Carlos Austin Boozer Jr. is an American retired professional basketball player. The two-time NBA All-Star played for the Cleveland Cavaliers, Utah Jazz, Chicago Bulls and Los Angeles Lakers, spent his last season playing overseas with the Guangdong Southern Tigers; as a member of Team USA, Boozer won an Olympic bronze medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics and an Olympic gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Although born at a military base in Aschaffenburg, West Germany, Boozer grew up in Alaska. Boozer was a two-time member of the PARADE All-American high school basketball team, leading the Juneau-Douglas Crimson Bears to back-to-back state titles, he was recruited by many top-tier collegiate basketball programs, including St. John's and UCLA, but Boozer elected to play for coach Mike Krzyzewski at Duke University, helping the team win the 2001 NCAA championship. In 2001–02, Jason Williams, Mike Dunleavy, Jr. each scored at least 600 points for the season, a feat only matched at Duke by Jon Scheyer, Kyle Singler and Nolan Smith in the 2009–10 season.
In April 2002, Boozer declared for the NBA draft. Boozer was selected with the 35th overall pick in the 2002 NBA draft by the Cleveland Cavaliers. Boozer averaged 10.0 points and 7.5 rebounds per game in his rookie campaign, followed it up with 15.5 points and 11.4 rebounds per game his second year. After the 2003–04 season, the Cavaliers had the option of allowing him to become a restricted free agent, or keeping him under contract for one more year at a $695,000 salary; the Cavaliers claimed to have reached an understanding with Boozer and his agent on a deal for $39 million over six years, which he would have signed if they let him out of his current deal. Cleveland proceeded to release him from his contract making him a restricted free agent. During this period, the Utah Jazz offered Boozer a six-year, $70 million contract that Cleveland chose not to match due to salary cap considerations. On July 30, 2004, Boozer signed with the Jazz. Cavaliers owner Gordon Gund said, "In the final analysis, I decided to trust Carlos and show him the respect he asked for.
He did not show that trust and respect in return." However, Boozer denied that he made any commitment to the Cavaliers: "There was no commitment. It's unfortunate how the turn of events went through the media", Boozer said shortly after signing the deal with Utah. "I'm not a guy that takes it away. I think I've made that clear." In his first season with the Jazz in 2004 -- 05, Boozer averaged 9 rebounds per game. However, he suffered an injury, missing the part of the season, which contributed to the Jazz missing the playoffs for only the second time in 22 years, he was publicly criticized for a lack of effort by team owner Larry Miller; as the 2005–06 season began, Boozer was still recovering from injury, aggravated a hamstring, causing him to miss the first half of that season as well. He returned to action in late February. In the middle of March, he was placed back into the starting lineup. From that point, he finished the season in impressive fashion, averaging over 20 points and 10 rebounds per game and establishing himself as the Jazz's starting power forward once again.
Boozer got off to a strong start in the 2006–07 season, winning the Western Conference Player of the Week Award and helping the Jazz to win eleven of their first twelve games. Boozer was named part of the NBA All-Star roster as a reserve, but could not participate because of a hairline fracture in his left fibula. In an April 23, 2007 game against the Houston Rockets, Boozer scored 41 points, tying the career high he had set a month earlier on March 26, he led the Jazz past the Rockets in game 7 of the first round in the NBA Playoffs, scoring 35 points, grabbing 14 rebounds and two clutch free throws to secure the victory in Boozer's first playoff series. The Jazz would go on to win their second round series against the upstart Golden State Warriors, 4 games to 1, advance to the Western Conference Finals for the first time since 1998. Though they lost 4 games to 1 to the more experienced San Antonio Spurs, Boozer proved valuable and durable, he ended the season averaging 20.9 points and 11.7 rebounds per game, playing in 74 of 82 games.
He was better in the playoffs, increasing his output to 23.5 points and 12.2 rebounds per game, appearing in all 17 Jazz playoff games. In November 2007, Boozer was named Western Conference Player of the Month. By mid-December, he was among the league's top five performers in scoring and field goal percentage. Although he slipped in all of these categories, he continued to produce solid numbers. Boozer was again chosen as a backup in the All-Star Game, finishing with 14 points and 10 rebounds in just 19 minutes of play, he registered his first career triple-double against the Seattle SuperSonics on February 13, 2008, with 22 points, 11 rebounds, 10 assists. In the 2008 playoffs, the Jazz faced the Houston Rockets in the first round for the second year in a row. Determined to not allow him to beat them, the Rockets geared their defense more to stopping Boozer and his production was somewhat limited, but the Jazz defeated the Rockets, 4–2. In the second round of the 2008 playoffs, the Jazz lost to the top seeded Los Angeles Lakers in six games.
During the 2008–09 season, Boozer's ability to stay healthy was questioned by fans and media alike, as he missed 44 games following arthroscopic left knee surgery. He missed time from late November 2008 to late February 20
The City and Borough of Juneau known as Juneau, is the capital city of Alaska. It is a unified municipality on Gastineau Channel in the Alaskan panhandle, it is the second largest city in the United States by area. Juneau has been the capital of Alaska since 1906, when the government of what was the District of Alaska was moved from Sitka as dictated by the U. S. Congress in 1900; the municipality unified on July 1, 1970, when the city of Juneau merged with the city of Douglas and the surrounding Greater Juneau Borough to form the current municipality, larger by area than both Rhode Island and Delaware. Downtown Juneau is nestled across the channel from Douglas Island; as of the 2010 census, the City and Borough had a population of 31,276. In 2014, the population estimate from the United States Census Bureau was 32,406, making it the second most populous city in Alaska after Anchorage. Fairbanks, however, is the state's second most populous metropolitan area, with 100,000 residents. Juneau's daily population can increase by 6,000 people from visiting cruise ships between the months of May and September.
The city is named after a gold prospector from Quebec, Joe Juneau, though the place was for a time called Rockwell and Harrisburg. The Tlingit name of the town is Dzántik'i Héeni, Auke Bay just north of Juneau proper is called Áak'w in Tlingit; the Taku River, just south of Juneau, was named after the cold t'aakh wind, which blows down from the mountains. Juneau is unusual among U. S. capitals in that there are no roads connecting the city to the rest of Alaska or to the rest of North America. The absence of a road network is due to the rugged terrain surrounding the city; this in turn makes Juneau a de facto island city in terms of transportation, since all goods coming in and out must go by plane or boat, in spite of the city being on the Alaskan mainland. Downtown Juneau sits at sea level, with tides averaging 16 feet, below steep mountains about 3,500 feet to 4,000 feet high. Atop these mountains is the Juneau Icefield, a large ice mass from which about 30 glaciers flow; the Mendenhall glacier has been retreating.
The Alaska State Capitol in downtown Juneau was built as the Federal and Territorial Building in 1931. Prior to statehood, it housed the federal courthouse and a post office, it housed the territorial legislature and many other territorial offices, including that of the governor. Today, Juneau remains the home of the state legislature and the offices of the governor and lieutenant governor; some other executive branch offices have moved elsewhere in the state. Recent discussion has been focused between relocating the seat of state government outside Juneau and building a new capitol building in Juneau. Long before European settlement in the Americas, the Gastineau Channel was a favorite fishing ground for the Auke and Taku tribes, who had inhabited the surrounding area for thousands of years; the A'akw Kwáan had a burying ground here. In the 21st century it is known as Indian Point, they annually harvested herring during the spawning season, celebrated this bounty. Since the late 20th century, the A'akw Kwáan, together with the Sealaska Heritage Institute, have resisted European-American development of Indian Point, including proposals by the National Park Service and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
They consider it sacred territory, both because of the burying ground and the importance of the point in their traditions of gathering sustenance from the sea. They continue to gather clams, gumboots and sea urchins here, as well as tree bark for medicinal uses; the city and state supported Sealaska Heritage Institute in documenting the 78-acre site, in August 2016 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. "It is the first traditional cultural property in Southeast Alaska to be placed on the register."Descendants of these indigenous cultures include the Tlingit people. Native cultures have rich artistic traditions expressed in carving, orating and dancing. Juneau has become a major social center for the Tlingit and Tsimshian of Southeast Alaska. Although the Russians had a colony in the Alaska territory from 1784 to 1867, they did not settle in Juneau, they conducted extensive fur trading with Alaskan Natives of the Aleutian Islands and Kodiak. Some ships explored this area, but did not record it.
The first European to see the Juneau area is recorded as Joseph Whidbey, master of the Discovery during George Vancouver’s 1791–95 expedition. He and his party explored the region in July–August 1794. Early in August he viewed the length of Gastineau Channel from the south, noting a small island in mid-channel, he recorded seeing the channel again, this time from the west. He said. After the California gold rush, miners migrated up the Pacific Coast and explored the West, seeking other gold deposits. In 1880, Sitka mining engineer George Pilz offered a reward to any local chief in Alaska who could lead him to gold-bearing ore. Chief Kowee arrived with some ore, several prospectors were sent to in
"Spoonman" is a song by American rock band Soundgarden. Written by former frontman Chris Cornell, "Spoonman" was released on February 15, 1994 as the first single from the band's fourth studio album, Superunknown. "Spoonman" is credited as one of the songs that launched Soundgarden's career into the mainstream. The song peaked at number three on the Billboard Mainstream Rock Tracks chart and number nine on the Modern Rock Tracks chart. A remixed version of the song by Steve Fisk appears on the "Black Hole Sun" and "My Wave" singles; the song was included on Soundgarden's 1997 greatest hits album, A-Sides and the 2010 compilation album Telephantasm. "Spoonman" was written for the soundtrack to the 1992 film Singles. At this time, along with fellow alternative rock band Pearl Jam, was working on the soundtrack for the film. Pearl Jam bassist Jeff Ament had been put in charge of creating the name for a fictional band that would appear in the film. Before choosing Citizen Dick for its name, Ament had compiled a list of potential names which included the name "Spoonman".
The name was inspired by Artis the Spoonman, a street performer from Santa Cruz and Seattle, who plays music with a set of spoons. Soundgarden vocalist and songwriter Chris Cornell used the names on the list to create songs for the film. "Spoonman" was among these, an acoustic version was created from it. This early version of the song can be heard during a scene in the film in which a poster advertising a Citizen Dick show is stapled to a lightpost. Rather than just leave the song on the film's soundtrack, Soundgarden began working on an electric version of "Spoonman"; the song's inspiration, Artis the Spoonman, played a prominent role in the song itself. The final version of the song featured Artis the Spoonman playing his spoons as part of the song's bridge. Drummer Matt Cameron plays pots and pans on the song. Bassist Ben Shepherd performs backing vocals on the song. "Spoonman" was performed in drop D tuning. The main riff was written in 74 time; the chorus is 44 and part of the spoon solo is in 34.
Guitarist Kim Thayil has said that Soundgarden did not consider the time signature of a song until after the band had written it, said that the use of odd meters was "a total accident". Cornell on "Spoonman": The band would play "Spoonman" while on its 1993 tour with Neil Young. With hype building around the band's upcoming album Superunknown, Soundgarden released the single a month before the album's release; the song was released as a single in 1994 with a unreleased B-side titled "Exit Stonehenge". On the choice of "Spoonman" as the album's first single, Shepherd called it a "great first choice," adding that "it just jumps out at you instantly." Shepherd said, "You know how you listen to a record and there is one song that seems to leap out of the speakers—well, "Spoonman" did that to me." Shortly after the single's release, the song became popular, reaching high positions on rock charts. The song peaked at number three on the Billboard Mainstream Rock Tracks chart and number nine on the Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart.
At the 1995 Grammy Awards, "Spoonman" received the award for Best Metal Performance. Outside the United States, the single was released commercially in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. In Canada, the song reached number 12 on the Canadian Singles Chart. "Spoonman" would peak at number 23 on the Australian Singles Chart. "Spoonman" was a top ten success in New Zealand. "Spoonman" appears in the 2001 video game ATV Offroad Fury for the PlayStation 2. The song is featured in the 2008 video games Battle of the Bands, Rock Band 2, as a cover in Rock Revolution; the following year the song appeared on the soundtrack for the PSP game Rock Band Unplugged, which included a number of tracks from Rock Band 2. Despite the inclusion on the Unplugged track list, Spoonman did not export from Rock Band 2 to Rock Band 3 due to licensing conflicts, it appeared again on the track list of the 2012 downloadable game Rock Band Blitz and became playable in Rock Band 3 as part of the Blitz song pack. The song is available as downloadable content for Guitar Hero: Warriors of Rock as part of the Telephantasm album pack, available as downloadable content for Fantasia: Music Evolved.
The music video for "Spoonman" was directed by Jeffrey Plansker. The video features Artis prominently, making him the focus of the video instead of the band; the band members are shown only in black-and-white still photographs. The video was released in February 1994. In an interview with Hit Parader magazine in 1994, Chris Cornell said about the music video: I think we were smart with "Spoonman" in that you don't see us that much in the video. You see various pictures of us, but it's not quite the same as having us in your living room all the time. We're trying to maintain some degree of mystique about Soundgarden, I guess. I remember back when I was a kid, long before MTV, the only way to see my favorite bands was to go to their concerts, it was an incredible experience. MTV has helped a lot of bands, but they've helped rob a lot of groups of that special mystique. It's tough when you can see a great rock band on TV one second hit the clicker and be watching a soap opera or a sitcom the next. That's what roll has become for some people.
All songs written by Chris Cornell, except where noted: CD and 12" Vinyl"Spoonman" – 4:06 "Fresh Tendrils" – 4:16 "Cold Bitch" – 5:01 "Exit Stonehenge" – 1:19Cassette and 7" Vinyl
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
Jon Butcher is an American rock, blues songwriter and freelance multimedia producer. Jon A. Toombs, is the elder son of John A Toombs Sr.. In 1967, Jon's stepfather William Butcher moved the family from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Clear Air Force Base, Alaska, for career opportunities. In 1969, Jon's family moved back to Pennsylvania where Jon and his younger brother Brian finished Secondary education at Conestoga High School. Jon attended Grahm Junior College in Boston, Massachusetts for Broadcast Journalism and it was there that his professional music career began in earnest. Many people have made comparisons between Jon Butcher and Jimi Hendrix in the early stages of Jon's career; these comparisons were fueled by Butcher's onstage appearance and mannerisms, patterned after Hendrix, his choice for the band name Axis, an obvious reference to Hendrix legendary album Axis: Bold as Love. Butcher's stated influences are Richie Havens, John Lennon, Phil Lynott, Bob Dylan and Taj Mahal and today he maintains that the Hendrix comparisons are superficial and has been quoted as saying "Being black and playing a Stratocaster created certain inevitable comparisons in the early days".
During the middle to late 1970s, Jon Butcher toured the Northeast U. S. with the Boston-based band Johanna Wild. The band generated a large following during its tenure, their early success was due to promotional practices such as self-promotion, self marketing and self-management. The most successful Johanna Wild lineup was: Jeff Linscott, Derek Blevins, Troy Douglas Sutler III, Jon Butcher, their most popular song, "Suzanne" attained regular airplay at local radio stations such as WBCN. Relentless touring and strong fan support for Johanna Wild afforded Jon Butcher quick media attention through the blossoming cable TV networks MTV and radio medias the influential radio station WBCN in Boston, MA. With the radio promotion of supporters such as WBCN radio personalities Mark Parenteau and Carter Alan, Jon Butcher became a Boston music staple, in late 1979 he created Jon Butcher Axis with Sandy Higgins, Chris Martin and former Johanna Wild drummer Derek Blevins. Soon after, Higgins left to be the front man for Balloon, while Charlie Farren fronted the Mk3 lineup of The Joe Perry Project.
After several other guitarists came and went, Axis became the power trio which Butcher had always envisioned. Jon Butcher Axis performed throughout New England including Uncle Sam's, the famous The Rathskeller, The Paradise Theater and many others; the timing and apparent surge in popularity afforded Jon Butcher Axis' next opportunity through Peter Wolf, lead singer of The J. Geils Band. Jon Butcher Axis was invited to tour with Boston's world-famous J. Geils Band through Peter Wolf, for their 1982 Freeze Frame American tour, culminating in three sold out night shows at the Boston Garden, it was the experience of performing in the Freeze Frame tour that led to Jon Butcher Axis first international record deal with PolyGram Records. This began a recording and touring career which saw the release of'The Jon Butcher Axis' and'Stare at the Sun'. Both of the PolyGram records were produced by Pat Moran producer for Robert Plant, Edie Brickell and Lou Gramm. 1983 saw the release of their first and self-titled album, The Jon Butcher Axis, featuring "Life Takes A Life".
Other notable tracks included "Ocean in Motion" and "Walk Like This". This album reached No. 91 in the Billboard Pop Albums chart and Jon Butcher Axis' video "Life Takes a Life" became one of the first videos by a black artist to receive airtime on MTV. At that time, the only two black artists enjoying MTV coverage were The Jon Butcher Axis and Michael Jackson; the band's second album, Stare at the Sun, reached No. 160 on the Billboard album chart. The result of these two albums' successes afforded further growing popularity for the band, which added the opportunity to tour with Rush,Def Leppard and Scorpions. Among others. In 1985, Jon Butcher Axis released Along the Axis; the track, "The Ritual", earned multiple writers in the band a Grammy Nomination for Best Rock Instrumental Performance. On that same album and videos were released for the songs "The Sounds of Your Voice" and "Stop". "The Sounds of Your Voice" was the only single to hit the Billboard charts Hot 100 reaching No. 94. Quotes Jon, "The Capitol Records experience was a positive one.
Jon Butcher Axis toured major venues across the US during this period, opening for INXS". The following releases and Pictures from the Front were recorded under the Jon Butcher name. Wishes was Butcher's most successful album. Rumored to have achieved Gold Award status, there is no evidence of this on the RIAA database. MTV videos released from both of these records included "Holy War", "Goodbye Saving Grace" and "Wishes". In 1991, Jon Butcher Axis ended its run. Jon Butcher himself spent most of the 90's on various multimedia projects. In 1994, he formed Barefoot Servants; the band included Ben Schultz and Ray Brinker. Their second record, Barefoot Servants 2 was released by Atom Records in August 2005. Drummer Ray Brinker was replaced by Londoner Neal Wilkinson. In the mid 1990s, Butcher released two solo blues albums, Positively the Blues and Electric Factory, a title loosely derived from Jimi Hendrix's Electric Ladyland. In 1998, Razor & Tie released The Best of Jon Butcher – Drea
Anthony Lee Barnette is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Chicago Cubs of Major League Baseball. He played in MLB for the Texas Rangers and in Nippon Professional Baseball for the Tokyo Yakult Swallows. Barnette is from Federal Way and attended Thomas Jefferson High School, he attended Arizona State University. Barnette was drafted by the Arizona Diamondbacks in the 10th round of the 2006 Major League Baseball Draft; the two sides agreed to a deal on June 8, 2006. He played in the Diamondbacks' organization through 2009, he was released on January 5, 2010. Barnette signed with the Yakult Swallows of Nippon Professional Baseball prior to the 2010 season. At the conclusion of the 2015 NPB season, his sixth with the Yakult Swallows, Barnette had appeared in 260 career games as a relief pitcher, compiling an 11–19 record and 97 saves with a 3.58 ERA and a 1.26 WHIP. His 2015 season, in which the Swallows won the Central League, was his most successful by several measures. Barnette recorded the lowest ERA among closers.
He allowed just one home run in 62.2 innings and set a career-low WHIP of 0.89. Barnette signed a two-year deal with the Texas Rangers of Major League Baseball on December 15, 2015, he made his major league debut against the Seattle Mariners on April 5, 2016. He allowed two runs on 3 hits while getting his first career MLB strikeout in two-thirds of an inning pitched, he finished the season with an ERA of 2.09 in 53 games. He was 7-3 in 60 1⁄3 innings; the following season was a struggle. The Rangers declined Barnette's 2018 option on November 2017, making him a free agent, he was re-signed by the team a couple of days later. On July 4th, 2018, he was placed on the disabled list. Barnette became a free agent following the conclusion of the season. On February 1, 2019, Barnette signed a one-year major league contract with the Chicago Cubs. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference Tony Barnette on Twitter
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No