Heraclitus of Ephesus (. Hērákleitos ho Ephésios, he was of distinguished parentage. Little is known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. From the lonely life he led, still more from the riddled and paradoxical nature of his philosophy and his stress upon the heedless unconsciousness of humankind, he was called "The Obscure" and the "Weeping Philosopher". Heraclitus was famous for his insistence on ever-present change as being the fundamental essence of the universe, as stated in the famous saying, "No man steps in the same river twice"; this is considered to be a key contribution in the development of the philosophical concept of becoming, as contrasted with "being", has sometimes been seen in a dialectical relationship with Parmenides' statement that "whatever is, is, what is not cannot be", the latter being understood as a key contribution in the development of the philosophical concept of being. For this reason and Heraclitus are considered to be two of the founders of ontology.
Scholars have believed that either Parmenides was responding to Heraclitus, or Heraclitus to Parmenides, though opinion on, responding to whom has varied over the course of the 20th and 21st centuries. Heraclitus' position was complemented by his stark commitment to a unity of opposites in the world, stating that "the path up and down are one and the same". Through these doctrines Heraclitus characterized all existing entities by pairs of contrary properties, whereby no entity may occupy a single state at a single time. This, along with his cryptic utterance that "all entities come to be in accordance with this Logos" has been the subject of numerous interpretations; the main source for the life of Heraclitus is Diogenes Laërtius, although some have questioned the validity of his account as "a tissue of Hellenistic anecdotes, most of them fabricated on the basis of statements in the preserved fragments". Diogenes said that Heraclitus flourished in the 69th Olympiad, 504–501 BCE. All the rest of the evidence—the people Heraclitus is said to have known, or the people who were familiar with his work—confirms the floruit.
His dates of birth and death are based on a life span of 60 years, the age at which Diogenes says he died, with the floruit in the middle. Heraclitus was born to an aristocratic family c. 540 BC in Ephesus, in the Persian Empire, in what is now called present-day Efes, Turkey. His father was named either Herakôn. Diogenes says that he abdicated the kingship in favor of his brother and Strabo confirms that there was a ruling family in Ephesus descended from the Ionian founder, which still kept the title and could sit in the chief seat at the games, as well as a few other privileges. How much power the king had is another question. Ephesus had been part of the Persian Empire since 547 and was ruled by a satrap, a more distant figure, as the Great King allowed the Ionians considerable autonomy. Diogenes says that Heraclitus used to play knucklebones with the youths in the temple of Artemis and when asked to start making laws he refused saying that the constitution was ponêra, which can mean either that it was fundamentally wrong or that he considered it toilsome.
Two extant letters between Heraclitus and Darius I, quoted by Diogenes, are undoubtedly forgeries. With regard to education, Diogenes says. Diogenes relates that Sotion said he was a "hearer" of Xenophanes, which contradicts Heraclitus' statement that he had taught himself by questioning himself. Burnet states in any case that "... Xenophanes left Ionia before Herakleitos was born." Diogenes relates that as a boy Heraclitus had said he "knew nothing" but claimed to "know everything". His statement that he "heard no one" but "questioned himself", can be placed alongside his statement that "the things that can be seen and learned are what I prize the most."Diogenes relates that Heraclitus had a poor opinion of human affairs. He believed that Hesiod and Pythagoras lacked understanding though learned and that Homer and Archilochus deserved to be beaten. Laws needed to be defended. Timon of Phlius is said to have called him a "mob-reviler". Heraclitus hated the Athenians and his fellow Ephesians, wishing the latter wealth in punishment for their wicked ways.
According to Diogenes Laërtius: "Finally, he became a hater of his kind and wandered the mountains making his diet of grass and herbs." Heraclitus' life as a philosopher was interrupted by dropsy. The physicians he consulted were unable to prescribe a cure. Diogenes lists various stories about Heraclitus' death: In two versions, Heraclitus was cured of the dropsy and died of another disease. In one account, the philosopher "buried himself in a cowshed, expecting that the noxious damp humour would be drawn out of him by the warmth of the manure", while another says he treated himself with a liniment of cow manure and, after a day prone in the sun and was interred in the marketplace. According to Neathes of Cyzicus, after smearing himself with dung, Heraclitus was devoured by dogs, he died after 478 BC from a hydropsy. Diogenes states that Heraclitus' work was "a continuous treatise On Nature, but was divided into three discourses, one on the universe, another on politics, a third on theology."
An autobiography is a self-written account of the life of oneself. The word "autobiography" was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical The Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid, but condemned it as "pedantic". However, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in 1809. Despite only being named early in the nineteenth century, first-person autobiographical writing originates in antiquity. Roy Pascal differentiates autobiography from the periodic self-reflective mode of journal or diary writing by noting that " is a review of a life from a particular moment in time, while the diary, however reflective it may be, moves through a series of moments in time". Autobiography thus takes stock of the autobiographer's life from the moment of composition. While biographers rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints, autobiography may be based on the writer's memory; the memoir form is associated with autobiography but it tends, as Pascal claims, to focus less on the self and more on others during the autobiographer's review of his or her life.
See also: List of autobiographies and Category:Autobiographies for examples. Autobiographical works are by nature subjective; the inability—or unwillingness—of the author to recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information. Some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history. Spiritual autobiography is an account of an author's struggle or journey towards God, followed by conversion a religious conversion interrupted by moments of regression; the author re-frames his or her life as a demonstration of divine intention through encounters with the Divine. The earliest example of a spiritual autobiography is Augustine's Confessions though the tradition has expanded to include other religious traditions in works such as Zahid Rohari's An Autobiography and Black Elk Speaks; the spiritual autobiography works as an endorsement of her religion. A memoir is different in character from an autobiography. While an autobiography focuses on the "life and times" of the writer, a memoir has a narrower, more intimate focus on his or her own memories and emotions.
Memoirs have been written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record and publish an account of their public exploits. One early example is that of Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico known as Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. In the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars, his second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events that took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. Leonor López de Córdoba wrote; the English Civil War provoked a number of examples of this genre, including works by Sir Edmund Ludlow and Sir John Reresby. French examples from the same period include the memoirs of Cardinal de Retz and the Duc de Saint-Simon; the term "fictional autobiography" signifies novels about a fictional character written as though the character were writing their own autobiography, meaning that the character is the first-person narrator and that the novel addresses both internal and external experiences of the character.
Daniel Defoe's Moll Flanders is an early example. Charles Dickens' David Copperfield is another such classic, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye is a well-known modern example of fictional autobiography. Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre is yet another example of fictional autobiography, as noted on the front page of the original version; the term may apply to works of fiction purporting to be autobiographies of real characters, e.g. Robert Nye's Memoirs of Lord Byron. In antiquity such works were entitled apologia, purporting to be self-justification rather than self-documentation. John Henry Newman's Christian confessional work is entitled Apologia Pro Vita Sua in reference to this tradition; the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus introduces his autobiography with self-praise, followed by a justification of his actions as a Jewish rebel commander of Galilee. The pagan rhetor Libanius framed his life memoir as one of his orations, not of a public kind, but of a literary kind that could not be aloud in privacy.
Augustine applied the title Confessions to his autobiographical work, Jean-Jacques Rousseau used the same title in the 18th century, initiating the chain of confessional and sometimes racy and self-critical, autobiographies of the Romantic era and beyond. Augustine's was arguably the first Western autobiography written, became an influential model for Christian writers throughout the Middle Ages, it tells of the hedonistic lifestyle Augustine lived for a time within his youth, associating with young men who boasted of their sexual exploits. Confessions will always rank among the great masterpieces of western literature. In the spirit of Augustine's Confessions is the 12th-century Historia Cal
The alvars spelt as alwars or azhwars were Tamil poet-saints of South India who espoused bhakti to the Hindu god Vishnu or his avatar Krishna in their songs of longing and service. They are venerated in Vaishnavism, which regards Vishnu or Krishna as the Supreme Being. Many modern academics place the Alvars date between 5th century to 10th century CE, however traditionally the Alvars are considered to have lived between 4200 BCE - 2700 BCE. Orthodoxy posits the number of alvars as ten, though there are other references that include Andal and Madhurakavi Alvar, making the number twelve. Andal is the only female saint-poet in the 12 Alvars. Together with the contemporary sixty three Shaiva Nayanars, they are among the most important saints from Tamil Nadu; the devotional outpourings of Alvars, composed during the early medieval period of Tamil history, helped revive the bhakti movement, through their hymns of worship to Vishnu and his avatars. They praised 108 "abodes" of these Vaishnava deities.
The poetry of the Alvars echoes bhakti to God through love, in the ecstasy of such devotions they sang hundreds of songs which embodied both depth of feeling and felicity of expressions. The collection of their hymns is known as Divya Prabandha; the Bhakti literature that sprang from Alvars has contributed to the establishment and sustenance of a culture that broke away from the ritual-oriented Vedic religion and rooted itself in devotion as the only path for salvation. In addition they helped to make the Tamil religious life independent of a knowledge of Sanskrit; as part of the legacy of the Alvars, five Vaishnava philosophical traditions have developed at the stages. The word azhwar has traditionally been etymologized as from Tamil.'Azh','to immerse oneself' as'one who dives deep into the ocean of the countless attributes of god'. However Indologist Sudalaimuthu Palaniappan has established from epigraphy and textual evidence that the traditional term Āḻvār for Vaiṣṇavaite Tamil poet saints has been a corruption of the original Āḷvār.
It is investigated with a multi-faceted approach using philology, linguistics and religion. Palaniappan shows that what was Āḷvār meaning'One who rules', or' Master' got changed through hypercorrection and folk etymology to Āḻvār meaning'One, immersed'. Palaniappan cites inscriptional evidence and literary evidence from Vaishnavaite tradition itself for a gradual sound change from Āḷvār to Āḻvār over a period of two centuries from the 9th to the 11th century involving references to religious leaders in Vaiṣṇavism, Śaivism and Jainism and to political personalities, he states: "āḻvār is but a corrupt form of āḷvār, used interchangeably with nāyanār in secular and religious contexts in the Tamil land" and "... Notwithstanding the Vaiṣṇava claim of unbroken teacher-student tradition, the fact that Nāthamuni has used the form āļvār but Piļļān, a disciple and younger cousin of Rāmānuja, ended up using the form āḻvār suggests that there has been an error in transmission somewhere along the teacher-student chain between the two teachers.
This error was due to the influence of the sound variation that has occurred in the Srirangam area and elsewhere". The original word ஆள்வார் compares with the epithet'Āṇḍãḷ' ( for the female canonized Vaishnava saint Gōdai and they share the same verb Tamil. Āḷ, the former being the honorific non-past form and the latter the feminine past form of that same verb. Palaniappan’s findings on ‘Āḻvār’ have been accepted by scholars like Prof. Alexander Dubyanskiy. In his article on Āṇṭāḷ, Dubyanskiy says, “Āṇṭāḷ was among the twelve Āḻvārs, the poet-saints, adepts of Viṣṇu, canonized by the tradition, which accepted the interpretation of the meaning of the word āḻvār as “submerged, plunged,” from the verbal root āḻ, “to plunge, to be in the deep.” But it was convincingly shown by S. Palaniappan that the term in question was represented by the word āḷvār, which reads as “those who rule, lords”, was applied in the texts, both Śaiva and Vaiṣṇava, to Śiva and Viṣṇu accordingly. In the course of time the term underwent the process of sound variation, took the form āḻvār and acquired the folk etymology, accepted and fixed by the tradition.
It is worth noting here that this interpretation agrees well with the meaning of the poetess’ nickname Āṇṭāḷ, which means “she who rules.” Alvars are considered the twelve supreme devotees of Vishnu, who were instrumental in popularising Vaishnavism in the Tamil-speaking regions. The alvars were influential in promoting the Bhagavata cult and the two Hindu epics, namely and Mahabaratha; the religious works of these saints in Tamil, songs of love and devotion, are compiled as Nalayira Divya Prabandham containing 4000 verses and the 108 temples revered in their songs are classified as Divya desam. The verses of the various azhwars were compiled by Nathamuni, a 10th-century Vaishnavite theologian, who called it the "Dravida Veda or Tamil Veda"; the songs of Prabandam are sung in all the Vishnu temples of South India daily and during festivals. The saints belonged to different castes; as per tradition, the first three alvars, Poigai and Pey were born miraculously. Tirumizhisai was the son of a sage.
Taoism, or Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao. The Tao is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools. Taoism differs from Confucianism by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order, but is similar in the sense that it is a teaching about the various disciplines for achieving "perfection" by becoming one with the unplanned rhythms of the universe called "the way" or "dao". Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei, "naturalness", simplicity and the Three Treasures: 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", 不敢為天下先 "humility"; the roots of Taoism go back at least to the 4th century BCE. Early Taoism drew its cosmological notions from the School of Yinyang, was influenced by one of the oldest texts of Chinese culture, the I Ching, which expounds a philosophical system about how to keep human behavior in accordance with the alternating cycles of nature; the "Legalist" Shen Buhai may have been a major influence, expounding a realpolitik of wu wei.
The Tao Te Ching, a compact book containing teachings attributed to Laozi, is considered the keystone work of the Taoist tradition, together with the writings of Zhuangzi. By the Han dynasty, the various sources of Taoism had coalesced into a coherent tradition of religious organizations and orders of ritualists in the state of Shu. In earlier ancient China, Taoists were thought of as hermits or recluses who did not participate in political life. Zhuangzi was the best known of these, it is significant that he lived in the south, where he was part of local Chinese shamanic traditions. Female shamans played an important role in this tradition, strong in the southern state of Chu. Early Taoist movements developed their own institution in contrast to shamanism, but absorbed basic shamanic elements. Shamans revealed basic texts of Taoism from early times down to at least the 20th century. Institutional orders of Taoism evolved in various strains that in more recent times are conventionally grouped into two main branches: Quanzhen Taoism and Zhengyi Taoism.
After Laozi and Zhuangzi, the literature of Taoism grew and was compiled in form of a canon—the Daozang—which was published at the behest of the emperor. Throughout Chinese history, Taoism was nominated several times as a state religion. After the 17th century, however, it fell from favor. Taoism has had a profound influence on Chinese culture in the course of the centuries, Taoists, a title traditionally attributed only to the clergy and not to their lay followers take care to note distinction between their ritual tradition and the practices of Chinese folk religion and non-Taoist vernacular ritual orders, which are mistakenly identified as pertaining to Taoism. Chinese alchemy, Chinese astrology, Chan Buddhism, several martial arts, traditional Chinese medicine, feng shui, many styles of qigong have been intertwined with Taoism throughout history. Beyond China, Taoism had influence on surrounding societies in Asia. Today, the Taoist tradition is one of the five religious doctrines recognized in the People's Republic of China as well as the Republic of China, although it does not travel from its East Asian roots, it claims adherents in a number of societies, in particular in Hong Kong, in Southeast Asia.
Since the introduction of the Pinyin system for romanizing Mandarin Chinese, there have been those who have felt that "Taoism" would be more appropriately spelled as "Daoism". The Mandarin Chinese pronunciation for the word 道 is spelled as tao4 in the older Wade–Giles romanization system while it is spelled as dào in the newer Pinyin romanization system. Both the Wade–Giles tao4 and the Pinyin dào are intended to be pronounced identically in Mandarin Chinese, but despite this fact, "Taoism" and "Daoism" can be pronounced differently in English vernacular; the word "Taoism" is used to translate different Chinese terms which refer to different aspects of the same tradition and semantic field: "Taoist religion", or the "liturgical" aspect – A family of organized religious movements sharing concepts or terminology from "Taoist philosophy". "Taoist philosophy" or "Taology", or the "mystical" aspect – The philosophical doctrines based on the texts of the I Ching, the Tao Te Ching and the Zhuangzi.
These texts were linked together as "Taoist philosophy" during the early Han Dynasty, but notably not before. It is unlikely that Zhuangzi was familiar with the text of the Daodejing, Zhuangzi would not have identified himself as a Taoist as this classification did not arise until well after his death. However, the discussed distinction is rejected by the majority of Japanese scholars, it is contested by hermeneutic difficulties in the categorization of the different Taoist schools and movements. Taoism does not f
Color, or colour, is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, yellow, blue, or purple. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum. Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light, reflected from them; this reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by coordinates, which in 1931 were named in global agreement with internationally agreed color names like mentioned above by the International Commission on Illumination; the RGB color space for instance is a color space corresponding to human trichromacy and to the three cone cell types that respond to three bands of light: long wavelengths, peaking near 564–580 nm. There may be more than three color dimensions in other color spaces, such as in the CMYK color model, wherein one of the dimensions relates to a color's colorfulness).
The photo-receptivity of the "eyes" of other species varies from that of humans and so results in correspondingly different color perceptions that cannot be compared to one another. Honeybees and bumblebees for instance have trichromatic color vision sensitive to ultraviolet but is insensitive to red. Papilio butterflies may have pentachromatic vision; the most complex color vision system in the animal kingdom has been found in stomatopods with up to 12 spectral receptor types thought to work as multiple dichromatic units. The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or color science, it includes the study of the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range. Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its intensity; when the wavelength is within the visible spectrum, it is known as "visible light". Most light sources emit light at many different wavelengths.
Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, there are many more possible spectral combinations than color sensations. In fact, one may formally define a color as a class of spectra that give rise to the same color sensation, although such classes would vary among different species, to a lesser extent among individuals within the same species. In each such class the members are called metamers of the color in question; the familiar colors of the rainbow in the spectrum—named using the Latin word for appearance or apparition by Isaac Newton in 1671—include all those colors that can be produced by visible light of a single wavelength only, the pure spectral or monochromatic colors. The table at right shows approximate wavelengths for various pure spectral colors; the wavelengths listed are as measured in vacuum. The color table should not be interpreted as a definitive list—the pure spectral colors form a continuous spectrum, how it is divided into distinct colors linguistically is a matter of culture and historical contingency.
A common list identifies six main bands: red, yellow, green and violet. Newton's conception included a seventh color, between blue and violet, it is possible that what Newton referred to as blue is nearer to what today is known as cyan, that indigo was the dark blue of the indigo dye, being imported at the time. The intensity of a spectral color, relative to the context in which it is viewed, may alter its perception considerably; the color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain. Physically, objects can be said to have the color of the light leaving their surfaces, which depends on the spectrum of the incident illumination and the reflectance properties of the surface, as well as on the angles of illumination and viewing; some objects not only reflect light, but transmit light or emit light themselves, which contributes to the color. A viewer's perception of the object's color depends not only on the spectrum of the light leaving its surface, but on a host of contextual cues, so that color differences between objects can be discerned independent of the lighting spectrum, viewing angle, etc.
This effect is known as color constancy. Some generalizations of the physics can be drawn, neglecting perceptual effects for now: Light arriving at an opaque surface is either reflected "specularly", scattered, or absorbed – or some combination of these. Opaque objects that do not reflect specularly have their color determined by which wavelengths of light they scatter strongly. If objects scatter all wavelengths with r
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson was an American essayist, lecturer and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States. Emerson moved away from the religious and social beliefs of his contemporaries and expressing the philosophy of transcendentalism in his 1836 essay "Nature". Following this work, he gave a speech entitled "The American Scholar" in 1837, which Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. considered to be America's "intellectual Declaration of Independence."Emerson wrote most of his important essays as lectures first and revised them for print. His first two collections of essays, Essays: First Series and Essays: Second Series, represent the core of his thinking, they include the well-known essays "Self-Reliance", "The Over-Soul", "Circles", "The Poet", "Experience."
Together with "Nature", these essays made the decade from the mid-1830s to the mid-1840s Emerson's most fertile period. Emerson wrote on a number of subjects, never espousing fixed philosophical tenets, but developing certain ideas such as individuality, the ability for mankind to realize anything, the relationship between the soul and the surrounding world. Emerson's "nature" was more philosophical than naturalistic: "Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul." Emerson is one of several figures who "took a more pantheist or pandeist approach by rejecting views of God as separate from the world."He remains among the linchpins of the American romantic movement, his work has influenced the thinkers and poets that followed him. "In all my lectures," he wrote, "I have taught one doctrine, the infinitude of the private man." Emerson is well known as a mentor and friend of Henry David Thoreau, a fellow transcendentalist. Emerson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on May 25, 1803, a son of Ruth Haskins and the Rev. William Emerson, a Unitarian minister.
He was named after his mother's brother his father's great-grandmother Rebecca Waldo. Ralph Waldo was the second of five sons. Three other children—Phebe, John Clarke, Mary Caroline—died in childhood. Emerson was of English ancestry, his family had been in New England since the early colonial period. Emerson's father died from stomach cancer on May 12, 1811, less than two weeks before Emerson's eighth birthday. Emerson was raised with the help of the other women in the family, she lived with the family off and on and maintained a constant correspondence with Emerson until her death in 1863. Emerson's formal schooling began at the Boston Latin School in 1812. In October 1817, at 14, Emerson went to Harvard College and was appointed freshman messenger for the president, requiring Emerson to fetch delinquent students and send messages to faculty. Midway through his junior year, Emerson began keeping a list of books he had read and started a journal in a series of notebooks that would be called "Wide World".
He took outside jobs to cover his school expenses, including as a waiter for the Junior Commons and as an occasional teacher working with his uncle Samuel and aunt Sarah Ripley in Waltham, Massachusetts. By his senior year, Emerson decided to go by Waldo. Emerson served as Class Poet, he graduated in the exact middle of his class of 59 people. In 1826, faced with poor health, Emerson went to seek a warmer climate, he first found the weather was still too cold. He went farther south, to St. Augustine, where he took long walks on the beach and began writing poetry. While in St. Augustine he made the acquaintance of Prince Achille Murat, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. Murat was two years his senior; the two engaged in enlightening discussions of religion, society and government. Emerson considered Murat an important figure in his intellectual education. While in St. Augustine, Emerson had his first encounter with slavery. At one point, he attended a meeting of the Bible Society while a slave auction was taking place in the yard outside.
He wrote, "One ear therefore heard the glad tidings of great joy, whilst the other was regaled with'Going, going!'" After Harvard, Emerson assisted his brother William in a school for young women established in their mother's house, after he had established his own school in Chelmsford, Massachusetts. Emerson was accepted into the Harvard Divinity School in late 1824, was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa in 1828. Emerson's brother Edward, two years younger than he, entered the office of the lawyer Daniel Webster, after graduating from Harvard first in his class. Edward's physical health began to deteriorate, he soon suffered a mental collapse as well. Although he recovered his mental equilibrium, he died in 1834 from long-standing tuberculosis. Another of Emerson's bright and promising younger brothers, born in 1808, died in 1836 of tuberculos
Virtue is moral excellence. A virtue is a trait or quality, deemed to be morally good and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. Personal virtues are characteristics valued as promoting individual greatness. In other words, it is a behavior. Doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong; the opposite of virtue is vice. The four classic cardinal virtues in Christianity are temperance, prudence and justice. Christianity derives the three theological virtues of faith and love from 1 Corinthians. Together these make up the seven virtues. Buddhism's four brahmavihara can be regarded as virtues in the European sense; the Japanese Bushidō code is characterized by up to ten virtues, including rectitude and benevolence. The ancient Romans used the Latin word virtus to refer to all of the "excellent qualities of men, including physical strength, valorous conduct, moral rectitude." The French words vertu and virtu came from this Latin root. In the 13th century, the word virtue was "borrowed into English".
During Egyptian civilization, Maat or Ma'at spelled māt or mayet, was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, order, law and justice. Maat was personified as a goddess regulating the stars and the actions of both mortals and the deities; the deities set the order of the universe from chaos at the moment of creation. Her counterpart was Isfet, who symbolized chaos and injustice; the four classic cardinal virtues are: temperance: σωφροσύνη prudence: φρόνησις courage: ἀνδρεία justice: δικαιοσύνη This enumeration is traced to Greek philosophy and was listed by Plato in addition to piety: ὁσιότης, with the exception that wisdom replaced prudence as virtue. Some scholars consider either of the above four virtue combinations as mutually reducible and therefore not cardinal, it is unclear whether multiple virtues were of construct, whether Plato subscribed to a unified view of virtues. In Protagoras and Meno, for example, he states that the separate virtues cannot exist independently and offers as evidence the contradictions of acting with wisdom, yet in an unjust way.
In his work Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle defined a virtue as a point between a deficiency and an excess of a trait. The point of greatest virtue lies not in the exact middle, but at a golden mean sometimes closer to one extreme than the other. However, the virtuous action is not the "mean" between two opposite extremes; as Aristotle says in the Nicomachean Ethics: "at the right times, about the right things, towards the right people, for the right end, in the right way, is the intermediate and best condition, this is proper to virtue." This is not splitting the difference between two extremes. For example, generosity is a virtue between the two extremes of miserliness and being profligate. Further examples include: courage between cowardice and foolhardiness, confidence between self-deprecation and vanity. In Aristotle's sense, virtue is excellence at being human. Seneca, the Roman Stoic, said. Thus, in considering all consequences, a prudent person would act in the same way as a virtuous person.
The same rationale was expressed by Plato in Meno, when he wrote that people only act in ways that they perceive will bring them maximum good. It is the lack of wisdom. In this way, wisdom is the central part of virtue. Plato realized that because virtue was synonymous with wisdom it could be taught, a possibility he had earlier discounted, he added "correct belief" as an alternative to knowledge, proposing that knowledge is correct belief, thought through and "tethered". The term "virtue" itself is derived from the Latin "virtus", had connotations of "manliness", "honour", worthiness of deferential respect, civic duty as both citizen and soldier; this virtue was but one of many virtues which Romans of good character were expected to exemplify and pass on through the generations, as part of the Mos Maiorum. Romans distinguished between the spheres of private and public life, thus, virtues were divided between those considered to be in the realm of private family life, those expected of an upstanding Roman citizen.
Most Roman concepts of virtue were personified as a numinous deity. The primary Roman virtues, both public and private, were: Auctoritas – "spiritual authority" – the sense of one's social standing, built up through experience and Industria; this was considered to be essential for a magistrate's ability to enforce order. Comitas – "humour" – ease of manner, courtesy and friendliness. Constantia – "perseverance" – military stamina, as well as general mental and physical endurance in the face of hardship. Clementia – "mercy" – mildness and gentleness, the ability to set aside previous transgressions. Dignitas – "dignity" – a sense of self-worth, personal self-respect and self-esteem. Disciplina – "discipline" – considered essential to military excellence. Firmitas – "tenacity" – strength of mind, the ability to stick to one's purpose at hand without wavering. Frugalitas – "frugality" – economy and