InnoDB is a storage engine for the database management system MySQL. Since the release of MySQL 5.5.5 in 2010, it replaced MyISAM as MySQL's default table type. It provides the standard ACID-compliant transaction features, along with foreign key support, it is included as standard in most binaries distributed by MySQL AB, the exception being some OEM versions. InnoDB became a product of Oracle Corporation after its acquisition of Finland-based Innobase Oy in October 2005; the software is dual licensed. InnoDB supports: Both SQL and XA transactions Tablespaces Foreign keys Full text search indexes, since MySQL 5.6 and MariaDB 10.0 Spatial operations, following the OpenGIS standard Virtual columns, in MariaDB Comparison of MySQL database engines Mysqltutorial.org, InnoDB and other table types in MySQL The InnoDB Storage Engine, in the MySQL manual
Evelyn Ruth Scott was an Indigenous Australian social activist and educator. She began working in the Townsville Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Advancement League in the 1960s, she chaired the National Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation in the late 1990s. She was involved in campaigning for the 1967 Constitutional Referendum. In 1971, she joined the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders executive as a vice-president, she was a leader in the transformation of FCAATSI into an Indigenous-controlled organization in 1973, with the support of Josie Briggs. She was active in the first national women's organization, the National Aboriginal and Islander Council, formed in the early 1970s, she became Chair of the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation at a challenging time when the federal government led by John Howard was cutting reconciliation funding. Scott was appointed Officer of the Order of Australia. Scott was the mother of rugby league player Sam Backo.
Scott was inducted onto the Victorian Honour Roll of Women in 2001. In 2015, Scott was a resident in a care facility in Cairns. Scott died on 21 September 2017 aged 81. On 2 October 2017, Queensland Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk announced that a state funeral for Scott would be held in Townsville. On 6 October 2017, the state funeral was held at the Townsville Stadium and was attended by Premier Palaszczuk, Leeanne Enoch and many Indigenous community leaders. Senator Pat Dodson delivered a eulogy which described Scott's leading role in the 1967 referendum to recognise Indigenous Australians. Scott was the first Indigenous woman to receive a Queensland state funeral
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which one compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states. Although not accepted, disproportionation is sometimes used to describe any desymmetrizing reaction of the following type: 2 A → A' + A", regardless of any redox process. Mercury chloride disproportionates upon UV-irradiation: Hg2Cl2 → Hg + HgCl2Phosphorous acid disproportionates upon heating to give phosphoric acid and phosphine: 4 H3PO3 → 3 H3PO4 + PH3As mentioned above, desymmetrizing reactions are sometimes referred to as disproportionation, as illustrated by the thermal degradation of bicarbonate: 2 HCO−3 → CO2−3 + H2CO3The oxidation numbers remain constant in this acid-base reaction; this process is called autoionization. Another variant on disproportionation is radical disproportionation, in which two radicals form an alkane and alkene; the reverse of disproportionation, when a compound in an intermediate oxidation state is formed from precursors of lower and higher oxidation states, is called comproportionation known as synproportionation.
The first disproportionation reaction to be studied in detail was: 2 Sn2+ → Sn4+ + SnThis was examined using tartrates by Johan Gadolin in 1788. In the Swedish version of his paper he called it'söndring'. Chlorine gas reacts with dilute sodium hydroxide to form sodium chlorate and water; the ionic equation for this reaction is as follows:3 Cl2 + 6 OH− → 5 Cl− + ClO3− + 3 H2O The chlorine gas reactant is in oxidation state 0. In the products, the chlorine in the Cl− ion has an oxidation number of −1, having been reduced, whereas the oxidation number of the chlorine in the ClO3− ion is +5, indicating that it has been oxidized. Bromine fluoride undergoes disproportionation reaction to form bromine trifluoride and bromide:3 BrF → BrF3 + Br2The dismutation of superoxide free radical to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen, catalysed in living systems by the enzyme superoxide dismutase:2 O2− + 2 H+ → H2O2 + O2 The oxidation state of oxygen is −1/2 in the superoxide free radical anion, −1 in hydrogen peroxide and 0 in dioxygen.
In the Cannizzaro reaction, an aldehyde is converted into a carboxylic acid. In the related Tishchenko reaction, the organic redox reaction product is the corresponding ester. In the Kornblum -- DeLaMare rearrangement, a peroxide is converted to an alcohol; the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen catalysed by either potassium iodide or the enzyme catalase:2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2The Boudouard reaction is for example used in the HiPco method for producing carbon nanotubes, high-pressure carbon monoxide disproportionates when catalysed on the surface of an iron particle:2 CO → C + CO2Nitrogen has oxidation state +4 in nitrogen dioxide, but when this compound reacts with water, it forms both nitric acid and nitrous acid, where nitrogen has oxidation states +5 and +3 respectively:2 NO2 + H2O → HNO3 + HNO2Dithionite undergoes acid hydrolysis to thiosulfate and bisulfite:2 S2O2−4 + H2O → S2O2−3 + 2 HSO−3 Dithionite undergoes alkaline hydrolysis to sulfite and sulfide: 3 Na2S2O4 + 6 NaOH → 5 Na2SO3 + Na2S + 3 H2O In 1937, Hans Adolf Krebs, who discovered the citric acid cycle bearing his name, confirmed the anaerobic dismutation of pyruvic acid in lactic acid, acetic acid and CO2 by certain bacteria according to the global reaction: 2 pyruvic acid + H2O → lactic acid + acetic acid + CO2The dismutation of pyruvic acid in other small organic molecules is an important step in fermentation reactions.
Fermentation reactions can be considered as disproportionation or dismutation biochemical reactions. Indeed, the donor and acceptor of electrons in the redox reactions supplying the chemical energy in these complex biochemical systems are the same organic molecules acting as reductant or oxidant. Another example of biochemical dismutation reaction is the disproportionation of acetaldehyde into ethanol and acetic acid. While in respiration electrons are transferred from substrate to an electron acceptor, in fermentation part of the substrate molecule itself accepts the electrons. Fermentation is therefore a type of disproportionation, does not involve an overall change in oxidation state of the substrate. Most of the fermentative substrates are organic molecules. However, a rare type of fermentation may involve the disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds in certain sulfate-reducing bacteria. Comproportionation Dismutase Oxidoreductase Fermentation Citric acid cycle
Tuğba Karademir is a Turkish former competitive figure skater. She won silver medals at 2008 Ondrej Nepela Memorial, she qualified to the free skate at two Winter Olympics, two World Championships, seven European Championships. She served as the flag-bearer for Turkey at the 2006 Winter Olympics. Karademir was born on March 1985 in Ankara, Turkey. In Turkey, her father, was a restaurateur and her mother, worked in the aerospace industry. Upon relocating to Barrie, Canada, they took on menial jobs to pay for their daughter's training. While in Barrie, she was enrolled at Allandale Heights, she speaks English fluently. Karademir started skating at the age of 5, with her kindergarten class, right after the first ice rink opened in Turkey in 1990. At eight years old she competed for the first time internationally for Turkey. In 1995, she won a gold medal at a novice competition at the Balkan Games and a silver medal in the Netherlands. Turkey had only one ice rink and no professional skating coaches. In 1996 her parents decided to move the family to Canada.
She began training with Robert Tebby at the Mariposa School of Skating. At the 2006 European Championships, Karademir placed 13th, she went on to become the first figure skater from Turkey to compete in the Olympic Winter games. She was the flag bearer for Turkey during the opening ceremony, she scored a personal best of 44.2 points in the short program. Combined with her 79.44 points in the free program, she placed 21st overall with a total of 123.64 points. At the 2006 World Championships, Karademir placed 18th with her highest finish to date at that event. In the long program, she finished 16th. At the 2007 European Championships she achieved a new personal best in her short program and placed 10th overall. In June 2006, Tuğba Karademir was transferred by the Kocaeli Kağıtspor. At the 2010 Winter Olympics she received a total score of 129.54, with 50.74 in the short program and 78.80 in the free skate. GP: Grand Prix Official website Tuğba Karademir at the International Skating Union
Zlokuchene Glacier is the 13 km long and 3.5 km wide glacier on Nordenskjöld Coast in Graham Land, Antarctica situated north of Risimina Glacier, east of Rogosh Glacier and south of the lower course of Drygalski Glacier. It is draining from Mrahori Saddle eastwards between Kyustendil Ridge and Lovech Heights to flow into Weddell Sea northwest of Pedersen Nunatak; the feature is named after the settlements of Zlokuchene in southern Bulgaria. Zlokuchene Glacier is centred at 64°51′15″S 60°59′40″W. British mapping in 1978. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 1993–2016. Zlokuchene Glacier. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer. Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission. Zlokuchene Glacier. Copernix satellite imageThis article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission