Smaug is a dragon in J. R. R. Tolkien's 1937 novel The Hobbit, he is a powerful and fearsome dragon that invaded the Dwarf kingdom of Erebor 150 years prior to the events described in the novel. A group of thirteen dwarves mounted a quest to take the kingdom back, aided by the wizard Gandalf and the hobbit Bilbo Baggins. Smaug is described as "a most specially greedy and wicked worm". In Appendix A, section III, of The Return of the King, dragons are stated to reside in the Withered Heath beyond the Grey Mountains. Smaug is described as "the greatest of the dragons of his day", was centuries old at the time he was first recorded. Having heard rumors of the great wealth of the Dwarf-kingdom of Erebor, he "arose and without warning came against King Thrór and descended on the mountain in flames". After driving the Dwarves out of their stronghold, Smaug occupied the interior of the mountain for the next 150 years, guarding a vast hoard of treasure. "The Quest of Erebor", a chapter of Unfinished Tales, recounts how Gandalf realized that Smaug could pose a serious threat if used by Sauron.
He therefore agreed to assist a party of Dwarves, led by Thrór's grandson Thorin Oakenshield, who set out to recapture the mountain and kill the dragon. Assuming that Smaug would not recognize the scent of a hobbit, Gandalf recruits Bilbo Baggins to join the quest, the subject of The Hobbit. Upon reaching Erebor, the Dwarves sent Bilbo into Smaug's lair, he was successful in stealing a beautiful golden cup as Smaug slept fitfully. Knowing the contents of the treasure hoard which he had slept upon for centuries to the ounce, Smaug realized the cup's absence upon his awakening and sought for the thief on the Mountain. Unsuccessful, he returned to his hoard to lie in wait. Having been nearly killed in the dragon's search, the Dwarves send Bilbo down the secret tunnel a second time. Smaug sensed Bilbo's presence even though Bilbo had rendered himself invisible with the One Ring, accused the Hobbit of trying to steal from him. During his discourse with the dragon, Bilbo detected a small bare patch in the jewel-encrusted underbelly of the dragon.
When Bilbo narrowly escapes an attack from the dragon and collapses amidst the Dwarves at the entrance to the secret tunnel, a thrush overhears Bilbo's frantic retelling of his interaction with the dragon and learns of the bare patch on Smaug's underside. This becomes important when Bard the Bowman kills Smaug during the dragon's attack on Laketown by shooting an arrow into this bare patch, mortally wounding him. Tolkien created two pieces of more detailed artwork portraying Smaug; the latter were a detailed ink and watercolour labelled Conversation with Smaug and a rough coloured pencil and ink sketch entitled Death of Smaug. While neither of these appeared in the original printing of The Hobbit due to cost constraints, both have been included in subsequent editions Conversation with Smaug. Death of Smaug was used for the cover of an early UK paperback edition of The Hobbit. From 1925 to 1945, Tolkien was a professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford University, a prominent critic of and expert on Beowulf — on which he gave a lecture at the British Academy in 1936 and which he described as one of his "most valued sources" for The Hobbit.
Many of Smaug's attributes and behaviour in The Hobbit derive directly from the unnamed "old night-scather" in Beowulf: great age. Smaug was intimately familiar with every last item within his hoard, noticed the theft of a inconsequential cup by Bilbo Baggins. Tolkien writes that Smaug's rage was the kind which "is only seen when rich folk that have more than they can enjoy lose something they have long had but never before used or wanted." This theft of a cup, Smaug's knowledge of every item in the hoard, the dragon's ensuing rampage, all echo the story of Beowulf. Tolkien may have been inspired by the talking dragon Fafnir of the Völsunga saga. Like many dragons in Nordic and Celtic mythology, Smaug embodies the calamities it causes. Tolkien noted that "the dragon bears as name—a pseudonym—the past tense of the primitive Germanic verb smúgan, to squeeze through a hole: a low philological jest." The name bears a remarkable similarity to the Slavic word for dragon, smok. Smaug was depicted by Tolkien as an intelligent being capable of speech pleased by flattery and fascinated by Bilbo's description of himself in riddles.
This is portrayed in film adaptations such as The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug. He is described as having "quite an overwhelming personality". In the 1977 animated version of The Hobbit, Smaug was voiced by Richard Boone. In general, Smaug's design in the animated version is consistent with Tolkien's description, save for his face: for rather than the traditional reptilian look associated with dragons, Smaug's face in the animated version has distinctly cat-like features including fur, enlarged ears, canine teeth, his hypnotic speech is absent, but his acute eyesight is portrayed by highbeam-like lights projected from his eyes. On June 16, 2011, it was announced that Smaug would be voiced and interpreted with performance capture by Benedict Cumberbatch in Peter Jackson's three-part adaptation of The Hobbit, wherein Smaug is presented with a long head, red-golden scales, piercing yellow-red eyes; the dragon speaks with Received Pronunciation with an underlying growl.
J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium features dragons based on those of European legend. Besides dragon, Tolkien variously used worm. Dragons are present in The Book of Lost Tales, the earliest Middle-earth-related narratives written by Tolkien, starting in 1917; the Book of Lost Tales was posthumously published in two volumes as part of The History of Middle-earth series, edited and includes commentary by his son Christopher. In the earliest drafts of "The Fall of Gondolin", the Lost Tale, the basis for The Silmarillion, Morgoth sends mechanical war-machines in the form of dragons against the city; these machines do not appear in the published Silmarillion edited by Christopher Tolkien, in which real dragons attack the city. As in the conception of the dragons in the Legendarium, the winged dragons had not yet been devised by Morgoth at the time of the Fall of Gondolin; the first winged dragons were coeval with Ancalagon the Black. In the late Third Age, the dragons bred in the Northern Waste and Withered Heath north of the Grey Mountains.
The Dragons were inspired by Fafnir from Germanic mythology, The Dragon from Beowulf, the Dragon from the legend of Saint George and the Dragon. In Tolkien's works, dragons are quadrupedal, like Komodo dragons or other lizards, are either flightless or winged and capable of flight. Winged dragons are stated to have first appeared during the War of Wrath, the battle that ended the First Age; some dragons are capable of breathing fire, known as "Fire-drakes", or "Urulóki" in Quenya. It is not clear whether the term "Urulóki" referred only to the first dragons such as Glaurung that could breathe fire but were wingless, or to any dragon that could breathe fire, thus include Smaug. In Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien mentions that Dáin I of Durin's folk and his son Frór were killed by a "Cold-drake", prompting their people to leave the Grey Mountains, it is assumed, though not directly stated, that this term indicates a dragon which cannot breathe fire, rather than one who breathes ice or snow.
Dragon-fire is described as not being hot enough to melt the One Ring. Tolkien does not explicitly explain the term. All of Tolkien's dragons share a love of treasure, subtle intelligence, immense cunning, great physical strength, a hypnotic power called "dragon-spell", they are powerful and dangerous but mature slowly. Because of this, Melkor's first attempts to use them against his enemies fail, as they are not yet powerful enough to be useful in battle. Tolkien named only four dragons in his Middle-earth writings. Another, Chrysophylax Dives, appears in Farmer Giles of Ham, a story separate from the Middle-earth corpus. Chrysophylax is a fire-breathing dragon, described as a "hot" one. Glaurung, first introduced in The Silmarillion, is described as the Father of Dragons in Tolkien's legendarium, the first of the Urulóki, the Fire-drakes of Angband, he is a main antagonist in The Children of Húrin, in which he sets in motion events that bring about the protagonist Túrin's eventual suicide before being slain by him.
Glaurung is shown to use his ability to control and enslave Men using his mind to wipe the memory of Túrin's sister Nienor, though it was restored after Glaurung had perished. He is described as having the ability to breathe fire, but no wings. Ancalagon the Black was a dragon bred by Morgoth during the First Age of Middle-earth, as told in The Silmarillion, he was one of Morgoth's most powerful servants, bred to be the greatest and mightiest of all dragons, the first of the winged "fire-drakes". He arose like a storm of wind and fire from the infernal pits of Angband beneath the Iron Mountains, as a last defense of the realm of Dor Daedeloth. Near the end of the War of Wrath that pitted Morgoth's hosts against the Host of the Valar, Morgoth sent Ancalagon to lead a fleet of winged dragons from the fortress of Angband to destroy the Dark Lord's enemies. So powerful was the assault of the dragon flight that the Host of the Valar was driven back from the gates of Angband onto the ashy plain of Anfauglith.
Eärendil'The Blessed' in his powerfully hallowed Elven airborne ship Vingilot, aided by Thorondor and the great Eagles, battled Ancalagon and his dragons for an entire day. At length Eärendil prevailed, casting Ancalagon upon the triple-peaked towers of Thangorodrim, destroying both Ancalagon and the towers. With his last and mightiest defender slain, Morgoth was soon utterly defeated and made captive, thus ending the War of Wrath. Ancalagon the Black was the greatest dragon of Middle-earth, undoubtedly the largest, is referred to as the "father of the winged-drakes". Like all other Urulóki, Ancalagon breathed fire, said to be hotter than any other known flame. Two extinct genera have been named inspired by Tolkien's dragon. In 1977, an extinct genus of worms from the Cambrian Burgess Shale was named Ancalagon and in 1980, an extinct genus of mammal was named Ankalagon. Scatha was a mighty "long-worm" of the Grey Mountains. Little is known of Scatha except. After slaying Scatha, Fram's ownership of his recovered hoard was disputed by the Dwarves of that region.
Fram rebuked this claim
The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey
The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey is a 2012 epic high fantasy adventure film directed by Peter Jackson. It is the first installment in a three-part film adaptation based on J. R. R. Tolkien’s 1937 novel The Hobbit, it is followed by The Desolation of Smaug and The Battle of the Five Armies, together they act as a prequel to Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. The film's screenplay was written by Jackson, his longtime collaborators Fran Walsh and Philippa Boyens, Guillermo del Toro, chosen to direct the film before leaving the project in 2010; the story is set in Middle-earth seventy-seven years before the main events of The Lord of the Rings, portions of the film are adapted from the appendices to Tolkien's The Return of the King. An Unexpected Journey tells the tale of Bilbo Baggins, convinced by the wizard Gandalf to accompany thirteen Dwarves, led by Thorin Oakenshield, on a quest to reclaim the Lonely Mountain from the dragon Smaug; the ensemble cast includes James Nesbitt, Ken Stott, Cate Blanchett, Ian Holm, Christopher Lee, Hugo Weaving, Elijah Wood and Andy Serkis, features Sylvester McCoy, Barry Humphries and Manu Bennett.
An Unexpected Journey premiered on 28 November 2012 in New Zealand and was released internationally on 12 December 2012. The film grossed over $1.021 billion at the box office, surpassing both The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers nominally, becoming the fourth highest-grossing film of 2012 and the 35th highest-grossing film of all time. Receiving mixed reviews from critics, the film was nominated for three Academy Awards for Best Visual Effects, Best Production Design, Best Makeup and Hairstyling, it was nominated for three British Academy Film Awards. Approaching his 111th birthday, the Hobbit Bilbo Baggins begins writing down the full story of his adventure 60 years earlier for the benefit of his nephew Frodo. Long before Bilbo's involvement, the Dwarf king Thrór brought an era of prosperity for his kin under the Lonely Mountain until the arrival of the dragon Smaug. Destroying the nearby town of Dale, Smaug drove the Dwarves out of their mountain and took their hoard of gold. Thrór's grandson, sees King Thranduil and his Wood-elves on a nearby hillside, is dismayed when they leave rather than aid his people, resulting in Thorin's everlasting hatred of Elves.
In the Shire, 50-year-old Bilbo is tricked by the wizard Gandalf the Grey into hosting a party for Thorin and his company of Dwarves: Balin, Dwalin, Fíli, Kíli, Nori, Ori, Óin, Glóin, Bifur and Bombur. Gandalf's aim is to recruit Bilbo as the company's "burglar" to aid them in their quest to enter the Lonely Mountain. Bilbo is unwilling to accept at first, but has a change of heart after the company leaves without him the next day. Travelling onward, the company is captured by three Trolls. Bilbo stalls the Trolls from eating them until dawn, Gandalf exposes the trolls to sunlight, turning them to stone; the company finds treasure and Elven blades. Thorin and Gandalf each take an Elf-made blade and Glamdring, respectively; the wizard Radagast the Brown finds Gandalf and the company, recounts an encounter at Dol Guldur with the Necromancer, a sorcerer, corrupting Greenwood with dark magic. Chased by Orcs, Gandalf leads the company through a hidden passage to Rivendell. There, Lord Elrond discloses a hidden indication of a secret door on the company's map of the Lonely Mountain, which will be visible only on Durin's Day.
Gandalf approaches the White Council — consisting of Elrond and Saruman the White — and presents a Morgul blade, a weapon of the Witch-king of Angmar, which Radagast obtained from Dol Guldur as a sign that the Necromancer is linked to an eventual return of Sauron. While Saruman presses concern to the more present matter of the Dwarves' quest, requesting that Gandalf put an end to it, Gandalf secretly reveals to Galadriel he had anticipated this and had the Dwarves move forward without him; the company journeys into the Misty Mountains, where they find themselves amid a colossal battle between Stone Giants. They take refuge in a cave and are captured by Goblins, who take them to their leader, the Great Goblin. Bilbo becomes separated from the Dwarves and falls into a crevice where he encounters Gollum, who unknowingly drops a golden ring. Pocketing the ring, Bilbo finds himself confronted by Gollum, they play a riddle game, wagering that Bilbo will be shown the way out if he wins or eaten by Gollum if he loses.
Bilbo wins by asking Gollum what he has in his pocket. Noticing his ring is lost, Gollum realizes that Bilbo chases him. Bilbo discovers that the ring grants him invisibility, but when he has a chance to kill Gollum, Bilbo spares his life out of pity and escapes while Gollum shouts his hatred towards the hobbit Baggins. Meanwhile, the Great Goblin reveals to the Dwarves that Azog, an Orc war-chief who killed Thrór and lost his forearm to Thorin in battle outside the Dwarven kingdom of Moria, has placed a bounty on Thorin's head. Gandalf leads the Dwarves in an escape, killing the Great Goblin. Bilbo rejoins the company, keeping his newly obtained ring secret; the company is ambushed by Azog and his hunting party, takes refuge in trees. Thorin charges at Azog, who overpowers and injures him with his Warg. Bilbo saves Thorin from the Orcs, they escape to the safety of the Carrock where Gandalf revives Thorin, who renounces his previous disdain for Bilbo after being saved by him. They see the Lonely Mountain in the distance, where a sleeping Smaug is awoken by a thrush knoc
Bard the Bowman
Bard the Bowman is a character in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit. A Man of Laketown and a descendant of the ancient Lords of Dale, Bard manages to kill Smaug, the dragon, after which he becomes king of Dale. Tolkien created the character to kill Smaug, since none of the other protagonists of the story were able to fulfill this role. Bard the Bowman could have been inspired by Wiglaf from the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf. Bard is a descendant of Girion, the last lord of the city Dale, destroyed by the dragon Smaug two centuries before the events of The Hobbit, which takes place in year 2941 of the Third Age, he is the captain of a company of archers in Esgaroth, is tall and grim with black hair. When Smaug attacks Lake-town, Bard is the last of the archers to stand his post, but the dragon is immune to arrows. However, a thrush speaks to Bard, showing him the weak spot in the dragon's armour in the hollow under Smaug's left breast, which Bilbo had discovered in his conversation with Smaug, he fires his favourite shaft, the family heirloom "Black Arrow", kills Smaug, who falls onto Lake-town, destroying it.
After the dragon's death, Bard joins the survivors of the attack on Lake-town and discovers that they had thought him dead. The survivors receive assistance from the elves of Mirkwood, together Thranduil and the able-bodied men of Lake-town travel to the Lonely Mountain to claim a share of the dragon hoard. In the absence of Thorin Oakenshield and his company, all believed to have been killed by the dragon, Bard has a rightful claim to the treasure as the heir of Girion, a charitable claim to alleviate the suffering of the people of Lake-town. However, at the Lonely Mountain, Bard discovers that Thorin Oakenshield, King under the Mountain, is much alive, along with all his companions, their response to Bard's claim is to barricade themselves inside the mountain, refusing to surrender any of the treasure under threat of war. To break the stalemate, Bilbo Baggins slips out of the mountain at night and offers the Arkenstone to Bard in order to put pressure on Thorin to make peace with the Elves and Men.
However, Thorin is unwilling to share any of Smaug's treasure with an armed host at his gates, which causes the elves and men to prepare to attack the mountain. To make matters worse, Thorin's cousin Dáin II Ironfoot arrives to reinforce Thorin's claim to their family home under the mountain. However, a large army of Goblins and Wargs arrives on the scene, forcing the three armies to unite to fight against them. Bard leads the men into battle, reinforced by the arrival of Beorn and the Eagles. After the death of Thorin in the Battle of Five Armies, Dain becomes King under the Mountain, he redeems the Arkenstone from Bard with a fourteenth of the treasure, used to re-establish Dale. Over the next three years, Bard becomes its king; the city begins to prosper again. Bard's reign lasts for thirty-three years, he is succeeded by his son Bain in 2977, by his grandson Brand in 3007. During the drafting of The Hobbit, Tolkien considered how Smaug should die, who would kill him. Tolkien's notes for chapter nine show him considering the option of Bilbo killing the dragon in his sleep, piercing his weak point with a lance, similar to the events in Jack the Giant Killer.
This idea remained in the notes after the writing of chapter eleven, but after chapter twelve was complete, Tolkien wrote "Dragon killed in the Battle of the Lake" in the margin of his notes. Bard appears during the drafting for chapter thirteen, when it is said that he kills the dragon with his ancestor Girion's favourite Black Arrow. Tolkien's keeping Bard alive for the rest of the story complicates it since, as the heir of Girion, Bard gives the inhabitants of Lake-town a legitimate claim to Smaug's treasure. In the 1977 Rankin/Bass animated television musical, Bard was voiced by John Stephenson. Stephenson voiced the Dwarf Dori and The Great Goblin. In the 1985 Russian television film, Bard was played by Boris Sokolov. In Peter Jackson's The Hobbit film series, Welsh actor Luke Evans portrays Bard, appearing in the latter two films of the trilogy, The Desolation of Smaug and The Battle of the Five Armies. Evans was cast in June 2011. Bob Strauss of Los Angeles Daily News felt that Evans' portrayal managed to expand on the character, while Erik Kain of Forbes felt that his portrayal was "solid", but was "never given quite enough breathing room".
In the 1968 BBC Radio adaptation, Bard was voiced by Peter Williams. Bard is one of the cards in Iron Crown Enterprises's 1995 Middle-earth Collectible Card Game, illustrated by Angelo Montanini. In Inevitable Entertainment's 2003 Hobbit video game, André Sogliuzzo plays Bard, he played the part of Ugslap. In Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment's 2014 Lego The Hobbit, Luke Evans reprises his role from the live-action film series. According to John D. Rateliff, Bard could have been inspired by Wiglaf from Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf, which inspired Tolkien with many elements in the final chapters of The Hobbit. Like Bard, Wiglaf is introduced late into the story, is not named until late in the story, is the only one with enough courage to face a dragon, is of royal lineage. Rateliff believes that Bard is the first character in Tolkien's work to experience a happy fate, unlike Beren, Húrin, Túrin Turambar. Rateliff sees Bard as a precursor and foreshadower of Aragorn: both restore their ancestor's kingdoms in all their glory.
Marjorie Burns believes that Bard is a humble hero like Aragorn and Gandalf, all brought into Tolkien's legendarium to replace the powerful unworthy, such as the mayor of Lake-town, Denethor and Saruman. In his initial appearance, Bard is shown as a negative character who always se
The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug
The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug is a 2013 epic high fantasy adventure film directed by Peter Jackson and produced by WingNut Films in collaboration with New Line Cinema and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. It was distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures and is the second installment in the three-part film series based on the novel The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien; the film was followed by The Battle of the Five Armies. The film follows the titular character Bilbo Baggins as he accompanies Thorin Oakenshield and his fellow dwarves on a quest to reclaim the Lonely Mountain from the dragon Smaug; the film features the vengeful pursuit of Azog the Defiler and Bolg, while Gandalf the Grey investigates a growing evil in the ruins of Dol Guldur. The ensemble cast includes Ian McKellen, Martin Freeman, Richard Armitage, Benedict Cumberbatch, Evangeline Lilly, Lee Pace, Luke Evans, Ken Stott, James Nesbitt, Orlando Bloom. Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens, Peter Jackson and Guillermo del Toro wrote the screenplay; the films were shot in 3D at a projection rate of 48 frames per second, with principal photography taking place around New Zealand and at Pinewood Studios.
Additional filming took place throughout May 2013. The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug premiered on 2 December 2013 in Los Angeles and was released internationally on 11 December 2013 in both conventional and IMAX theatres; the film received positive reviews and grossed over $958 million at the worldwide box office, surpassing both The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers, making it the fourth highest-grossing film of 2013 and the 45th highest-grossing film of all time. At the 86th Academy Awards, the film received nominations for Best Visual Effects, Best Sound Editing, Best Sound Mixing. Thorin and his company are being pursued by Azog and his Orc party following the events of the previous film, they are ushered along by Gandalf to the nearby home of Beorn, a skin-changer who can take the form of the bear. That night, Azog is summoned to Dol Guldur by the Necromancer, who commands him to marshal his forces for war, so Azog delegates the hunt for Thorin to his son Bolg; the following day, Beorn escorts the company to the borders of Mirkwood, where Gandalf discovers Black Speech imprinted on an old ruin.
Heeding a promise he made to Galadriel, he warns the company to remain on the path and leaves to investigate the tombs of the Nazgûl. Upon entering the forest, the dwarves are ensnared by giant spiders. Bilbo sets about freeing them with the help of his acquired invisibility ring, he subsequently drops the ring and first begins to understand its dark influence after he brutally kills a creature to retrieve it. The remaining spiders are fended off by the Wood-elves led by Legolas, they capture the Dwarves and bring Thorin before their king Thranduil. Thorin confronts Thranduil about his neglect of the Dwarves of Erebor following Smaug's attack 60 years earlier, is imprisoned with the other Dwarves. Bilbo, having avoided capture, arranges an escape using empty wine barrels. While being pursued by the Wood-elves, they are ambushed by Bolg and his Orc party, Kíli is wounded with a Morgul shaft, they engage in a running three-way battle down the river, but the Dwarves are able to escape both groups of pursuers.
Thranduil seals off his kingdom when an Orc captive reveals an evil entity has returned and is amassing an army in the south, but Tauriel decides to leave and assist the Dwarves, Legolas goes after her. Meanwhile and Radagast go to investigate the tombs of the Nazgûl, which they find to be empty; the company are smuggled into Esgaroth by a bargeman called Bard, but are discovered raiding the town armory for new weapons. Thorin promises the Master, his councilor Alfrid, the people of Laketown a share of the mountain's treasure, it is revealed that Bard is a descendant of the last ruler of Dale, possesses the last black arrow capable of killing Smaug. Kíli is forced to remain behind, tended to by Fíli, Óin, Bofur, as the remaining company receive a grand farewell. Meanwhile, Gandalf travels south to the ruins of Dol Guldur, while Radagast leaves to warn Galadriel of their discovery at the tombs of the Nazgûl. Gandalf is ambushed by Azog; the Necromancer reveals himself as Sauron. Thorin and his remaining company reach the Lonely Mountain, where Bilbo discovers the hidden entrance.
He is sent in to retrieve the Arkenstone, while doing so, he accidentally awakens Smaug. While trying to find Bilbo, Smaug reveals his knowledge of Sauron's return. Back in Laketown, Bard attempts to bring the black arrow to the town's launcher, as he fears what may happen when the Dwarves enter the mountain. However, he is arrested by the Master and Alfrid in the process and leaves his son to hide the arrow. Bolg and his Orc party infiltrate the town and attack the four Dwarves, but are dispatched by Tauriel and Legolas. Tauriel tends to Kíli, while Legolas leaves in pursuit of Bolg. Meanwhile, Gandalf watches helplessly as Azog and an Orc army march from Dol Guldur towards the Lonely Mountain. Back inside the mountain, during a long chase and the Dwarves rekindle the mountain's forge using Smaug's flames to create and melt a large golden statue of Thrór, hoping to bury Smaug alive in the molten gold, they do so, but Smaug emerges from the gold, storms out of the mountain and flies off to destroy Laketown as Bilbo watches in horror.
Some characters in the film are not in the novel. Legolas appears in Tolkien's Lord of the Rings trilogy, but not in the nove
Gandalf is a fictional character and a protagonist in J. R. R. Tolkien's novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, he is a wizard, member of the Istari order, as well as leader of the Fellowship of the Ring and the army of the West. In The Lord of the Rings, he is known as Gandalf the Grey, but returns from death as Gandalf the White. Although known as Gandalf, the character has a number of names in Tolkien's writings. Gandalf himself says, "Many are my names in many countries. Mithrandir among the Elves, Tharkûn to the Dwarves, Olórin I was in my youth in the West, forgotten, in the South Incánus, in the North Gandalf. In Norse the name means staff-elf; this is reflected in his name Tharkûn, "said to mean'Staff-man' " in Khuzdul, one of Tolkien's invented languages. In Middle-earth the colour of a Wizard's cloak distinguishes him from other Wizards. For most of his manifestation as a wizard, Gandalf's cloak is famously grey, from this derive a number of his appellations: hence Gandalf the Grey, Greyhame.
Mithrandir is a name in Sindarin, the translation of which gives rise to further names for Gandalf: the Grey Pilgrim and the Grey Wanderer. Midway through The Lord of the Rings, Gandalf is promoted to the head of the order of Wizards, is thus named Gandalf the White instead of Gandalf the Grey; this change in status introduces yet another name for the wizard: the White Rider. However after this transformation, characters who speak Elvish still refer to the wizard as Mithrandir. At times in The Lord of the Rings, other characters address Gandalf by nicknames disparaging: hence Stormcrow, Láthspell, Grey Fool. Láthspell means'Ill-news' in Old English. Tolkien discusses Gandalf in his essay on the Istari, he describes Gandalf as the last of the wizards to appear in Middle-earth, one who: "seemed the least, less tall than the others, in looks more aged, grey-haired and grey-clad, leaning on a staff". Yet the Elf Círdan who met him on arrival considered him "the greatest spirit and the wisest" and gave him the Elven Ring of Power called Narya, the Ring of Fire, containing a "red" stone for his aid and comfort.
Tolkien explicitly links Gandalf to the element fire in the same essay: Warm and eager was his spirit, for he was the Enemy of Sauron, opposing the fire that devours and wastes with the fire that kindles, succours in wanhope and distress. Merry he could be, kindly to the young and simple, yet quick at times to sharp speech and the rebuking of folly, he journeyed tirelessly on foot, leaning on a staff, so he was called among Men of the North Gandalf'the Elf of the Wand'. For they deemed him to be of Elven-kind, since he would at times work wonders among them, loving the beauty of fire, yet it is said that in the ending of the task for which he came he suffered and was slain, being sent back from death for a brief while was clothed in white, became a radiant flame. As one of the Maiar, Gandalf would have participated in the Music of the Ainur at the creation of the world; however he does not attain any prominence. In Valinor, Gandalf was known as Olórin; as recounted in the "Valaquenta" in The Silmarillion, he was one of the Maiar of Valinor of the people of the Vala Manwë.
He was closely associated with two other Valar: Irmo, in whose gardens he lived, Nienna, the patron of mercy, who gave him tutelage. When the Valar decided to send the order of the Wizards to Middle-earth in order to counsel and assist all those who opposed Sauron, Olórin was proposed by Manwë. Olórin begged to be excused as he feared Sauron and lacked the strength to face him, but Manwë replied that, all the more reason for him to go; as one of the Maiar, Gandalf was not a mortal Man but an angelic being. As one of those spirits, Olórin was in service to the Creator and the Creator's'Secret Fire'. Along with the other Maiar who entered into the world as the five Wizards, he took on the specific form of an aged old man as a sign of his humility; the role of the wizards was to advise and counsel but never to attempt to match Sauron's strength with his own, the kings and lords of Middle-earth would be more receptive to the advice of a humble old man than a more glorious form giving them direct commands.
The Istari arrived in Middle-earth separately, around T. A. 1000. He seemed the oldest and least in stature of them, but Círdan the Shipwright felt that he had the highest inner greatness on their first meeting in the Havens, gave him Narya, the Ring of Fire. Saruman, the chief Wizard learned of the gift and resented it. Gandalf hid the ring well, it was not known until he left with the other ring-bearers at the end of the Third Age that he, not Círdan, was the holder of the third of the Elven-rings. Gandalf's relationship with Saruman, the head of their Order, was strained; the Wizards were commanded to aid Men and Dwarves, but only through counsel.
The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a children's fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien, it was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction. The book is recognized as a classic in children's literature; the Hobbit is set within Tolkien's fictional universe and follows the quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by Smaug the dragon. Bilbo's journey takes him from rural surroundings into more sinister territory; the story is told in the form of an episodic quest, most chapters introduce a specific creature or type of creature of Tolkien's geography. Bilbo gains a new level of maturity and wisdom by accepting the disreputable, romantic and adventurous sides of his nature and applying his wits and common sense; the story reaches its climax in the Battle of the Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict.
Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story, along with motifs of warfare. These themes have led critics to view Tolkien's own experiences during World War I as instrumental in shaping the story; the author's scholarly knowledge of Germanic philology and interest in mythology and fairy tales are noted as influences. The publisher was encouraged by the book's critical and financial success and, requested a sequel; as Tolkien's work progressed on the successor The Lord of the Rings, he made retrospective accommodations for it in The Hobbit. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled; the work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage, radio, board games, video games. Several of these adaptations have received critical recognition on their own merits. Bilbo Baggins, the titular protagonist, is a reserved hobbit.
During his adventure, Bilbo refers to the contents of his larder at home and wishes he had more food. Until he finds a magic ring, he is more baggage than help. Gandalf, an itinerant wizard, introduces Bilbo to a company of thirteen dwarves. During the journey the wizard disappears on side errands dimly hinted at, only to appear again at key moments in the story. Thorin Oakenshield, the proud, pompous head of the company of dwarves and heir to the destroyed dwarvish kingdom under the Lonely Mountain, makes many mistakes in his leadership, relying on Gandalf and Bilbo to get him out of trouble, but proves himself a mighty warrior. Smaug is a dragon who long ago pillaged the dwarvish kingdom of Thorin's grandfather and sleeps upon the vast treasure; the plot involves a host of other characters of varying importance, such as the twelve other dwarves of the company. Gandalf tricks Bilbo into hosting a party for Thorin and his band of dwarves, who sing of reclaiming the Lonely Mountain and its vast treasure from the dragon Smaug.
When the music ends, Gandalf unveils Thrór's map showing a secret door into the Mountain and proposes that the dumbfounded Bilbo serve as the expedition's "burglar". The dwarves ridicule the idea, but Bilbo, joins despite himself; the group travels into the wild, where Gandalf saves the company from trolls and leads them to Rivendell, where Elrond reveals more secrets from the map. Passing over the Misty Mountains, they are driven deep underground. Although Gandalf rescues them, Bilbo gets separated from the others. Lost in the goblin tunnels, he stumbles across a mysterious ring and encounters Gollum, who engages him in a game of riddles; as a reward for solving all riddles Gollum will show him the path out of the tunnels, but if Bilbo fails, his life will be forfeit. With the help of the ring, which confers invisibility, Bilbo escapes and rejoins the dwarves, improving his reputation with them; the goblins and Wargs give chase, but the company are saved by eagles before resting in the house of Beorn.
The company enters the black forest of Mirkwood without Gandalf. In Mirkwood, Bilbo first saves the dwarves from giant spiders and from the dungeons of the Wood-elves. Nearing the Lonely Mountain, the travellers are welcomed by the human inhabitants of Lake-town, who hope the dwarves will fulfil prophecies of Smaug's demise; the expedition finds the secret door. The enraged dragon, deducing that Lake-town has aided the intruder, sets out to destroy the town. A thrush had overheard Bilbo's report of Smaug's vulnerability and reports it to Lake-town defender Bard. Bard's arrow slays the dragon; when the dwarves take possession of the mountain, Bilbo finds the Arkenstone, an heirloom of Thorin's dynasty, hides it away. The Wood-elves and Lake-men besiege the mountain and request compensation for their aid, reparations for Lake-town's destruction, settlement of old claims on the treasure. Thorin refuses and, reinforces his position. Bilbo tries to ransom the A