Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
Sebastian Brant was a German humanist and satirist. He is best known for his satire Das Narrenschiff. Brant was born in Strasbourg to an innkeeper but entered the University of Basel in 1475 studying philosophy and transferring to the school of law. From 1484 he began teaching at the university and completed his doctorate in law in 1489. In 1485 he had married the daughter of a cutler in the town. Elisabeth bore him seven children. Keen for his eldest son Onophrius to become a humanist, he taught him Latin in the cradle and enrolled him in the university at the age of seven. Brant first attracted attention in humanistic circles by his Neo-Latin poetry but, realising that this gave him only a limited audience, he began translating his own work and the Latin poems of others into German, publishing them through the press of his friend Johann Bergmann, from which appeared his best known German work, the satirical Das Narrenschiff, the popularity and influence of which were not limited to Germany.
In this allegory, the author lashes the vices of his time. It is an episodic work in which a ship laden with and steered by fools goes to the fools' paradise of Narragonia. Here he conceives Saint Grobian, whom he imagines to be the patron saint of vulgar and coarse people. Most of Brant's important writing, including many works on civil and canon law, were written while he was living in Basel, he returned to Strasbourg in 1500, where he was remained for the rest of his life. In 1503 he secured the influential position of chancellor and his engagement in public affairs prevented him from pursuing literature further. Brant made several petitions to the Emperor Maximilian to drive back the Turks in order to save the West. In the same spirit, he had sung the praises of Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1492 for having conquered the Moors and unified Spain. A staunch proponent of German cultural nationalism, he believed that moral reform was necessary for the security of the Empire against the Ottoman threat.
Although conservative in his religious views, Brant's eyes were open to abuses in the church, as the Narrenschiff demonstrates. Alexander Barclay's Ship of Fools is a free imitation into early Tudor period English of the German poem, a Latin version by Jakob Locher was hardly less popular than the original. Cock Lorell's Bote was a shorter imitation of the Narrenschiff. In this work Cock Lorell,a notorious fraudulent tinker of the period, gathers round him a rascally collection of tradesmen and sets off to sail through England. Among Brant's many other works was his compilation of fables and other popular stories, published in 1501 under the title Aesopi Appologi sive Mythologi cum quibusdam Carminum et Fabularum additionibus, the beauty of whose production is still appreciated. Though based on Heinrich Steinhöwel's 1476 edition of Aesop, the Latin prose was emended by Brant, who added verse commentaries with his characteristic combination of wit and style; the second part of the work is new, consisting of riddles, additional fables culled from varied sources, accounts of miracles and wonders of nature both from his own times and reaching back to antiquity.
The letters by Brant that have survived show that he was in correspondence with Peter Schott, Johann Bergmann von Olpe, Emperor Maximilian, Thomas Murner, Konrad Peutinger, Willibald Pirckheimer, Johannes Reuchlin, Beatus Rhenanus, Jakob Wimpfeling and Ulrich Zasius. Ship of Fools Das Narrenschiff, Studienausgabe, ed. by Joachim Knape Online facsimile of the original Edwin H. Zeydel's 1944 translation of The Ship of Fools, of which there is a limited selection on Google Books Aesopi Appologi, an unpaged facsimile on Google Books. John W. Van Cleve, Sebastian Brant's'The Ship of Fools' in Critical Perspective, 1800-1991. Works by Sebastian Brant at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sebastian Brant at Internet Archive Works by Sebastian Brant at LibriVox
Daniel Specklin was an Alsatian fortress architect and cartographer. He was died in Strasbourg. Architectura von Vestungen Albert Fischer: Daniel Specklin aus Strassburg: Festungsbaumeister, Ingenieur und Kartograph. Franz Grenacher: Vor vierhundert Jahren schuf Daniel Specklin seine Elsasskarte. In: Basler Geographische Hefte n.2 1973 Rodolphe Peter: Daniel Specklin et l'art des fortifications. In: Grandes Figures de l'Humanisme Alsacien: courants, destins. Strasbourg, 1978, S. 203–219 Richard Schadow: Daniel Specklin, seine Leben und seine Tätigkeit als Baumeister. In: Jahrbuch des Vogesen-Clubs 2, S. 5–60 Otto Winckelmann: Zur Lebens- und Familiengeschichte Daniel Specklins. In: ZGO 59, S. 605–620
Anna Maria "Marie" Tussaud was a French artist known for her wax sculptures and Madame Tussauds, the wax museum she founded in London. Marie Tussaud was born 1 December 1761 in France, her father, Joseph Grosholtz, was killed in the Seven Years' War just two months before Marie was born. When she was six years old, her mother, Anne-Marie Walder, took her in Switzerland. There the family moved into the home of local doctor Philippe Curtius, for whom Anne-Marie acted as housekeeper. Curtius, whom Marie would call her uncle, was not only a physician, but was skilled in wax modelling, he used his talent as wax sculptor to illustrate anatomy, but for portraits. He moved to Paris in 1765 to establish a Cabinet de Portraits En Cire. In that year, he made a waxwork of Louis XV's last mistress, Madame du Barry, a cast, the oldest waxwork on display. A year Tussaud and her mother joined Curtius in Paris; the first exhibition of Curtius' waxworks attracted a large crowd. In 1776, the exhibition was moved to the Palais Royal and, in 1782, Curtius opened a second exhibit, the Caverne des Grands Voleurs, a precursor to Tussaud's Chamber of Horrors, on Boulevard du Temple.
Curtius taught Tussaud the art of wax modelling. She began working for him as an artist. In 1777, she created her first wax figure. From 1780 until the Revolution in 1789, Tussaud created many of her most famous portraits of celebrities such as those of philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Benjamin Franklin and Voltaire, she was called upon to cast the heads of individuals executed by guillotine and whole body casts of prominent figures at the time, such as Jean-Paul Marat. During this period her memoirs claim she became employed to teach votive making to Élisabeth, the sister of Louis XVI. In her memoirs, she admitted to be privy to private conversations between the princess and her brother and members of his court, she claimed that members of the royal family were so pleased with her work that she was invited to live at Versailles for a period of nine years, although no contemporary evidence exists to confirm her accounts. On 12 July 1789, wax heads of Jacques Necker and the duc d'Orléans made by Curtius were carried in a protest march two days before the attack on the Bastille.
Tussaud was perceived as a royal sympathiser. She said she was released thanks to Collot d'Herbois' support for his household. Tussaud said she was employed to make death masks of the revolution's famous victims, including Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette and Robespierre; when Curtius died in 1794, he left his collection of wax works to Tussaud. In 1795, she married a civil engineer; the couple had three children, a daughter who died after birth, two sons and François. In 1802, after the Treaty of Amiens, Tussaud went to London with her son Joseph four years old, to present her collection of portraits, she had accepted an invitation from Paul Philidor, a magic lantern and phantasmagoria pioneer, to exhibit her work alongside his show at the Lyceum Theatre. She did not fare well financially, left for Edinburgh in 1803; as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, Tussaud was unable to return to France so she travelled with her collection throughout the British Isles. In 1822, she reunited with François, who joined her in the family business.
Her husband remained in France and the two never saw each other again. In 1835, after 33 years touring Britain, she established her first permanent exhibition in Baker Street, on the upper floor of the "Baker Street Bazaar". In 1838, she wrote her memoirs. In 1842, she made a self-portrait, now on display at the entrance of her museum; some of the sculptures done by Tussaud herself still exist. She died in her sleep in London on 16 April 1850 at the age of 88. There is a memorial tablet to Madame Marie Tussaud on the right side of the nave of St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church, Cadogan Street, London. Upon Marie Tussaud's retirement, her son François became chief artist for the Exhibition, he was succeeded in turn by his son Joseph, succeeded by his son John Theodore Tussaud. Madame Tussaud's wax museum has now grown to become one of the major tourist attractions in London, has expanded with branches in Amsterdam, Bangkok, Blackpool, Hong Kong, Las Vegas, San Francisco, Washington, D. C. New York City, Hollywood, Singapore and New Delhi.
The current owner is a company owned by Blackstone Group. She is one of the main characters in the book Faces of the Dead by Suzanne Weyn. Edward Carey's 2018 novel Little is a novelization of her life. Cottrell, Leonard. Madame Tussaud. London: The Camelot Press. Hayley, R. M.. Memoirs of Madame Tussaud: Her Eventful History. London: George Routledge and Sons. Leslie, Anita. Madame Tussaud, Waxworker Extraordinary. London: Hutchinson. Pilbeam, Pamela. Madame Tussaud: And the History of Waxworks. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 1-85285-511-8. Tussaud, Marie. Hervé, Francis, ed.. Madame Tussaud's Reminiscences of France. London: Saunders and Otley. Marie Tussaud at Find a Grave
Marie Luise von Degenfeld
Luise von Degenfeld was the morganatic second wife of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine. Born Maria Susanne Luise von Degenfeld in Strasbourg, she was the daughter of an impoverished baron, Martens-Christof von Degenfeld and his wife, Maria Anna Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden. In 1650 she was appointed a lady-in-waiting at the Electoral Palace at Heidelberg to Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel, the consort of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, he was the son and heir of Frederick V, the "Winter King" of Bohemia, by Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I of England. Although the marriage of the Elector and Electress was notoriously unhappy, Charlotte protesting that it had been contracted against her will, Luise declined to become the Elector's mistress. On 6 January 1658, acting on his own sovereign authority, the Prince-Elector contracted a morganatic but arguably bigamous second marriage with the young Baroness von Degenfeld at Schwetzingen Castle a hunting lodge, midway between Heidelberg and Mannheim, Germany.
From 31 December 1667 the Prince-Elector and his court accorded Luise the title of "the Raugravine", the corresponding titles of Raugrave/Raugravine without territorial suffix, to each of her children, distinguishing them from the children of his first, dynastic marriage, the future Elector Palatine Charles II and the future Duchess of Orléans, Elisabeth Charlotte. Thirteen children were born to the Elector and the Raugravine between October 1658 and April 1675; the only one of her children to marry and have children was the Raugravine Caroline Elisabeth, who married an ardent suitor, Meinhard, 3rd Duc de Schomberg, 1st Duke of Leinster in 1683, receiving 20,000 florins from Elector Charles II. When the Edict of Nantes was revoked in France, the Schombergs emigrated to England rather than convert to Catholicism. Three of Luise's sons were killed in battle, one was killed in a duel; the youngest, the Raugrave Karl-Moritz, was a favorite of his half-sister, Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, visited her several times at the French court, once seeking to provoke a duel with her husband's lover and major-domo, the Chevalier de Lorraine.
Madame's efforts to intervene on his behalf to obtain an appanage from her brother, the Elector Charles II, were rebuffed. Thus the impecunious and alcoholic Karl-Moritz died unmarried, last of the Wittelsbach raugraves. On 26 February 1677, Charles I Louis invested his two elder sons by Luise von Degenfeld, the Raugraves Karl-Ludwig and Karl-Eduard, with the lordship of Stebbach in Kraichgau. A portion of this estate had belonged in fief to the von Gemmingen family since 1577; when it came in its entirety to the Elector Palatine in 1677 under the administration of the city of Hilsbach, he transferred his rights therein to the two raugraves. Charles I died in 1680, followed by his son and heir by his first wife, Charles II, in 1685; the new Elector Palatine Philip William of Neuburg, a distant, Catholic relative, seized Stebbach upon Karl-Eduard's death in 1690. But in addition to several daughters, Charles I still had a living son of his second marriage, Raugrave Karl-Moritz. Thanks to the protests of his maternal uncle, Baron Ferdinand von Degenfeld, the estate was deeded over to Karl-Moritz, the last raugrave, on 27 September 1695.
Stebbach was again seized by the Elector Palatine upon the latter's death in 1702. A successful appeal against this act was made, this time on behalf of the two surviving daughters of Charles I and Luise von Degenfeld, the Raugravines Louise and Amalia, the former of whom managed the estates of her brother-in-law, the renowned general Meinhard, 3rd Duc de Schomberg, 1st Duke of Leinster; the children of Luise and the Elector Palatine Charles I Louis were: Charles Louis, killed in action. Luise and the Elector continued to live under one roof with his first wife, who refused to abandon the palace, but the latter's resistance to the arrangement led to such numerous quarrels that the Elector sent her back to her own family in Hesse. However, Electress Charlotte's two children remained with their father. Although his eldest daughter, got along well with her step-mother and younger half-siblings, the rancor between her parents prompted her father's sister, Sophia, to invite Liselotte to come live with her at the court of her husband, the future Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover.
Although relations with his second wife would not always remain free of conflict and Luise had a large progeny together and the Elector proved a doting father to all of his children. Nonetheless, in years poor relations developed between him and his eldest son, the devout Electoral Prince Charles, which prevented him from entertaining the warm feelings for the Raugravine's children that his sister Liselotte felt to such an extent that she sustained a
Albrecht Kauw was a Swiss still-life painter, cartographer and a painter of vedute. Kauw was born in Strasbourg moved to Bern in 1640, he painted a large number of works for various chateaux. Kauw painted still lifes and landscapes, he trained his son Albrecht Kauw the Younger to be a painter. He died in Bern
Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
Caroline of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken was Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt by marriage to Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. She was famed as one of the most known as The Great Landgräfin. Henriette Caroline was the daughter of Christian III, Duke of Zweibrücken and his wife Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken, she married on 12 August 1741 in Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. The marriage was arranged and unhappy: Caroline was interested in music and literature, while her consort was interested in military matters, she lived separated from him at Buchsweiler, she founded a factory to ease the states economy. In 1772, she promoted the politician Karl Friedrich von Moser. Caroline was better known as The Great Landgräfin, a name given to her by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, she befriended several writers and philosophers of her time, such as Johann Gottfried Herder, Christoph Martin Wieland and Goethe. Wieland wished, she had contact with Frederick II of Prussia. She was one of the few women that the Alte Fritz respected, he famously referred to her as the Glory and Wonder of our century.
Marita A. Panzer: Die Große Landgräfin Caroline von Hessen-Darmstadt, Verlag Friedrich Pustet Regensburg, 2005 Karoline Henriette Christine Pfalzgräfin von Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld at thepeerage.com Wikisource: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie "Karoline Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt"