List of painters by name
The following list of painters by name includes about 3,400 painters from all ages and parts of the world.
The following list of painters by name includes about 3,400 painters from all ages and parts of the world.
An art critic is a person, specialized in analyzing and evaluating art. Their written critiques or reviews contribute to art criticism and they are published in newspapers, books, exhibition brochures and catalogues and on web sites; some of today's art critics use art blogs and other online platforms in order to connect with a wider audience and expand debate about art. Differently from art history, there is not an institutionalized training for art critics. Professional art critics are expected to have a keen eye for art and a thorough knowledge of art history; the art critic views art at exhibitions, museums or artists' studios and they can be members of the International Association of Art Critics which has national sections. Art critics earn their living from writing criticism; the opinions of art critics have the potential to stir debate on art related topics. Due to this the viewpoints of art critics writing for art publications and newspapers adds to public discourse concerning art and culture.
Art collectors and patrons rely on the advice of such critics as a way to enhance their appreciation of the art they are viewing. Many now famous and celebrated artists were not recognized by the art critics of their time because their art was in a style not yet understood or favored. Conversely, some critics, have become important helping to explain and promote new art movements — Roger Fry with the Post-Impressionist movement, Lawrence Alloway with Pop Art as examples. According to James Elkins there is a distinction between art criticism and art history based on institutional and commercial criteria. An experience-related article is Agnieszka Gratza. Always according to James Elkins in smaller and developing countries, newspaper art criticism serves as art history. James Elkins's perspective portraits his personal link to art history and art historians and in What happened to art criticism he furthermore highlights the gap between art historians and art critics by suggesting that the first cite the second as a source and that the second miss an academic discipline to refer to.
Art criticism History of art criticism List of art critics Media related to Art critics at Wikimedia Commons Good audio version of symposium on contemporary art criticism entitled "Empathy and Criticality," sponsored by the Frieze Foundation
The art world comprises everyone involved in producing, presenting, promoting, chronicling and selling fine art. Art world is indeed a wider term than art market, though, a large part of it. Howard S. Becker describes it as "the network of people whose cooperative activity, organized via their joint knowledge of conventional means of doing things, produce the kind of art works that art world is noted for". In her book, Seven Days in the Art World, Sarah Thornton describes it as "a loose network of overlapping subcultures held together by a belief in art, they span the globe but cluster in art capitals like New York, Los Angeles, Berlin." Other cities sometimes called "art capitals" include Beijing, Hong Kong, Paris and Tokyo. The notion of the singular art world is problematic, since Becker and others show art worlds are, independent multiplicities scattered worldwide that are always in flux: there is no "center" to the art world any more. In her analysis of the "net art world", Amy Alexander states "net.art had a movement, at the least it had coherence, although it aimed to subvert the art world its own sort of art world formed around it.
It developed a culture and mystique through lists and texts. This is of course not a failure. Art worlds exist at local and regional levels, as hidden or obscured subcultures, via primary and secondary art markets, through gallery circuits, around design movements, esoterically, as shared or perceived experiences; the one globalized, all-encompassing art world exists only as myth. Whitehot Magazine artist/publisher Noah Becker has published over 3500 articles about the Art World."New York Magazine art critic Jerry Saltz has referred to William Powhida's and Jade Townsend's drawing Art Basel Miami Beach Hooverville as "a great big art-world stinkbomb." Sanjeck, David. "Institutions." Key Terms in Popular Music and Culture. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. ISBN 0-631-21263-9 Thornton, Sarah. Seven Days in the Art World New York: WW Norton, 2008; the Art World The Art World on artnet The Art World on New Yorker Magazine
An art centre or arts center is distinct from an art gallery or art museum. An arts centre is a functional community centre with a specific remit to encourage arts practice and to provide facilities such as theatre space, gallery space, venues for musical performance, workshop areas, educational facilities, technical equipment, etc. In the United States, "art centers" are either establishments geared toward exposing and making accessible art making to arts-interested individuals, or buildings that rent to artists, galleries, or companies involved in art making. In Britain, art centres began after World War II and changed from middle-class places to 1960s and 1970s trendy, alternative centres and in the 1980s to serving the whole community with a programme of enabling access to wheelchair users and disabled individuals and groups. In the rest of Europe it is common among most art centres that they are government funded, since they are considered to have a positive influence on society and economics according to the Rhineland model philosophy.
A lot of those organisations started in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s as squatted spaces and were legalized. Calgary, Alberta: Arts Commons Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island: Confederation Centre of the Arts Ottawa, Ontario: National Arts Centre Toronto, Ontario: Toronto Centre for the Arts Vancouver, British Columbia: Firehall Arts Centre Arlington, Virginia: Artisphere Atlanta, Georgia: Eyedrum Chicago, Illinois: Hairpin Arts Center, Hyde Park Art Center, Lillstreet Art Center, South Side Community Art Center Dallas, Texas: The Dallas Contemporary Indianapolis, Indiana: Indianapolis Art Center Milford, Pennsylvania: Pike County Arts and Crafts Minneapolis, Minnesota: Walker Art Center New York City, New York: Apexart, Exit Art, International Studio & Curatorial Program Philadelphia: Painted Bride Art Center Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Center for the Arts, Pittsburgh Glass Center Raleigh, North Carolina: Pullen Park Richmond, Virginia: Visual Arts Center of Richmond Ghent: VooruitItaly Sesto al Reghena: Art Aia-Creatives/In/Residence Nantes: Le Lieu unique Amsterdam: OT301 Nijmegen: Extrapool Rotterdam: WORM Matadero Madrid Gijón: LABoral Centro de Arte y Creación Industrial Aberystwyth: Aberystwyth Arts Centre Belfast Metropolitan Arts Centre Birmingham: mac Bristol: Arnolfini Cambridgeshire: Wysing Arts Centre Cardiff: Chapter Arts Centre Coventry: Warwick Arts Centre Derby: Quad Dundee: Dundee Contemporary Arts Edinburgh: Summerhall Fareham: Ashcroft Arts Centre Glasgow: Third Eye Centre Centre for Contemporary Arts Havant: The Spring Arts & Heritage Centre Leicester: Attenborough Arts Centre (?–present]] London: Barbican Centre Camden Arts Centre Southbank Centre Battersea Arts Centre Manchester: Cornerhouse HOME Newcastle: Newcastle Arts Centre Norwich: Norwich Arts Centre Omagh: Strule Arts Centre Plymouth: Plymouth Arts Centre Gerard Behar Center, Jerusalem Huaxia Art Centre, Shenzhen Ciputra Artpreneur, Jakarta National Arts Center, Los Baños, Laguna Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex, City of Manila Changhua: National Changhua Living Art Center Chiayi City: Art Site of Chiayi Railway Warehouse Kaohsiung: Dadong Arts Center, Pier-2 Art Center, Wei-Wu-Ying Center for the Arts Miaoli: Wu Zhuo-liu Art and Cultural Hall New Taipei: Banqiao 435 Art Zone, Xinzhuang Culture and Arts Center Pingtung: Pingtung Performing Arts Center Taichung: Taichung City Tun District Art Center Taipei: National Taiwan Arts Education Center Taoyuan: Taoyuan Arts Center, Zhongli Arts Hall Yilan: National Center for Traditional Arts Bangkok Art and Culture Centre Artivism Cultural center Infoshop Music venue Not-for-profit arts organization Social center
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts. The study includes painting, architecture, ceramics and other decorative objects. Art history is the history of different groups of people and their culture represented throughout their artwork. Art historians compare different time periods in art history; such as a comparison to Medieval Art to Renaissance Art. This history of cultures is shown in their art work in different forms. Art can be shown by attire, religion, sports. Or more visual pieces of art such as paintings, sculptures; as a term, art history encompasses several methods of studying the visual arts. Aspects of the discipline overlap; as the art historian Ernst Gombrich once observed, "the field of art history much like Caesar's Gaul, divided in three parts inhabited by three different, though not hostile tribes: the connoisseurs, the critics, the academic art historians". As a discipline, art history is distinguished from art criticism, concerned with establishing a relative artistic value upon individual works with respect to others of comparable style, or sanctioning an entire style or movement.
One branch of this area of study is aesthetics, which includes investigating the enigma of the sublime and determining the essence of beauty. Technically, art history is not these things, because the art historian uses historical method to answer the questions: How did the artist come to create the work?, Who were the patrons?, Who were his or her teachers?, Who was the audience?, Who were his or her disciples?, What historical forces shaped the artist's oeuvre, how did he or she and the creation, in turn, affect the course of artistic and social events? It is, questionable whether many questions of this kind can be answered satisfactorily without considering basic questions about the nature of art; the current disciplinary gap between art history and the philosophy of art hinders this inquiry. Art history is not only a biographical endeavor. Art historians root their studies in the scrutiny of individual objects, they thus attempt to answer in specific ways, questions such as: What are key features of this style?, What meaning did this object convey?, How does it function visually?, Did the artist meet their goals well?, What symbols are involved?, Does it function discursively?
The historical backbone of the discipline is a celebratory chronology of beautiful creations commissioned by public or religious bodies or wealthy individuals in western Europe. Such a "canon" remains prominent, as indicated by the selection of objects present in art history textbooks. Nonetheless, since the 20th century there has been an effort to re-define the discipline to be more inclusive of non-Western art, art made by women, vernacular creativity. Art history as we know it in the 21st century began in the 19th century but has precedents that date to the ancient world. Like the analysis of historical trends in politics and the sciences, the discipline benefits from the clarity and portability of the written word, but art historians rely on formal analysis, semiotics and iconography. Advances in photographic reproduction and printing techniques after World War II increased the ability of reproductions of artworks; such technologies have helped to advance the discipline in profound ways, as they have enabled easy comparisons of objects.
The study of visual art thus described, can be a practice that involves understanding context and social significance. Art historians employ a number of methods in their research into the ontology and history of objects. Art historians examine work in the context of its time. At best, this is done in a manner which respects imperatives. In short, this approach examines the work of art in the context of the world within which it was created. Art historians often examine work through an analysis of form; this approach examines how the artist uses a two-dimensional picture plane or the three dimensions of sculptural or architectural space to create his or her art. The way these individual elements are employed results in representational or non-representational art. Is the artist imitating an object or image found in nature? If so, it is representational; the closer the art hews to perfect imitation, the more the art is realistic. Is the artist not imitating, but instead relying on symbolism, or in an important way striving to capture nature's essence, rather than copy it directly?
If so the art is non-representational—also called abstract. Realism and abstraction exist on a continuum. Impressionism is an example of a representational style, not directly imitative, but strove to create an "impression" of nature. If the work is not representational and is an expression of the artist's feelings and aspirations, or is a search for ideals of beauty and form, the work is non-representational or a work of expressionism. An iconographical analysis is one. Through a close reading of such elements, it is possible to trace their lineage, with it draw conclusions regarding the origins and tra
In art, a commission is the act of requesting the creation of a piece on behalf of another. Artwork may be commissioned by the government, or businesses. Commissions resemble endorsement or sponsorship. In classical music, ensembles commission pieces from composers, where the ensemble secures the composer's payment from private or public organizations or donors. Throughout history, it has been common for rulers and governments to commission public art as a means of demonstrating power and wealth, or for specific propaganda purposes. In ancient Rome, large architectural projects were commissioned as symbols of imperial glory; the Roman Coliseum for example, was commissioned by Emperor Vespasian. Public statuary was widespread, depicting heroic figures; the frieze, carved into the Marcus Column, located at the Campus Martius, depicts the figure of Victory, would have been commissioned to honour successful military campaigns waged by Marcus Aurelius. Ancient Roman culture was anti-intellectual and held artists in low esteem, in contrast to ancient cultures such as the Greek or Babylonian.
Despite this, the sheer amount of surviving artworks commissioned at the height of the Roman Empire are a testament to the rulers' recognition of art's effectiveness in influencing the public's opinions about its civilization and its government. During the Renaissance, visual art flourished in the cities of Italy due to the patronage of wealthy merchants and government officials, such as Cesare Borgia. Leonardo da Vinci earned steady commissions for artwork ranging from paintings, to murals, to sculptures; the most famous commissioned artwork of the Renaissance may be the Sistine Chapel ceiling at the Vatican, painted by Michelangelo as a commission for Pope Julius II. Today, public artworks may be commissioned by benefactors who wish to donate the artwork to a city as a gift to the public. "Famine", a series of sculptures by Rowan Gillespie depicting victims of the Great Famine, was commissioned by Norma Smurfit and donated to the city of Dublin, Ireland. The harrowing memorial has brought other commissions to Gillespie, who has created companion sculptures for the cities of Toronto and Boston.
An art gallery or dealer who sells artworks on an artist's behalf takes a percentage of the price. This portion is called the gallery's "commission"; the remainder of the proceeds goes to the artist. In this way, the gallery or dealer is not only the middleman but obliquely takes the role of "patron" in that it provides representation, housing of artworks and income for the artist. Dedication Premiere
A contemporary art gallery is a place where contemporary art is shown for exhibition and/or for sale. The term "art gallery" is used to mean art museum, the rooms displaying art in any museum, or in the original sense, of any large or long room. A contemporary gallery is commercial or funded and has a second-tier status positioned between the first-tier status of a national, state-run or corporate museum, the third-tier of minor galleries which include artist-run galleries, retail galleries, artist's co-operatives. Commercial galleries are for-profit owned businesses dealing in artworks by contemporary artists. Galleries run for the public good by cities, art collectives, not-for-profit organizations, local or national governments are termed Non-Profit Galleries. Many of these, such as the Tate Gallery have an aspect of charity and can be arranged around a Trust or estate. Galleries run by artists are sometimes known as Artist Run Initiatives, may be temporary or otherwise different from the traditional gallery format.
Contemporary art galleries are established together in urban centers such as the Chelsea district of New York considered to be the center of the American contemporary art world. Most large urban areas have several art galleries, most towns will be home to at least one. However, they may be found in small communities, remote areas where artists congregate, e.g. the Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art in France, the Chinati Foundation in United States, the Taos art colony in New Mexico and St Ives, Cornwall. Curators create group shows that say something about contemporary issues or a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries choose to represent artists giving them the opportunity to show regularly; some have a narrow focus. Although concerned with providing a space to show works of visual art, art galleries are sometimes used to host other artistic activities, such as music concerts, poetry readings, or performances, which are considered performance art and at other times theater.
While many galleries exhibit painting and sculpture of all types and movements like Abstract expressionism, Pop Art, Photo realism, Color Field, Lyrical Abstraction and Postminimalism etc. Conversely, some works of contemporary art are not shown in a gallery. Land art, performance art, internet art, mail art and installation art and other emerging forms often exist outside a gallery due to being site-specific. Documentation of these kinds of art such as photographic records, are shown and sold in galleries however, as are preliminary or process drawings and collages. British artist Richard Long manages to combine his core intentions by linking the materials used in his land art, to make gallery art. Andy Goldsworthy does so as well. There are many operational models; the most common business model is that of the for-profit owned gallery. This is an competitive market but one that may yield great profits; as a general rule, commercial galleries do not charge admission to the public in a nod to the egalitarian philosophies of many artists and critics and to encourage attendance, or in the interests of just good business.
Instead, they profit by taking a cut of the art's sales. Some galleries in cities like Tokyo and in New York charge the artists a flat rate per day or per week, though this is considered distasteful in some international art markets; the business of contemporary art has in recent decades become internationalized and commercialized. Commercial galleries choose to represent artists giving them the opportunity to have solo shows regularly, they promote the artist's shows by cultivating collectors, making press contacts, trying to get critical reviews. Most reputable galleries absorb the cost of printing invitations to the opening and other P. R. publications. Some galleries self-publish or help to arrange publishing for art books and monographs concerning their artists, they sometimes otherwise ensure the artist has enough money to make ends meet. One idiosyncrasy of contemporary art galleries is their aversion to signing business contracts, although this is changing due to artists taking more control of their output and saleability through professional practice information provided by artists' associations.
Large commercial art fairs where galleries show their best artists and sell works over a period of a week or so have taken the art world by storm in recent years. The biggest of these is the Armory Show in New York; these fairs have been criticized by artists as over-commercializing contemporary art. There are many not-for-profit, artist-run spaces and art-collective galleries which follow different business models, as well as vanity galleries which prey on unsavvy artists. Galleries tend to cluster in certain neighborhoods within cosmopolitan cities for economic and practical reasons that it is possible for the buyers and general public to view more art if they can travel by foot. In the past galleries have tended to cluster in neighborhoods with affordable real-estate due to the unprofitable nat