List of palaces

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Contents

Afghanistan[edit]

Albania[edit]

  • Presidenca – official residential palace of the President of the Republic.

Australia[edit]

Austria[edit]

Azerbaijan[edit]

In Azerbaijani Turkic language have different means of the word "house" and "palace". Usually, church-houses were custom during II century BC - VII century AD. "Mulk" is foreign word, came form Arabia during Caliphate Era. The word "Saray" is a castle, or government building which was considered to have particular administrative importance in various parts of the former Safavid Empire. Imarat or Igamatgah are big house which belong to rich people, khans, shahs. Same type buildings were popular in Midia, Afshar Empire, Karabakh Khanate, Baku Khanate, Shaddadids and etc. Now, the term "Villa" is very popular and modern in Azerbaijan since 1990's for capitalist system.

Baku[edit]

The ruins of Shahbulag Castle Palace (built 2100 years ago)

Old Era (BC 100-799):

Shirvanshahs Era (799-1539):

  • Bika Khanum Saray
  • Tamar Malayka Palace - consist of two saray: Alchichak and Naslijahan Khanum

Khanates of the Caucasus:

  • Baku Khans' Palace - is a complex of several houses belonged to members of ruling family of Baku Khanate.
  • Muhammadkhuba Khan Palace - former royal residence of Baku khans'

XIX-XXI centuries:

Icheri Sheher[edit]

Karabakh[edit]

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic[edit]

Ganja[edit]

Goygol[edit]

  • Teodor Palace
  • Göy Saray (Blue) Presidential Autunm Palace - Goygol - the country's most famous presidential palace.

Shamakhi[edit]

  • Vahdat Presidential Summer Palace
  • "Mazyad" Administrator's Palace

Shaki[edit]

Shamkir[edit]

Quba[edit]

  • Khanate Building
  • Jovhar Palace - is a residential palace of Mer

Elsewhere[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

Belarus[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Benin[edit]

Bhutan[edit]

Bolivia[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Brunei[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Burundi[edit]

Cambodia[edit]

Canada[edit]

Residences of provincial Lieutenant-Governors:

Chile[edit]

China[edit]

The English word "palace" is used to translated the Chinese word 宮 (pronounced "gōng" in Mandarin), this character represents two rooms connected (呂), under a roof (宀). Originally the character applied to any residence or mansion, but starting with the Qin Dynasty (3rd century BC) it was used only for the residence of the emperor and members of the imperial family. Chinese palaces are different from post-Renaissance European palaces in the sense that they are not made up of one building only (however big and convoluted the building may be), but are in fact huge spaces surrounded by a wall and containing large separated halls (殿 diàn) for ceremonies and official business, as well as smaller buildings, galleries, courtyards, gardens, and outbuildings, more like the Roman or Carolingian palatium.

List of Chinese imperial palaces, in chronological order[edit]

Hall of Supreme Harmony, Forbidden City, Beijing
Xinhua Gate, formal entrance to the Zhongnanhai compound.
  • Forbidden City (紫禁城), now known in China as Beijing's Old Palace (北京故宫), in Jingshi (京師), now called Beijing (北京): imperial palace of the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty from 1421 until 1924. Area: 720,000 m² (178 acres).

Apart from the main imperial palace, Chinese dynasties also had several other imperial palaces in the capital city where the empress, crown prince, or other members of the imperial family dwelled. There also existed palaces outside of the capital city called "away palaces" (離宮) where the emperors resided when traveling, the habit also developed of building garden estates in the countryside surrounding the capital city, where the emperors retired at times to get away from the rigid etiquette of the imperial palace, or simply to escape from the summer heat inside their capital. This practice reached a zenith with the Qing Dynasty, whose emperors built the fabulous Imperial Gardens (御園), now known in China as the Gardens of Perfect Brightness (圓明園), and better known in English as the Old Summer Palace, the emperors of the Qing Dynasty resided and worked in the Imperial Gardens, 8 km/5 miles outside of the walls of Beijing, the Forbidden City inside Beijing being used only for formal ceremonies.

These gardens were made up of three gardens: the Garden of Perfect Brightness proper, the Garden of Eternal Spring (長春園), and the Elegant Spring Garden (綺春園); they covered a huge area of 3.5 km² (865 acres), almost 5 times the size of the Forbidden City, and 8 times the size of the Vatican City. comprising hundreds of halls, pavilions, temples, galleries, gardens, lakes, etc. Several famous landscapes of southern China had been reproduced in the Imperial Gardens, hundreds of invaluable Chinese art masterpieces and antiquities were stored in the halls, making the Imperial Gardens one of the largest museum in the world, some unique copies of literary work and compilations were also stored inside the Imperial Gardens. In 1860, during the Second Opium War, the British and French expeditionary forces looted the Old Summer Palace. Then on October 18, 1860, in order to "punish" the imperial court, which had refused to allow Western embassies inside Beijing, the British general Lord Elgin – with protestations from the French – purposely ordered to set fire to the huge complex which burned to the ground. It took 3500 British troops to set the entire place ablaze and took three whole days to burn, the burning of the Gardens of Perfect Brightness is still a very sensitive issue in China today.

Following this cultural catastrophe, the imperial court was forced to relocate to the old and austere Forbidden City where it stayed until 1924, when the Last Emperor was expelled by a republican army. Empress dowager Cixi (慈禧太后) built the Summer Palace (頤和園 – "The Garden of Nurtured Harmony") near the Old Summer Palace, but on a much smaller scale than the Old Summer Palace. There are currently some projects in China to rebuild the Imperial Gardens, but this appears as a colossal undertaking, and no rebuilding has started yet.

More Palaces[edit]

Some other palaces include:

Colombia[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

Prague[edit]

Elsewhere[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Egypt[edit]

Pharaonic[edit]

Ptolemaic[edit]

Roman[edit]

Arabic[edit]

Modern Egypt[edit]

Estonia[edit]

Ethiopia[edit]

  • Jubilee Palace (National Palace) – seat of the President, former imperial palace

Finland[edit]

France[edit]

Paris[edit]

Versailles[edit]

Île-de-France[edit]

Elsewhere[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Dadiani Palace Zugdidi, Georgia

Germany[edit]

German has two contrasting words, parallel to French usage: Schloss which connotes a seat that is enclosed by walls, a fastness or keep, and Palast, a more conscious borrowing, with the usual connotations of splendour. In practice, the Schloss is more likely to be a royal or ducal palace or a noble manor house. Where the Schloss was built on the site of a former castle (Burg) it may still be translated as "castle", the former Holy Roman Empire, a congeries of independent territories, is filled with residences that were seats of government and had every right to be called "palaces". Even the Socialist government of the former East Germany met in the Palast der Republik (built in 1976).

Baden-Württemberg[edit]

Bavaria[edit]

Berlin[edit]

Brandenburg[edit]

Hesse[edit]

Wiesbaden City Palace

Lower Saxony[edit]

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern[edit]

North Rhine-Westphalia[edit]

Rhineland-Palatinate[edit]

Kurfürstliches Palais, Trier

Saxony[edit]

Thuringia[edit]

Ghana[edit]

  • The Manhyia Palace (Asantehene's Palace) – seat of the Asantehene of Ashanti, Kumasi
  • The Flagstaff House (Presidential Palace) – seat of government until the late 1970s, Accra
  • The Christianborg (Osu Castle) – former seat of the government till December 2008, Accra
  • The Golden Jubilee Palace (Presidential Palace) formerly known as the "Flagstaff House" – seat of Government since December 2008, Accra

Greece[edit]

The Old Royal Palace today

Haiti[edit]

Hungary[edit]

India[edit]

Khas Mahal, Agra Fort, Agra
Hazarduari Palace was the residence of the Nawabs of Bengal and is now a museum.

Indonesia[edit]

Istana Merdeka, the President Official Residence in Jakarta.
Istana Bogor, the Presidential Palace in Bogor.
Istana Maimun or Maimun Palace, seat of Sultanate of Deli in Medan.
Istano Basa Pagaruyung or Pagaruyung Palace, seat of Kingdom of Pagaruyung, Tanah Datar Regency.
Puri Agung Klungkung or Klungkung Palace, seat of Kingdom of Klungkung in Klungkung Regency, Bali.
Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat or Yogyakarta Royal Palace, seat of Sultanate of Yogyakarta in Yogyakarta.
Kraton Surakarta Hadiningrat or Surakarta Royal Palace, seat of Sunanate of Surakarta in Surakarta.

Presidential palaces[edit]

Royal palaces[edit]

Iran[edit]

Palaces and pavilions[edit]

The ruins of Apadana palace in Persepolis (built 2500 years ago during the reign of the Achaemenid Empire)
The ruins of Tachara palace in Persepolis (exclusive palace of Darius the Great, one of the interior palaces in Persepolis)

Castles and citadels[edit]

Iraq[edit]

Italy[edit]

View of the gardens of Caserta
Ca' Rezzonico, Venice

Rome[edit]

Florence[edit]

Venice[edit]

Elsewhere[edit]

Japan[edit]

View on Seimon Ishibashi and moat of Imperial Palace, Tokyo

Jordan[edit]

Raghadan Palace, Amman. Royal Residence of the Hussein Family

Korea[edit]

Gyeongbok Palace, Seoul
Gyeongbok Palace and the Blue House, Seoul
Deoksu Palace, Seoul

Kuwait[edit]

  • Sief Palace – official residence of the head of state

Laos[edit]

Latvia[edit]

Lebanon[edit]

The Grand Serail in Beirut in the late 1800s

Lithuania[edit]

Luxembourg[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Front facade of the new Istana Negara. Official Residence of Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Dipertuan Agong (Supreme Ruler) of Malaysia
Istana Melawati, Putrajaya

KUALA LUMPUR

Istana Hinggap are the city-palaces located in Kuala Lumpur, they function as the royal residence when the Sultan, Raja or Yang Dipertuan Besar come to Kuala Lumpur. There are nine Istana Hinggap built respectively for the nine Kings of Malaysia.

  • Istana Hinggap Perlis - Raja of Perlis palace at Jalan Tun Razak
  • Istana Hinggap Kedah - Sultan of Kedah palace at Cangkat Persekutuan,
  • Istana Hinggap Perak - Sultan of Perak palace at Cangkat Persekutuan,
  • Istana Hinggap Selangor - Sultan of Selangor palace at Jalan Sultan Salahuddin
  • Istana Hinggap Negeri Sembilan - Yang Dipertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan palace at Cangkat Persekutuan
  • Istana Hinggap Johor - Sultan of Johor palace at Cangkat Kia Peng
  • Istana Hinggap Pahang - Sultan of Pahang palace at Bukit Kewangan
  • Istana Hinggap Terengganu - Sultan of Terengganu palace at Jalan Tun Razak
  • Istana Hinggap Kelantan

PERLIS

  • Istana Arau – official palace for the Sultan of Perlis. This palace was built in 1905 during the reign of Tuanku Raja Syed Alwi Jamalullail.
  • Istana Fauzana - the Raja of Perlis' residential palace in Kangar

KEDAH

  • Istana Anak Bukit – official palace for the Sultan of Kedah
  • Istana Kuning – Old residential palace for the Sultan of Kedah
  • Istana Pelamin - or Istana Kota Setar. Currently the Kedah Royal Museum. Built in 1732 by  Y.A.M. Duli Yang Maha Mulia Almarhum Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin Muazzam Shah
  • Istana Bukit Malut - Royal Palace located in Langkawi, Kedah
  • Istana Kuala Chegar - Built in 1920 by Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah (1882 - 1943)

PULAU PINANG

  • Seri Mutiara – currently the official residence of the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, the Governor of Penang. This palace was built in 1890
  • Istana Kedah - Palace owned by the Sultan of Kedah in Pulau Pinang
Istana Kenangan

PERAK

Striking golden dome at Istana Alam Shah

SELANGOR

Istana Darul Ehsan facing Putrajaya lake
  • Istana Darul Ehsan - royal palace in Putrajaya
  • Istana Mestika – the official residence of the crown prince of Selangor, also in Shah Alam
  • Istana Mahkota Puri - built in 1899 in Klang. This palace has been demolished to make way for the building of the new Istana Alam Shah.
  • Istana Pantai Bahagia - Resting palace of Sultan Selangor in Morib
Istana Besar Seri Menanti
Istana Seri Menanti (royal museum)

NEGERI SEMBILAN

  • Istana Ampang Tinggi was commissioned by the 5th Yamtuan of Negri Sembilan, Yamtuan Ulin Ibni Almarhum Yamtuan Hitam. The palace was built between 1865 and 1870 at Ampang Tinggi ("High Dam") in Kuala Pilah
  • Istana Sri Menanti – Istana Seri Menanti was the official residence of the Negeri Sembilan royal family until 1931 and was turned into a Royal Museum in 1992
  • Istana Besar Seri Menanti - Official Palace for Yang Dipertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan.
  • Istana Hinggap Seremban - Residential palace of Yang Dipertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan in Seremban
  • Istana Baroh
  • Istana Salatin - currently the residential palace for Tuanku Tunku Ampuan Najihah binti Almarhum Tunku Besar Burhanuddin

MELAKA

  • Istana Melaka - the official residence of the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, the Governor of Melaka in Bukit Beruang
  • Seri Melaka - built in 17th century. Currently functioning as Muzium Tuan Yang Terutama since 1996 [4]
  • Istana Kesultanan Melaka - Malacca royal museum. The current palace is smaller replica of the original palace.
Istana Besar Johor Bahru

JOHOR

PAHANG

  • Istana Abu Bakar – the Sultan of Pahang's official residence in Pekan
  • Istana Abdul Aziz - official palace for Crown Prince of Pahang. the name of the palace is derived from combination of Tengku Abdullah (crown prince of Pahang) and Tunku Azizah (crown princess of Pahang)
  • Istana Mahkota
  • Istana Mangga Tunggal - built in 1920 during the reign of Sultan Abdullah Al-Mu’tassim Billah. the palace is named after a single mango tree that grow in the palace compound.
  • Istana Sri Angkasa - royal palace in Cameron Highlands
  • Istana Leban Tunggal - completed in 1937, this palace is owned by Almarhum YAM Tengku Besar Pahang II, Tengku Sulaiman ibni Almarhum Sultan Ahmad Al-Mu’azzam Shah. currently the public library at Pekan
  • Istana Kota Beram - currently royal museum of Pahang
Istana Maziah in Kuala Terengganu
View at the garden of Istana Syarqiyyah at dusk

TERENGGANU

Front facade of Istana Jahar

KELANTAN

  • Istana Balai Besar – the palace was built by Sultan Muhamad II in 1840 in Kelantan
  • Istana Batu – the Royal Museum is located in the middle of the Kota Bharu, Kelantan. The design of the palace was inspired by HRH Sultan Ismail Ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad IV who reigned from 1920 to 1944.
  • Istana Bukit Tanah - Built in 19101 in Tumpat
  • Istana Jahar – Built in 1887, Istana Jahar was a gift from Sultan Mahmud II to his grandson, Long Kundur. Today, this palace is known as the Museum of Royal Traditions and Customs Kelantan
  • Istana Kota Lama – Old royal palace of Kelantan
  • Istana Negeri Kubang Kerian – the Sultan of Kelantan's official residence in Kubang Kerian
  • Istana Telipot -  official residence of Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra, Crown Prince & Regent of Kelantan (then) in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

SABAH

Astana Negeri Sarawak viewed from Kuching waterfront

SARAWAK

Mexico[edit]

National Palace of Mexico
Mexico City's Palace of Fine Arts

Monaco[edit]

The Princely Palace of Monaco

Mongolia[edit]

Myanmar[edit]

Nepal[edit]

Narayanhiti Palace

The Netherlands[edit]

Soestdijk Palace

New Zealand[edit]

Mahinarangi meeting house

Apart from the large complex at Turangawaewae Marae located in the town of Ngaruawahia, the previous Māori Monarch Te Atairangikaahu had a home at Waahi Marae in Huntly where she lived for most of her 40-year reign with her consort Whatumoana Paki. The Māori King or Queen are required to attend 33 Poukai annually conducted at Marae loyal to the Kingitangi movement. Many of these Marae maintain residences for the Māori King or Queen for them to use during such visits.

Nigeria[edit]

Norway[edit]

Oman[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

Paraguay[edit]

Lopez Presidential Palace in Asunción, Paraguay

Peru[edit]

Philippines[edit]

  • Torogan – Classical period residences for Hari, Raja's Datu's and Sultan's.
  • Coconut Palace
  • Malacañang Palace – the official residence of the President of the Philippines, Manila
  • Malacañang sa Sugbo – the Presidential residence in Cebu City
  • The Mansion, Baguio – the Presidential residence in Baguio
  • Palacio del Gobernador – historical official residence, now used as a government building
  • Archbishop's Palace – historical residence of the Arzobispo de Manila in Intramuros
  • Archbishop's Palace – current residence of the Arzobispo de Manila in Villa San Miguel, Mandaluyong City.
  • Archbishop's Palace – temporary residence of the Archbishop of Manila in the past, located in San Fernando, Pampanga
  • The Astana Putih or The Sultan's Palace – original residence of the Sultan of Sulu located in Maimbung, Sulu.

Poland[edit]

Royal Palace, Warsaw
Krasinski Palace, Warsaw

Warsaw[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Alentejo[edit]

Beira[edit]

Douro Litoral[edit]

Minho[edit]

Estremadura[edit]

Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro[edit]

Azores and Madeira Archipelagos[edit]

Puerto Rico[edit]

Qatar[edit]

  • Al Rayyan Palace
  • Al Wukair Palace
  • Markhiya Palace
  • Barzaan Palace
  • Doha Palace
  • Diwan Emiri Palace
  • al Bidda Palace
  • Umm Salal Palace
  • Al Wajba Palace
  • Al Gharafa Palace
  • Al Jassasiya Palace
  • Al Mirgab Palace
  • Al Waab Palace

Romania[edit]

Patriarchal Palace, Bucharest

Bucharest[edit]

Russia[edit]

Peterhof Palace
Catherine Palace
Gatchina Palace
Massandra Palace

Gatchina[edit]

Moscow[edit]

Oranienbaum[edit]

Pavlovsk[edit]

Pella[edit]

Peterhof[edit]

Pushkin[edit]

Saint Petersburg[edit]

Taganrog[edit]

Tver[edit]

Yalta[edit]

Rwanda[edit]

Royal Palace of the Obrenović dynasty of Serbia, presently housing the City Assembly of Belgrade

Serbia[edit]

Singapore[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Scania[edit]

The province of Scania in southernmost Sweden is well known for its many castles.

Spain[edit]

Palacio Real, Madrid
Olite palace
Palau Reial Major
Palacio de San Telmo
La Granja Palace

Slovakia[edit]

Syria[edit]

Facade of the Azm Palace of Damascus

Taiwan[edit]

Presidential Office Building, Taipei
Taipei Guest House, Taipei
Shilin Official Residence

Thailand[edit]

Sanamchan Palace, Nakhon Pathom
Bang Pa-In Royal Palace, Ayutthaya Province

* Ancient Grand Palace – Ayutthaya Palace, Ayutthaya

Tonga[edit]

  • Royal Palace, Tonga-Royal Palace of the Kingdom of Tonga is located in the northwest of the capital, Nukuʻalofa, close to the Pacific Ocean.

Turkey[edit]

Beylerbeyi Palace, İstanbul

In Turkish, a palace is a Saray.

Turkmenistan[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

England[edit]

Scotland[edit]

United States of America[edit]

Colorado[edit]

Florida[edit]

Government House, 2011

Hawai'i[edit]

ʻIolani Palace, Honolulu

New Jersey[edit]

  • Proprietary House – Home of both the Proprietary Governors of New Jersey from 1766 to 1773 and the Royal Governor of New Jersey, William Franklin from 1774 to 1776.

New Mexico[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

Pennsylvania[edit]

  • Pennsbury Manor – Home of William Penn as Proprietor of Pennsylvania from 1683 to 1701.

Puerto Rico[edit]

Texas[edit]

Bishop's Palace circa 1970
Inside of Spanish Governor's Palace in San Antonio, Texas

Virginia[edit]

Washington, D.C.[edit]

Vatican City[edit]

Venezuela[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

List of non-residential palaces[edit]

Some large impressive buildings which were not meant to be residences, but are nonetheless called palaces, include:

Note, too, the French use of the word palais in such constructions as palais des congrès (convention centre) and palais de justice (courthouse).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ reuters.com
  2. ^ Galbraith, William; Canadian Parliamentary Review: Fiftieth Anniversary of the 1939 Royal Visit; Vol. 12, No. 3, 1989
  3. ^ Naqada palace
  4. ^ Photo of preserved parts of the palace
  5. ^ a b Photo of the palace remains
  6. ^ touregypt.net – Ramesses Nebweben
  7. ^ Palace of Apries, background information
  8. ^ Pharaoh Apries Wahibre
  9. ^ a b c Cleopatra palace
  10. ^ The Bahariya Oasis history
  11. ^ Old Cairo history
  12. ^ Palaces of Pasha
  13. ^ Fatimid palaces
  14. ^ Plan of the two Fatimid palaces
  15. ^ Part of the palace art
  16. ^ History of Cairo
  17. ^ The Mamluk Sultans
  18. ^ Plan of the Sultan al-Salih palace
  19. ^ a b Palaces of Pashas
  20. ^ Amir Alin Aq Palace
  21. ^ Reviving Cairo
  22. ^ Ruins of Palace
  23. ^ Photo of passage
  24. ^ The Madrasa-Mosque of Amir Khayerbak (1520-21)
  25. ^ Palace of Mangak as-Silahdar
  26. ^ Amir Qawsun Palace Archived 2010-12-14 at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ a b c Bestak Palace museum
  28. ^ The Mameluke Amir Taz Palace history
  29. ^ Amir Taz Palace
  30. ^ Prince Tashtamur palace
  31. ^ Al Ghouri palace
  32. ^ Insert Al-Ghouri Palace
  33. ^ Bait al-Qady
  34. ^ Palace of al-Ashraf Qaytbay
  35. ^ Jamal al Din al Dhahabi House archnet.org – Gamal al-Din al-Dhahabi
  36. ^ El-Aini Palace
  37. ^ Harawi residence
  38. ^ Historic houses in Cairo
  39. ^ Musafirkhana Palace
  40. ^ Musafirkhana Palace or Qasr el-Shook
  41. ^ Description of the Palace
  42. ^ Destruction of Musafirkhana Palace
  43. ^ Historic houses & palaces
  44. ^ Al-Sinnari House
  45. ^ Historic houses in Cairo
  46. ^ Egypttoday.com – Cultural Cairo
  47. ^ hsje.org
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i Palaces on the nile
  49. ^ arabicnews.com – The History of Zaafarama palace Archived 2012-02-08 at the Wayback Machine.
  50. ^ GARDEN CITY : A Retrospective PART II, August 20, 1998
  51. ^ Egyptology news
  52. ^ touregypt.net
  53. ^ Harem palace at Citadel
  54. ^ [1] & [2]
  55. ^ archnet.org – Gezirah palace
  56. ^ egy.com – Sakakaini palace Archived 2008-02-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  57. ^ Habib Sakakini Palace
  58. ^ Al-Ahram Weekly | A constructive streak Archived 2012-10-15 at the Wayback Machine.
  59. ^ Egypt State Information Service
  60. ^ et – Full Story
  61. ^ egy.com – Koubbeh palace
  62. ^ egy.com – Tahra palace Archived 2009-10-04 at the Wayback Machine.
  63. ^ Cultural Cairo
  64. ^ egy.com – The Belgians of Egypt
  65. ^ egy.com – Heliopolis Palace Hotel
  66. ^ Egypt State Information Service – Mohammed Mahmoud Khalil Museum
  67. ^ egyptsites.co.uk
  68. ^ Desert research center
  69. ^ patrimonionacional.es
  70. ^ Spanish Governor's Palace at the City of San Antonio Parks and Recreation