meme has a forum section and shop. Dr. Sean Rintel, who wrote The Automated Identity blog, described Know Your Meme as "lucrative, self-supporting research that blends the humorous and the serious." As of March 2019, the site is maintained by seven editorial staff members and one developer in conjunction with a group of dedicated moderators. Former staff researchers include Amanda Brennan, Molly Horan and Ari Spool; the Know Your Meme website and web series were acquired in March 2011 by Cheezburger Network for an undisclosed seven-figure amount. Episodes of the Know Your Meme show average a few minutes in length each. In a given episode, the KYM staff describe the history behind them. New episodes appear in irregular intervals of time.
Breaking meme episodes started in 2010. Separated in seasons, the videos describe the meme using handy images. Beginning with the 2011 season, the cast of the episodes changed from the original cast to Forest Gibson and Kristina Horner. Kristina Horner left the show in early 2012 and starting with the Ermahgerd episode in August 2012, the cast of internet scientists expanded to Forest Gibson, Sarah Hiraki, Alison Luhrs and Rob Whitehead. In 2017, a new season, renamed "Know Your Meme 101" began airing. Many episodes star two hosts being two of these four: Brian Colbert Kennedy, Katie Molinaro, Eric Bellows, Jon Allen. All episodes narrated by Tucker Maloney, written by William Applegate Jr; the pilot up to episode 7 edited by Lindsay Penn, while episode 8 gave the edit credit to Connel Post Production. In August 2009,TIME magazine selected Know Your Meme as among the 50 Best Websites of 2009. In November 2009, New York Times Lens Blog listed "Know Your Meme Autotune Episode" as a must-see video.
In November 2009, Wired.com mentioned Know Your Meme in an article about Autotune. In December 2009, The Winnipeg Free Press called Know Your Meme the best website of 2009. In December 2009, NPR interviewed Kenyatta Cheese of Know Your Meme on the subject of internet memes. In December 2009, MSNBC cited Know Your Meme on the subject of Balloon Boy and called the article "meticulously recorded". In January 2010, The Wall Street Journal cited Know Your Meme when discussing the trend of the Bra Color Status Updates on Facebook. In April 2010, Know Your Meme won a Streamy Award in 2010 for Best Guest Star in a Web Series. In May 2012, Know Your Meme won the People's Voice Webby Award in Blog-Cultural category. In June 2014, Know Your Meme was inducted into the Web Archiving Program of American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress. In May 2016, the website was cited as a source for explaining the concept of "dank memes" in regards to the political campaigning in the Australian federal election during a discussion on the ABC television programme Insiders.
In June 2018, Know Your Meme was used as a source for metadata in a large-scale academic study of memes across various social networks. Encyclopedia Dramatica Internet meme List of Internet phenomena Lurkmore.ru Uncyclopedia Urban Dictionary Viral video Official website
A wiki is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and edited with the help of a rich-text editor. A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system, but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software, in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, wikis have little inherent structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems; some wiki engines are open source. Some permit control over different functions. Others may permit access without enforcing access control. Other rules may be imposed to organize content; the online encyclopedia project Wikipedia is the most popular wiki-based website, is one of the most viewed sites in the world, having been ranked in the top ten since 2007.
Wikipedia is not a single wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis, with each one pertaining to a specific language. In addition to Wikipedia, there are tens of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including wikis functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites, intranets; the English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles. Ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb described wiki as "the simplest online database that could work". "Wiki" is a Hawaiian word meaning "quick". Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows: A wiki invites all users—not just experts—to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a standard "plain-vanilla" Web browser without any extra add-ons. Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a crafted site created by experts and professional writers, designed for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the typical visitor/user in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that changes the website landscape. A wiki enables communities of contributors to write documents collaboratively. All that people require to contribute is a computer, Internet access, a web browser, a basic understanding of a simple markup language. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are well-interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is a database for creating and searching through information. A wiki allows non-linear, evolving and networked text, while allowing for editor argument and interaction regarding the content and formatting. A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. There is no review by a moderator or gatekeeper before modifications are accepted and thus lead to changes on the website.
Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear instantly online, but this feature facilitates abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, sometimes to read them. Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba, Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. "'Unfit' sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled and replaced if they are not considered'fit', which results in the evolution of a higher quality and more relevant page. While such openness may invite'vandalism' and the posting of untrue information, this same openness makes it possible to correct or restore a'quality' wiki page." Some wikis have an Edit button or link directly on the page being viewed, if the user has permission to edit the page. This can lead to a text-based editing page where participants can structure and format wiki pages with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as Wikitext, Wiki markup or Wikicode.
An example of this is the VisualEditor on Wikipedia. WYSIWYG controls do not, always provide
Den Store Danske Encyklopædi
Den Store Danske Encyklopædi is the most comprehensive contemporary Danish language encyclopedia. The 20 volumes of the encyclopedia were published successively between 1994 and 2001. Another one-volume supplement was published in 2006. Supplement 2 contained information on the new Structural Reform of the public sector in effect from 1 January 2007, i.e. maps of the new municipalities and regions. The work comprises 115,000 articles, ranging in size from single-line cross references to the 130-page entry Danmark; the articles were written by a staff of about 4,000 academic experts led by editor-in-chief Jørn Lund. Articles longer than a few dozen lines are signed by their authors. Many articles are illustrated; the encyclopedia was published by Danmarks Nationalleksikon A/S, a subsidiary of Denmark's grand old publishing house Gyldendal, set up for the purpose. The project was inspired by the contemporary Swedish Nationalencyklopedin. About 35,000 copies were sold; the text of the paper encyclopedia was published, but without illustrations, on CD-ROMs for Microsoft Windows in 2004 and for macOS in 2005.
In January 2006, it was announced that a full online edition of the encyclopedia was expected to be available in 2006 on a subscription basis, with the help of a renewed grant from the Augustinus Foundation. In March 2008, the publishing house announced that it failed to get sufficient numbers of subscribers and declared the project a failure; the CD ROM version of the encyclopedia is not to work without an update on newer versions of Windows XP/Vista, due to a security fix from Microsoft. An online version of the encyclopedia was released on 26 February 2009 free-of-charge, generating revenue by displaying ads; the free online version was published opening up for user contributions. The decision to offer it free of charge was criticized by buyers of the DKK 25,000 paper encyclopedia, to whom the publishing house had pledged that a reduced-price paper version would never be released; the publishing house insists that all pledges are honored, as the free-of-charge version is web-based, not a paper encyclopedia.
Gyldendal's vision is to create a hybrid between the traditional encyclopedia and user-generated encyclopedias like Wikipedia. While registered users may contribute with content and upload images etc. A professional and long-time editorial staff will maintain oversight over contributions; the status of an article shall be flagged, if it is user-generated content or if it has been approved by the editorial staff. The vision is that the online version shall be the Dane's preferred choice for updated and trustworthy information, maintaining the status of a traditional encyclopedia. Gyldendal seeks to recruit about 1,500 subject matter experts to verify user contributions to the about 161,000 articles - by March 2009 about 1,100 experts had been enrolled; the permanent editorial staff comprises 20 persons. The original articles from Den Store Danske Encyclopædi can be used as provided it is not distributed or used commercially; the new articles can be used provided the source is referenced using a deep link.
Den Store Danske is covered by the Danish copyright law and it belongs to Gyldendal. List of Danish online encyclopedic resources Den store Danske
The Esperanto Wikipedia is the Esperanto edition of Wikipedia, started on 11 May 2001, alongside the Basque Wikipedia. With over 257,000 articles as of June 2016, it is the 32nd-largest Wikipedia as measured by the number of articles, the largest Wikipedia in a constructed language. Chuck Smith, an American Esperantist, is considered to be Esperanto Wikipedia's founder; the encyclopedia started off when he imported the 139 articles of the Enciklopedio Kalblanda by Stefano Kalb, which took him three weeks following November 15, 2001. On, he undertook a journey to Europe with the goal of popularizing Wikipedia among the speakers of Esperanto in European countries. For instance in November 2002 he gave a talk about Wikipedia at the 10th Conference on the Application of Esperanto in Science and Technology in Dobřichovice. Esperanto speakers have been involved in the founding of several other language versions of the Wikipedia; the introduction of support for the Esperanto alphabet by Brion Vibber, an Esperanto speaker and Wikimedia Foundation's first employee, in January 2002 has paved the way for alphabets of languages other than English and initiated the transition of the whole Wikipedia to Unicode.
As of July 2018, the Esperanto Wikipedia has 287 articles of feature quality and a further 206 considered worth reading. Weekly community projects include a Collaboration of the Week which improves neglected articles and an Article of the Week featuring good-quality articles on the front page; the Esperanto community is a frequent contributor to Translation of the week. According to the List of Wikipedias by sample of articles at Meta, a list based on List of articles every Wikipedia should have, Esperanto ranks 36th, lacking none of the list of vital articles, but having in general short articles. On 18 November 2008, the Esperanto Wikipedia implemented the Flagged revisions extension; as of February 2012, the Esperanto Wikipedia had the 5th greatest number of articles per speaker among Wikipedias with over 100,000 articles, ranked 11th overall. These figures were based on Ethnologue's estimate of 2,000,000 Esperanto speakers. Due to the geographical spread of its editors, the Esperanto Wikipedia has a varied list of countries of origin of its editors.
On 13 August 2014 Esperanto Wikipedia reached 200,000 articles. Along with learners and other Esperantists of all levels, many experienced Esperantists and native Esperantists have joined the project. At least three editors are members of the Academy of Esperanto, Gerrit Berveling, John C. Wells, Bertilo Wennergren, a notable Esperanto grammarian and the director of the Academy's section about Esperanto vocabulary. Vikipedio incorporates, with permission, the content of the 1934 Enciklopedio de Esperanto and content from several reference books and the monthly periodical Monato; the Esperanto Wikipedia has been featured in many Esperanto news media, including a radio interview at Radio Polonia, articles at Esperanto, Libera Folio and Raporto.info. The Esperanto Wikimania, a gathering held in 2011 to celebrate the encyclopedia's 10th anniversary, has been subsidized by the host city of Svitavy and the Pardubice Region and covered by Czech Television. Esperanto organisations like Universal Esperanto Association do not contribute to Vikipedio but support it by providing chambers at Esperanto conventions for Vikipedio presentations and trainings.
At the World Esperanto Congress in Rotterdam, summer 2008, there were two Wikipedian meetups and a lecture at the Esperantology Conference. In April 2013, ELiSo was established as one of the first Wikimedia user groups; the Esperanto Wikipedia community has created and published a 40-page "Wikipedia: Practical Handbook", sold on-line and at conventions. The manual is intended to give new Wikipedians advice and information on how to edit Wikipedia in Esperanto, it is in its second printing. Esperanto Wikipedia Esperanto Wikipedia mobile version Manual at Vikilibroj Report at Libera Folio, March 2008 Clip at Youtube.com
Haredi Judaism is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture. Its members are referred to as Orthodox or ultra-Orthodox in English, although the term "ultra-Orthodox" is considered pejorative by many of its adherents. Haredim regard themselves as the most religiously authentic group of Jews, although this claim is contested by other streams. Haredi Judaism is a reaction to societal changes, including emancipation, the Haskalah movement derived from the Enlightenment, secularization, religious reform in all its forms from mild to extreme, the rise of the Jewish national movements, etc. In contrast to Modern Orthodox Judaism, which hastened to embrace modernity, the approach of the Haredim was to maintain a steadfast adherence both to Jewish Law and custom by segregating themselves from modern society. However, there are many Haredi communities in which getting a professional degree or establishing a business is encouraged, contact exists between Haredi and non-Haredi Jews, as well as between Haredim and non-Jews.
Haredi communities are found in Israel, North America, Western Europe. Their estimated global population numbers 1.5–1.8 million, due to a virtual absence of interfaith marriage and a high birth rate, their numbers are growing rapidly. Their numbers have been boosted by a substantial number of secular Jews adopting a Haredi lifestyle as part of the Baal teshuva movement; the term most used by outsiders, including most American news organizations, is "ultra-Orthodox" Judaism. Hillel Halkin suggests the origins of the term may date to the 1950s, a period in which Haredi survivors of the Holocaust first began arriving in America. However, Isaac Leeser was described in 1916 as "ultra-Orthodox". Haredi is a Modern Hebrew adjective derived from the Biblical verb hared which appears in the Book of Isaiah and is translated as " trembles" at the word of God; the word connotes an awe-inspired fear and anxiety to perform the will of God, is used to describe staunchly Orthodox Jews and to distinguish them from other Orthodox Jews.
The word Haredi is used in the Jewish diaspora in place of the term "ultra-Orthodox", which many view as inaccurate or offensive, it being seen as a derogatory term suggesting extremism. Others, dispute the characterization of the term as pejorative. Ari L. Goldman, a professor at Columbia University, notes that the term serves a practical purpose to distinguish a specific part of the Orthodox community, is not meant as pejorative. Others, such as Samuel Heilman, criticized terms such as "ultra-Orthodox" and "traditional Orthodox", arguing that they misidentify Haredim as more authentically Orthodox than others, as opposed to adopting customs and practises that reflect their desire to separate from the outside world; the community has sometimes been characterized as "Traditional Orthodox", in contradistinction to the Modern Orthodox, the other major branch of Orthodox Judaism. Haredi Jews use other terms to refer to themselves. Common Yiddish words include Yidn or erlekhe Yidn, Ben Torah and heimish.
In Israel, Haredi Jews are sometimes called by the derogatory slang words dos, that mimics the traditional Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation of the Hebrew word datim, meaning religious, more "blacks", a reference to the black clothes they wear. According to its adherents, the forebears of the contemporary Haredim were the traditionalists of Eastern Europe who fought against modernization. Indeed, adherents see their beliefs as part of an unbroken tradition dating from the revelation at Sinai. However, most historians of Orthodoxy consider Haredi Judaism, in its modern incarnation, to date back no earlier than the start of the 20th century. For centuries, before Jewish emancipation, European Jews were forced to live in ghettos where Jewish culture and religious observance were preserved. Change began in the wake of the Age of Enlightenment when some European liberals sought to include the Jewish population in the emerging empires and nation states; the influence of the Haskalah movement was evidence.
Supporters of the Haskalah held that Judaism must change in keeping with the social changes around them. Other Jews insisted on strict adherence to halakha. In Germany, the opponents of Reform rallied to Samson Raphael Hirsch, who led a secession from German Jewish communal organizations to form a Orthodox movement with its own network of synagogues and schools, his approach was to apply them in defence of Orthodoxy. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Jews true to traditional values gathered under the banner of Agudas Shlumei Emunei Yisroel. Moses Sofer was opposed to any philosophical, social, or practical change to customary Orthodox practice. Thus, he did not allow any secular studies to be added to the curriculum of his Pressburg Yeshiva. Sofer's student Moshe Schick, together with Sofer's sons Shimon and Samuel Benjamin, took an active role in arguing agai