Acadia was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River. During much of the 17th and early 18th centuries, Norridgewock on the Kennebec River and Castine at the end of the Penobscot River were the southernmost settlements of Acadia; the actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to lands bordering the Atlantic coast between the 40th and 46th parallels. The territory was divided into the British colonies that became Canadian provinces and American states; the population of Acadia included members of the Wabanaki Confederacy and descendants of emigrants from France. The two communities intermarried, which resulted in a significant portion of the population of Acadia being Métis; the first capital of Acadia, established in 1605, was Port-Royal. A British force from Virginia attacked and burned down the town in 1613, but it was rebuilt nearby, where it remained the longest serving capital of French Acadia until the British Siege of Port Royal in 1710.
Over seventy-four years there were six colonial wars, in which English and British interests tried to capture Acadia starting with King William's War in 1689. During these wars, along with some French troops from Quebec, some Acadians, the Wabanaki Confederacy, French priests continuously raided New England settlements along the border in Maine. While Acadia was conquered in 1710 during Queen Anne's War, present-day New Brunswick and much of Maine remained contested territory. Present-day Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton as agreed under Article XIII of the Treaty of Utrecht remained under French control. By militarily defeating the Wabanaki Confederacy and the French priests, present-day Maine fell during Father Rale's War. During King George's War and New France made significant attempts to regain mainland Nova Scotia. After Father Le Loutre's War, present-day New Brunswick fell to the British. During the French and Indian War, both Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean fell to the British in 1758.
Today, the term Acadia is used to refer to regions of North America that are associated with the lands, descendants, or culture of the former French region. It refers to regions of The Maritimes with French roots and culture in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Magdalen Islands and Prince Edward Island, as well as in Maine, it can be used to refer to the Acadian diaspora in southern Louisiana, a region referred to as Acadiana. In the abstract, Acadia refers to the existence of a French culture in any of these regions. People living in Acadia, sometimes former residents and their descendants, are called Acadians later known as Cajuns, the English pronunciation of'Cadiens, after resettlement in Louisiana; the origin of the designation Acadia is credited to the explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, who on his 16th-century map applied the ancient Greek name "Arcadia" to the entire Atlantic coast north of Virginia. "Arcadia" derives from the Arcadia district in Greece, which since Classical antiquity had the extended meanings of "refuge" or "idyllic place".
The Dictionary of Canadian Biography says: "Arcadia, the name Verrazzano gave to Maryland or Virginia'on account of the beauty of the trees,' made its first cartographical appearance in the 1548 Gastaldo map and is the only name on that map to survive in Canadian usage." In 1603 a colony south of the St. Lawrence River between the 40th and 46th parallels was chartered by Henry IV, who recognized the territory as La Cadie. In the 17th century, Samuel de Champlain fixed its present orthography with the r omitted. William Francis Ganong, a cartographer, has shown its gradual progress northeastwards, in a succession of maps, to its resting place in the Atlantic provinces of Canada. Of note is the similarity in the pronunciation of Acadie and the Míkmawísimk suffix -akadie, which means "a place of abundance." The modern usage is still seen in place names such as Shubenacadie. It is thought that intercultural conversation between early French traders and Mi'kmaq hunters may have resulted in the name l'Arcadie being changed to l'Acadie.
The borders of French Acadia have never been defined, but the following areas were at some time part of French Acadia: Present-day Nova Scotia with as capital Port Royal. Lost to Great Britain in 1713. Present-day New Brunswick, which remained part of Nova Scotia until 1784 until becoming its own colony in 1785. Île-Royale Cape Breton Island, with the Fortress of Louisbourg. Lost to Great Britain in 1763. Île Saint-Jean Prince Edward Island. Lost to Great Britain in 1763; the part of present-day Maine east of the Kennebec River. Became part of the New England Colonies in 1727; the history of Acadia was influenced by the warfare that took place on its soil during the 17th and 18th century. Prior to that time period, the Mi'kmaq lived in Acadia for centuries; the French arrived in 1604. Despite this, the Mi'kmaq tolerated the presence of the French in exchange for favours and trade. Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians were the predominant populations in the colony for the next 150 years. Early European colonists, who would become known as Acadians, were French subjects from the Pleumartin to Poitiers in the Vienne département of west-central France.
The first French settlement was established by Pierre Dugua des Monts, Governor of Acadia, under the authority of King H
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor and innovator, credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1885. Bell's father and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work, his research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which culminated in Bell being awarded the first U. S. patent for the telephone in 1876. Bell considered his invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study. Many other inventions marked Bell's life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications and aeronautics. Although Bell was not one of the 33 founders of the National Geographic Society, he had a strong influence on the magazine while serving as the second president from January 7, 1898, until 1903. Alexander Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on March 3, 1847.
The family home was at South Charlotte Street, has a stone inscription marking it as Alexander Graham Bell's birthplace. He had two brothers: Melville James Bell and Edward Charles Bell, both of whom would die of tuberculosis, his father was Professor Alexander Melville Bell, a phonetician, his mother was Eliza Grace. Born as just "Alexander Bell", at age 10, he made a plea to his father to have a middle name like his two brothers. For his 11th birthday, his father acquiesced and allowed him to adopt the name "Graham", chosen out of respect for Alexander Graham, a Canadian being treated by his father who had become a family friend. To close relatives and friends he remained "Aleck"; as a child, young Bell displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting at an early age. His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbour whose family operated a flour mill, the scene of many forays. Young Bell asked, he was told wheat had to be dehusked through a laborious process and at the age of 12, Bell built a homemade device that combined rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes, creating a simple dehusking machine, put into operation and used for a number of years.
In return, Ben's father John Herdman gave both boys the run of a small workshop in which to "invent". From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art and music, encouraged by his mother. With no formal training, he became the family's pianist. Despite being quiet and introspective, he revelled in mimicry and "voice tricks" akin to ventriloquism that continually entertained family guests during their occasional visits. Bell was deeply affected by his mother's gradual deafness, learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the family parlour, he developed a technique of speaking in clear, modulated tones directly into his mother's forehead wherein she would hear him with reasonable clarity. Bell's preoccupation with his mother's deafness led him to study acoustics, his family was long associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle in Dublin, his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists.
His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known his The Standard Elocutionist, which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868. The Standard Elocutionist appeared in 168 British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone. In this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes to articulate words and read other people's lip movements to decipher meaning. Bell's father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound. Bell became so proficient that he became a part of his father's public demonstrations and astounded audiences with his abilities, he could decipher Visible Speech representing every language, including Latin, Scottish Gaelic, Sanskrit reciting written tracts without any prior knowledge of their pronunciation. As a young child, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father. At an early age, he was enrolled at the Royal High School, Scotland, which he left at the age of 15, having completed only the first four forms.
His school record was undistinguished, marked by lacklustre grades. His main interest remained in the sciences biology while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his demanding father. Upon leaving school, Bell travelled to London to live with Alexander Bell. During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study; the elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself. At the age of 16, Bell secured a position as a "pupil-teacher" of elocution and music, in Weston House Academy at Elgin, Scotland. Although he was enrolled as a student in Latin and Greek, he instructed classes himself in return for board and £10 per session; the following year, he attended the University of Edinburgh. In 1868, not long before he departed for Canada with his f
King William's War
King William's War was the North American theater of the Nine Years' War known as the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg. It was the first of six colonial wars fought between New France and New England along with their respective Native allies before France ceded its remaining mainland territories in North America east of the Mississippi River in 1763. For King William's War, neither England nor France thought of weakening their position in Europe to support the war effort in North America. New France and the Wabanaki Confederacy were able to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. According to the terms of the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick that ended the Nine Years' War, the boundaries and outposts of New France, New England, New York remained unchanged; the war was caused by the fact that the treaties and agreements that were reached at the end of King Philip's War were not adhered to. In addition, the English were alarmed.
The Indians preyed on the English and their fears, by making it look as though they were with the French. The French were played as well; these occurrences, in addition to the fact that the English perceived the Indians as their subjects, despite the Indians' unwillingness to submit led to two conflicts, one of, King William's War. The English settlers were more than 154,000 at the beginning of the war, outnumbering the French 12 to 1. However, they were divided in multiple colonies along the Atlantic coast, which were unable to cooperate efficiently, they were engulfed in the Glorious Revolution, creating tension among the colonists. In addition, the English lacked military leadership and had a difficult relationship with their Iroquois allies. New France was divided into three entities: Acadia on the Atlantic coast; the French population amounted to 14,000 in 1689. Although the French were vastly outnumbered, they were more politically unified and contained a disproportionate number of adult males with military backgrounds.
Realizing their numerical inferiority, they developed good relationships with the indigenous peoples in order to multiply their forces and made effective use of hit-and-run tactics. England's Catholic King James II was deposed at the end of 1688 in the Glorious Revolution, after which Protestants William III and Mary II took the throne. William joined the League of Augsburg in its war against France. In North America, there was significant tension between New France and the northern English colonies, which had in 1686 been united in the Dominion of New England. New England and the Iroquois Confederacy fought the Wabanaki Confederacy; the Iroquois dominated the economically important Great Lakes fur trade and had been in conflict with New France since 1680. At the urging of New England, the Iroquois interrupted the trade between New France and the western tribes. In retaliation, New France raided Seneca lands of western New York. In turn, New England supported the Iroquois in attacking New France, which they did by raiding Lachine.
There were similar tensions on the border between New England and Acadia, which New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. English settlers from Massachusetts had expanded their settlements into Acadia. To secure New France's claim to present-day Maine, New France established Catholic missions among the three largest native villages in the region: one on the Kennebec River. For their part, in response to King Philip's War, the five Indian tribes in the region of Acadia created the Wabanaki Confederacy to form a political and military alliance with New France to stop the New England expansion; the New England and Newfoundland Theatre of the war is known as Castin's War and Father Jean Baudoin's War. In April 1688, Governor Andros plundered Castine's village on Penobscot Bay. In August, the English raided the French village of Chedabouctou. In response and the Wabanaki Confederacy engaged in the Northeast Coast Campaign of 1688 along the New England/Acadia border, they began August 1688, at New Dartmouth, killing a few settlers.
A few days they killed two people at Yarmouth in the first battle. At Kennebunk, in the fall of 1688, members of the Confederacy killed two families; the following spring, in June 1689, several hundred Abenaki and Pennacook Indians under the command of Kancamagus and Mesandowit raided Dover, New Hampshire, killing more than 20 and taking 29 captives, who were sold into captivity in New France. In June, they killed four men at Saco. In response to these raids, a company of 24 men was raised to search for the bodies and pursue the natives, they were forced to return. In August 1689, Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin and Father Louis-Pierre Thury led an Abenaki war party that captured and destroyed the fort at Pemaquid; the fall of Pemaquid was a significant setback to the English. It pushed the frontier back to Maine. New England retaliat
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War was the second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in England's Thirteen American Colonies. It was fought between France and England for control of the American continent, while the War of the Spanish Succession was fought in Europe; the war involved numerous American Indian tribes allied with each nation, Spain was allied with France. It is known as the Third Indian War or in France as the Second Intercolonial War, it was fought on three fronts: Spanish Florida and the English Province of Carolina attacked one another, the English forces engaged the French based at Mobile, Alabama in a proxy war involving allied Indians on both sides. The southern war did not result in significant territorial changes, but it had the effect of nearly wiping out the Indian population of Spanish Florida, including parts of southern Georgia, destroying the network of Spanish missions in Florida; the English colonies of New England fought against French and Indian forces based in Acadia and Canada.
Quebec City was targeted by British expeditions, the Acadian capital Port Royal was taken in 1710. The French and Wabanaki Confederacy sought to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. Toward this end, they executed raids against targets in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, most famously the raid on Deerfield in 1704. English colonists based at St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador disputed control of the island with the French based at Plaisance. Most of the conflict consisted of economically destructive raids on settlements; the French captured St. John's in 1709, but the British reoccupied it after the French abandoned it; the Treaty of Utrecht ended the war in 1713, following a preliminary peace in 1712. France ceded the territories of Hudson Bay and Newfoundland to Britain while retaining Cape Breton Island and other islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; some terms were ambiguous in the treaty, concerns of various Indian tribes were not included, thereby setting the stage for future conflicts.
War broke out in 1701 following the death of King Charles II over who should succeed him to the Spanish throne. The war at first was restricted to a few powers in Europe, but it widened in May 1702 when England declared war on Spain and France; the hostilities in North America were further encouraged by existing frictions along the frontier areas separating the colonies of these powers. This dis-harmony was most pronounced along the northern and southwestern frontiers of the English colonies, which stretched from the Province of Carolina in the south to the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the north, with additional colonial settlements or trading outposts on Newfoundland and at Hudson Bay; the total population of the English colonies at the time has been estimated at 250,000, with Virginia and New England dominating. The population centers of these colonies were concentrated along the coast, with small settlements inland, sometimes reaching as far as the Appalachian Mountains. Most European colonists knew little of the interior of the continent, to the west of the Appalachians and south of the Great Lakes.
This area was dominated by Indian tribes, although French and English traders had penetrated the area. Spanish missionaries in La Florida had established a network of missions to convert the indigenous inhabitants to Roman Catholicism; the Spanish population was small, the Indian population to whom they ministered has been estimated to number 20,000. French explorers had located the mouth of the Mississippi River, near which they established a small colonial presence in 1699 at Fort Maurepas. From there they began to establish trade routes into the interior, establishing friendly relations with the Choctaw, a large tribe whose enemies included the British-allied Chickasaw. All of these populations had suffered to some degree from the introduction of Eurasian infectious diseases such as smallpox by early explorers and traders; the arrival of the French in the south threatened existing trade links that Carolina colonists had established into the interior, creating tension among all three powers.
France and Spain, allies in this conflict, had been on opposite sides of the ended Nine Years' War. Conflicting territorial claims between Carolina and Florida south of the Savannah River were overlaid by animosity over religious divisions between the Roman Catholic Spanish and the Protestant English along the coast. To the north, the conflict held a strong economic component in addition to territorial disputes. Newfoundland was the site of a British colony based at St. John's, the French colonial base was at Plaisance, with both sides holding a number of smaller permanent settlements; the island had many seasonal settlements used by fishermen from Europe. These colonists numbered fewer than 2,000 English and 1,000 French permanent settlers who competed with one another for the fisheries of the Grand Banks, which were used by fishermen from Acadia and Massachusetts; the border area between Acadia and New England remained uncertain despite battles along the border throughout King William's War.
New France defined the border of Acadia as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. There were Catholic missions at Norridgewock and Penobscot and a French settlement in Penobscot Bay near the site of modern Castine, which had all been bases for attacks on New England settlers migrating toward Acadia dur
Jerome of Sandy Cove
Jerome is the name given to an unidentifiable man discovered on the beach of Sandy Cove, Nova Scotia, on September 8, 1863. He was found with both legs cut off to stumps, when questioned by locals he said little, suggesting he did not speak English; when asked for his name he mumbled something that resembled "Jerome", so, what he became known as. He was found by an 8-year-old boy named George Colin "Collie" Albright, brought to the Albright home in the village of Digby Neck to be nursed back to health. Jerome had both legs amputated just above the knees, with evidence that it had been done by a skilled surgeon; the stumps were only healed and still bandaged when he was found. He was suffering from cold and exposure. Many people eager to know more about him visited his sick bed, through this it was discovered that he could not understand French, Italian, or Spanish, he shunned the attention of these curious onlookers, growling like a dog at unwanted guests. The man's hands were noted as being too soft for him to be a manual labourer, he was described as being Mediterranean in appearance.
The Albrights struggled to support another mouth to feed, Jerome was passed from house to house for a while until the Baptist community of Digby Neck decided from his appearance that he must be a Catholic, sent him to the neighbouring French community of Meteghan. The government of Nova Scotia voted a special stipend of two dollars a week to support Jerome; the community still trying to break his relative silence, Jerome was sent to stay with Jean Nicola, a Corsican deserter and speaker of several languages. Nicola could not get him to talk, but Jerome stayed in the Nicola home for 7 more years, becoming a favourite of the ladies of the household - Jean's wife Julitte and his stepdaughter Madeleine. After the death of Julitte Nicola, her husband returned to Europe and Jerome went to stay with Dedier and Zabeth Comeau in St. Alphonse, near Meteghan; the Comeaus used Jerome's relative fame to their advantage, charging admission fees to see the mystery man, living well on this and the government stipend.
But Jerome did not seem to mind, stayed there for the rest of his life, which ended on April 15, 1912. It has been suggested that Jerome was a sailor who may have attempted a mutiny, being punished by amputation. Another suggestion is that he could have been an heir to a fortune and was "gotten rid of" to make way for someone else seeking his inheritance, it is possible that Jerome's difficulties with producing speech could be linked to a brain injury, most in Broca's Area, the part of the brain that regulates speech. Jerome would have been incapable of speaking in any sort of understandable language; this may account for Jerome's ability to make animalistic noises, but not replicate human language. Jerome has figured in the popular imagination in Nova Scotia, there have been several books written about the case. In 1994 there was a feature film produced, directed by Phil Comeau, called Jerome's Secret. In 2008, the local historian Fraser Mooney Jr. of Yarmouth, Nova Scotia published a book - Jerome: Solving the Mystery of Nova Scotia's Silent Castaway in which he offers a solution to the man's mysterious origins.
He reports that, on the other side of the Bay of Fundy, in Chipman, New Brunswick in 1859 a young foreigner was reported as having fallen through river ice. He suffered gangrene in both legs due to the accident and they had to be amputated by a local doctor. Here he became known as "Gamby" because on wakening he kept calling for gamba, Italian for "leg". Gamby proved to be a burden for the people of Chipman, it was rumoured that a passing schooner captain was paid to transport him away; the captain could have just sailed to the opposite side of the bay to Nova Scotia, where he became Sandy Cove's problem. Mooney's account has been controversial. Notably, the writer Noah Richler has called the book speculative and a fiction
Sir Samuel Cunard, 1st Baronet, was a Canadian shipping magnate, born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, who founded the Cunard Line. He was the son of a master carpenter and timber merchant who had fled the American Revolution and settled in Halifax. Samuel Cunard was the second son of a Quaker and Margaret Murphy, a Roman Catholic; the Cunards were a Quaker family that came from Worcestershire, in Britain, but were forced to flee to Germany in the 17th century due to religious persecution, where they took the name Kunders. Samuel Cunard's great-great-grandfather had been a dyer in Crefeld there, but emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1683. In America they adopted the name Cunrads; some of his descendants, including his grandfather, changed their name to Cunard. Abraham Cunard was a Loyalist to the British Crown and moved to Halifax in 1783, after the American Revolution, he married another Loyalist émigré that year. Margaret's family were from Ireland and came to Halifax from South Carolina. Abraham and Margaret had two girls and seven boys.
Abraham Cunard was a master carpenter who worked for the British garrison in Halifax and became a wealthy landowner and timber merchant. Cunard's business skills were evident early in his teens: he was managing his own general store from stock he obtained in broken lots at wharf auction, he joined his father in the family timber business, which expanded into investments in shipping. During the War of 1812, Cunard volunteered for service in the 2nd Battalion of the Halifax Regiment militia and rose to the rank of captain, he held many public offices, such as volunteer fireman and lighthouse commissioner, maintained a reputation as not only a shrewd businessman, but an honest and generous citizen. Cunard was a successful entrepreneur in Halifax shipping and one of a group of twelve individuals who dominated the affairs of Nova Scotia, he provided a fisheries patrol vessel for the province. Cunard diversified his family's timber and shipping business with investments in whaling, tea imports and coal mining, as well as the Halifax Banking Company and the Shubenacadie Canal.
The whaling ships, sent far into the Southern Atlantic if turned a profit. He purchased large amounts of land in Prince Edward Island, at one point owning a seventh of the province, which involved him in the protracted disputes between tenants on the island and the absentee landlords who owned most of it. Cunard experimented with steam, cautiously at first, becoming a founding director of the Halifax Steamboat Company, which built the first steamship in Nova Scotia in 1830, the long-serving and successful SS Sir Charles Ogle for the Halifax–Dartmouth Ferry Service. Cunard became president of the company in 1836 and arranged for steam power for their second ferry, Boxer in 1838. Cunard led Halifax investors to combine with Quebec business in 1831 to build the pioneering ocean steamship Royal William to run between Quebec and Halifax. Although Royal William ran into problems after losing an entire season due to cholera quarantines, Cunard learned valuable lessons about steamship operation, he commissioned a coastal steamship named Pochohontas in 1832 for mail service to Prince Edward Island and purchased a larger steamship Cape Breton to expand the service.
Cunard's experience in steamship operation, with observations of the growing railway network in England, encouraged him to explore the creation of a Transatlantic fleet of steamships, which would cross the ocean as as trains crossed land. He went to the United Kingdom seeking investors in 1837, he set up a company with several other businessmen to bid for the rights to run a transatlantic mail service between the UK and North America. It was successful in its bid, the company becoming Cunard Steamships Limited. In 1840 the company's first steamship, the Britannia, sailed from Liverpool to Halifax, Nova Scotia, on to Boston, with Cunard and 63 other passengers on board, marking the beginning of regular passenger and cargo service. Establishing a long unblemished reputation for speed and safety, Cunard's company made ocean liners a success, in the face of many potential rivals who lost ships and fortunes. Cunard's ships proved successful, but their high costs saddled Cunard with heavy debts by 1842, he had to flee to England from creditors in Halifax.
However, by 1843, Cunard ships were earning enough to pay off his debts and begin issuing modest but growing dividends. Cunard divided his time between Nova Scotia and England but left his Nova Scotian operations in the hands of his sons Edward and William, as business drew him to spend more time in London. Cunard made a special trip to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in 1850, when his brother Joseph Cunard's timber and shipping businesses in New Brunswick collapsed in a bankruptcy that threw as many as 1000 people out of work. Cunard took out loans and guaranteed all of his brother's debts in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Boston. Joseph Cunard moved to Liverpool, England where Samuel helped him re-establish his shipping interests. Cunard throughout his personal life was not a religious man and was considered by many to be agnostic, his views on slavery in the 19th century were not known, but his statements regarding Fredrick Douglass's segregated passage arranged by a Cunard Agent in Liverpool on one of his ocean liners in 1845 suggests he was against any form of racial prejudice.
"No one can regret more than I do the unpleasant circumstances surrounding Mr. Douglass's passage from Liverpool, but I can assure you that n
Charles Morris (surveyor general)
Charles Morris army officer, served on the Nova Scotia Council, Chief Justice of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court and, the surveyor general for over 32 years, he created some of the first British maps of Canada's maritime region and designed the layout of Halifax, Lunenburg and Liverpool. In Halifax he laid out both the Halifax Common, he was born in Boston and when he first came to the colony he fought in the Battle of Grand Pre. The maps he produced and information he gathered about the disposition of Acadians villages during his surveying of the colony was used by the Military authority in Halifax to initiate the Expulsion of the Acadians during the French and Indian War, he won the establishment of the Nova Scotia House of Assembly. Morris was instrumental in establishing New England Planters in the colony; as chief justice, his most famous trial was of those who participated in the Eddy Rebellion at the outbreak of the American Revolution. "Judge Morris’ remarks concerning the removal of the Acadians," N.
S. Hist. Soc. Coll. II, 158–60 "Observations and remarks on the survey made by order of His Excellency according to the instructions of the 26th June last, on the eastern coasts of Nova Scotia and the western parts of the island of Cape Breton," PANS Report, 1964, app. B, 20–28. 1768," Acadiensis, III, 120–28. His joint report with Richard Bulkeley, "State and condition of the province of Nova Scotia together with some observations &c, 29th October 1763," is in PANS Report, 1933, app. B, 21–27. P.r.b.] Namesake of Morris Street, Halifax Morris House which his son purchased and where he lived is the oldest wooden residence in Halifax Military history of Nova Scotia List of cartographers Morris House Press Release - St. Mary's University Endnotes Texts Ethel Crathorne, "The Morris family – surveyors-general," Nova Scotia Hist. Quarterly, 6, 207–16. A. W. H. Eaton, "Eminent Nova Scotians of New England birth, number one: Capt. the Hon. Charles Morris, M. C." New England Hist. and Geneal. Register, LXVII, 287–90.
Blakeley, Phyllis R.. "Morris, Charles". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. IV. University of Toronto Press