Sir Alexander Fleming was a Scottish biologist, physician and pharmacologist. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the world's first antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, he wrote many articles on bacteriology and chemotherapy. Fleming was knighted for his scientific achievements in 1944. In 1999, he was named in Time magazine's list of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century. In 2002, he was chosen in the BBC's television poll for determining the 100 Greatest Britons, in 2009, he was voted third "greatest Scot" in an opinion poll conducted by STV, behind only Robert Burns and William Wallace. Born on 6 August 1881 at Lochfield farm near Darvel, in Ayrshire, Alexander was the third of four children of farmer Hugh Fleming from his second marriage to Grace Stirling Morton, the daughter of a neighbouring farmer.
Hugh Fleming had four surviving children from his first marriage. He was 59 at the time of his second marriage, died when Alexander was seven. Fleming went to Loudoun Moor School and Darvel School, earned a two-year scholarship to Kilmarnock Academy before moving to London, where he attended the Royal Polytechnic Institution. After working in a shipping office for four years, the twenty-year-old Alexander Fleming inherited some money from an uncle, John Fleming, his elder brother, was a physician and suggested to him that he should follow the same career, so in 1903, the younger Alexander enrolled at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in Paddington. Fleming had been a private in the London Scottish Regiment of the Volunteer Force since 1900, had been a member of the rifle club at the medical school; the captain of the club, wishing to retain Fleming in the team, suggested that he join the research department at St Mary's, where he became assistant bacteriologist to Sir Almroth Wright, a pioneer in vaccine therapy and immunology.
In 1908, he gained a BSc degree with Gold Medal in Bacteriology, became a lecturer at St Mary's until 1914. Fleming served throughout World War I as a captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps, was Mentioned in Dispatches, he and many of his colleagues worked in battlefield hospitals at the Western Front in France. In 1918 he returned to St Mary's Hospital, where he was elected Professor of Bacteriology of the University of London in 1928. In 1951 he was elected the Rector of the University of Edinburgh for a term of three years. During World War I, Fleming witnessed the death of many soldiers from sepsis resulting from infected wounds. Antiseptics, which were used at the time to treat infected wounds worsened the injuries. In an article he submitted for the medical journal The Lancet during World War I, Fleming described an ingenious experiment, which he was able to conduct as a result of his own glass blowing skills, in which he explained why antiseptics were killing more soldiers than infection itself during World War I.
Antiseptics worked well on the surface, but deep wounds tended to shelter anaerobic bacteria from the antiseptic agent, antiseptics seemed to remove beneficial agents produced that protected the patients in these cases at least as well as they removed bacteria, did nothing to remove the bacteria that were out of reach. Sir Almroth Wright supported Fleming's findings, but despite this, most army physicians over the course of the war continued to use antiseptics in cases where this worsened the condition of the patients. At St Mary's Hospital Fleming continued his investigations into antibacterial substances. Testing the nasal secretions from a patient with a heavy cold, he found that nasal mucus had an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth; this was the first recorded discovery of lysozyme, an enzyme present in many secretions including tears, skin and nails as well as mucus. Although he was able to obtain larger amounts of lysozyme from egg whites, the enzyme was only effective against small counts of harmless bacteria, therefore had little therapeutic potential.
One sometimes finds. When I woke up just after dawn on September 28, 1928, I didn't plan to revolutionize all medicine by discovering the world's first antibiotic, or bacteria killer, but I suppose, what I did. By 1927, Fleming had been investigating the properties of staphylococci, he was well known from his earlier work, had developed a reputation as a brilliant researcher, but his laboratory was untidy. On 3 September 1928, Fleming returned to his laboratory having spent August on holiday with his family. Before leaving, he had stacked all his cultures of staphylococci on a bench in a corner of his laboratory. On returning, Fleming noticed that one culture was contaminated with a fungus, that the colonies of staphylococci surrounding the fungus had been destroyed, whereas other staphylococci colonies farther away were normal, famously remarking "That's funny". Fleming showed the contaminated culture to his former assistant Merlin Price, who reminded him, "That's how you discovered lysozyme."
Fleming grew the mould in a pure culture and found that it produced a substance that killed a number of disease-causing bacteria. He identified the mould as being from the genus Penicillium, after some months of calling it "mould juice", named the substance it released penicillin on 7 March 1929; the laboratory in which Fleming discovered and tested penicillin is preserved as the Alexander Fleming Laboratory Museum in St. Mary's Hospital
Venceslaus Ulricus Hammershaimb
Venceslaus Ulricus Hammershaimb was a Faroese Lutheran minister who established the modern orthography of Faroese, the language of the Faroe Islands, based on the Icelandic language, which like Faroese, derives from Old Norse. Hammershaimb was born in Sandavágur on the island of Vágar in the Faroe Islands, he was a Lutheran parish priest in Kvívík and a rural dean in Nes, on the Faroese island of Eysturoy, before settling in Denmark in 1878. In addition to his contributions to the written standard of Faroese, he was a known folklorist. During the years 1847–48, again in 1853, he returned to the Faroes to study the dialects and to collect the native ballads and folklore, which he published in 1851–55 under the title of Færöiske Kvæder. In 1854, he published a grammar of Faroese. At one point, the language spoken in the Faroe Islands was Old West Norse, which Norwegian settlers had brought with them. Between the 9th and the 15th centuries, a distinct Faroese language evolved, although it was still intelligible to speakers of Old West Norse.
It would have been related to the Norn language of Orkney and Shetland. However, for some 300 years until the 19th century, under the dual kingdom of Denmark–Norway, Danish was the language of religion and administration in the Faroe Islands. Hammershaimb created his spelling system for Faroese in 1846, it was etymological, with the vowels based on written Icelandic, rather than phonetically descriptive For instance, the letter Eth has no phonemes attached to it. In this Hammershaimb had accepted the advice of the Icelandic independence leader Jón Sigurðsson, who had seen the manuscript for his "Bemerkninger med Hensyn til den Færøiske Udtale". Hammershaimb's orthography met with some opposition for its complexity. In 1889 Jakob Jakobsen proposed modifying Hammershaimb's system to bring it closer to the spoken language, but a committee charged with considering the proposal in 1895 advocated only minor revisions, Hammershaimb's orthography remained in force. In 1886 -- 91 Hammershaimb published Færøsk Anthologi.
A new, national written literature in Faroese became possible only after the language’s orthography was normalized. Its development was promoted by nationalist agitation, which hastened the restoration of the Faroese Parliament in 1852 and the end of the Danish royal trade monopoly in 1856. During the late 19th century modern Faroese literature began to appear and the first Faroese newspaper, Føringatíðindi, appeared in 1890. Faroese literature came into its own after the turn of the 20th century. After World War II, Faroese became the official language of the Faroe Islands. "Færøiske Sagn" and "Bemerkninger med Hensyn til den Færøiske Udtale". Annaler for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie 1846, pp. 358–365. Færöiske Kvæder. 2 vols. Det Nordiske Literatur-Samsfund. Nordiske Oldskrifter 12, 20. Copenhagen: Berlings, 1851, 1855 "Færøisk Sproglære". Annaler for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie 1854 Færøsk Anthologi. 2 vols. Volume 1 Tekst samt historisk og grammatisk Indledning. Volume 2 Ordsamling og Register, ed. Jakob Jakobsen.
Samfund til Udgivelse af gammel nordisk Litteratur 15. Copenhagen: Møller, 1886, 1891. Lockwood, W. B. An introduction to modern Faroese. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1964 Færøsk Anthologi I by V. U. Hammershaimb, online at archive.org Færøsk Anthologi II by V. U. Hammershaimb, online at archive.org Færöiske Kvæder, ed. V. U. Hammershaimb, online at GoogleBooks Færøsk Anthologi by V. U. Hammershaimb, online at GoogleBooks
Barbara (1997 film)
Barbara is a 1997 Danish drama film directed by Nils Malmros and stars Anneke von der Lippe and Lars Simonsen. Adapted from the classic Faroese novel by writer Jørgen-Frantz Jacobsen, the film is about a minister in the 18th century, captivated by the overt sexuality of a promiscuous woman and marries her. Set in the Faroe Islands, the film was Malmros' first diversion from his usual subject of adolescents in Århus, his own experiences. Malmros describes Barbara as "a melodrama -a depiction of grandiose feelings set against a magnificent natural background, told with a wonderfully ironic undertone." The aptly named ship Fortuna arrives in Tórshavn, bringing Poul, the new pastor for the parish of Vágar, the populace has gathered for the event. Among them is Barbara, the widow of two former pastors for whose untimely deaths she is blamed by many. Pastor Poul is warned about her but falls for her charms, despite the fact that when three French ships come to port she follows the example of most of the other women in the town and allows herself to be seduced by a French sailor.
As the widow of the parish, she has a house of her own on Vágar, she and Poul leave for their respective homes there. They marry, but when in Tórshavn on a subsequent visit, Barbara meets and falls for the foppish Andreas Heyde, on a research trip from Copenhagen. Poul persuades Barbara to leave with him. Andreas has now arrived nearby to spend Christmas at the home of the chief magistrate of the island. Despite his misgivings, Poul answers the call of duty, hoping to return immediately, but he is delayed by the weather for eleven days, on his return he discovers that Barbara has left for Tórshavn with Andreas. After a confrontation between Poul and Andreas, instigated by Gabriel, Andreas is persuaded to leave for Copenhagen, without Barbara, she makes a desperate and futile attempt to reach his ship, once more the Fortuna, as it leaves. Barbara received the Audience Award at the Rouen Nordic Film Festival as well as the 1998 Robert Award for Best Film, it was Denmark's submission for the 1998 Academy Award for Best Foreign Film, but was not accepted as a nominee.
The film was entered into the 48th Berlin International Film Festival. List of submissions to the 70th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Danish submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Barbara at IMDb Barbara at Den Danske Film Database Barbara in the Danish Film Database Barbara at AllMovie
Ruth Smith (artist)
Ruth Smith Nielsen was a Faroese artist. She lived for some years in Denmark, where she was educated as a painter first on the Bizzie Højer Art School and on the Art Academy of Copenhagen, she married the architect Poul Morell Nielsen in 1945. They lived in Denmark. With her husband, she moved back to the Faroe Islands. Ruth Smith liked to swim in the sea. Ruth Smith dealt with colours more sensitively than many of her contemporaries, she caught the Faroese light in her pictures, the colours vibrate under brush lines. Inspired by Cézanne, her landscapes have Impressionist influences, her work is considered representative of realism. Her two self-portraits of 1955 and 1956 are ranked among the most important paintings of the Faroes and are in the Faroe Islands Art Museum. There is an art museum in Vágur in honour of Ruth Smith; the museum is called Ruth Smith Savnið. The museum is located in the Old School on Vágsvegur 101, the same school where Ruth Smith went to school as a child; the museum has paintings and drawing by the artist.
One of the main attractions is a self-portrait, which she painted in 1941. It is the same self-portrait, used as the cover of a book about the artist Ruth Smith. Dagmar Warming: Ruth Smith: Lív og verk. Tórshavn: Listasavn Føroya, 2007 - ISBN 978-99918-987-0-4 Faroe Islands Art Museum - Ruth Smith Nielsen Ruth Smith Art Museum in Vágur Danish Women's biography lexicon - Ruth Smith
Niels Ryberg Finsen
Niels Ryberg Finsen was a Faroese physician and scientist of Icelandic descent. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology in 1903 "in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science." Niels Finsen was born in Faroe Islands, as the second-oldest of four children. His parents were Hannes Finsen, who belonged to an Icelandic family with traditions reaching back to the 10th century, Johanne Fröman, born and raised in Iceland; the family moved to Tórshavn from Iceland in 1858 when his father was given the position of Landfoged. When Niels was four years old his mother died, his father married her cousin Birgitte Kirstine Formann, with whom he had six children. In 1871 his father was made Amtmand of the Faroe Islands, his father was a member of the Faroese parliament for 12 years, his older brother Olaf became a member of parliament for 5 years as well as the first mayor of the capital, Tórshavn.
Finsen got his early education in Tórshavn, but in 1874 was sent to the Danish boarding school Herlufsholm, where his older brother Olaf was a student. Unlike Olaf, Niels had a difficult stay at Herlufsholm, culminating with a statement from the principal which claimed Niels was "a boy of good heart but low skills and energy"; as a consequence of his low grades and difficulties with the Danish language, he was sent to Iceland in 1876 to enroll in his father's old school, Lærði skólinn, in Reykjavík. By the time he finished 11th out of 15th students. In 1882, Finsen moved to Copenhagen to study medicine at the University of Copenhagen, from which he graduated in 1890; because he had studied in Iceland before moving to Copenhagen to study, he enjoyed privileged admission to Regensen, the most prestigious college dormitory in Denmark. Priotisation of Icelandic and Faroese individuals in the admission process was official Danish government policy, put in place in order to integrate the educated elites of its colonies with the university population in Copenhagen.
Following graduation, he became a prosector of anatomy at the university. After three years, he quit the post to devote himself to his scientific studies. In 1898 Finsen was given a professorship and in 1899 he became a Knight of the Order of Dannebrog; the Finsen Institute was founded with Finsen serving as its first director. It was merged into Copenhagen University Hospital and serves as a cancer research laboratory that specializes in proteolysis. Finsen suffered from Niemann–Pick disease, which inspired him to sunbathe and investigate the effects of light on living things; as a result, Finsen is best known for his theory of phototherapy, in which certain wavelengths of light can have beneficial medical effects.. His most notable writings were Finsen Om Lysets Indvirkninger paa Huden, published in 1893 and Om Anvendelse i Medicinen af koncentrerede kemiske Lysstraaler, published in 1896; the papers were translated and published in both German and French. In his late work he researched the effects of sodium chloride, observing the results of a low sodium diet, which he published in 1904 as En Ophobning af Salt i Organismen.
Finsen won the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1903 for his work on phototherapy. He is the only Faroese Nobel Laureate to date. Finsen married Ingeborg Balslev on December 29, 1892. Finsen's health began to fail in the mid-1880s, he suffered from ascites and general weakness. The sickness disabled his body but not his mind, he continued to work from his wheelchair, he died in Copenhagen on September 24, 1904. Accounts of his funeral can be found at the National Library of Medicine; the Finsen Laboratory at Copenhagen University Hospital is named in his honor. Finsensvej in Frederiksberg is named in his honor and so way the Finsen Power Station, located on its north side. A large memorial to Finsen designed by Rudolph Tegner was installed next to Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen in 1909, it shows a standing naked man flanked by two kneeling naked women reaching up to the sky. The sculpture is entitled Mod lyset, symbolised Finsen's principal scientific theory that sunlight can have healing properties, it is situated on the corner of Blegdamsvej and Nørre Allé.
In Tórshavn there is a memorial to Finsen and one of the city's main streets, Niels Finsens gøta, bears his name. Kommunuskúlin, the old public school in central Tórshavn is rebuilt for student housing with the new name Finsen.. Works by or about Niels Ryberg Finsen at Internet Archive Biography from the Nobel Foundation Niels Finsen, an engine of our ingenuity An extensive biography on Niels Finsen The Finsen Institute at Copenhagen University Hospital Our Friend, the Sun: Images of Light Therapeutics from the Osler Library Collection, c. 1901-1944. Digital exhibition by the Osler Library of the History of Medicine, McGill University Niels Ryberg Finsen at Find a Grave
Andreas William Heinesen was a poet, novel writer, short story writer, children's book writer and painter from the Faroe Islands. The Faroese capital Tórshavn is always the centre of Heinesen's writing and he is famous for having once called Tórshavn "The Navel of the World", his writing focuses on contrasts between destruction and creativity. Following is the existential struggle of man to take sides; this is not always easy and the lines between good and bad are not always defined. Heinesen was captivated by the mysterious part of life, calling himself religious in the broadest sense of the word, his life could be described as a struggle against defeatism with one oft-quoted aphorism of his is that "life is not despair, death shall not rule". As he was born and raised before the Faroese language was taught in the schools, he wrote in Danish but his spoken language was Faroese. All his books are translated into his native Faroese, he published his first collection of poetry when he was 21 and he had three more published before he wrote his first novel Blæsende gry in 1934.
He read every single one of the chapters to the painter Sámal Joensen-Mikines, as he was worried that his Danish was not good enough. That was followed up with Noatún. Noatún has a strong political message – solidarity is the key to a good society, his next book The Black Cauldron deals with the aftermath of decadent living combined with religious hysteria. In The Lost Musicians Heinesen leaves the social realism of his earlier works behind, instead giving himself over to straightforward storytelling. Mother Pleiades is an ode to his imagination, its subtitle is "a Story From the Beginning of Time". Heinesen was not content with writing only novels. In the fifties he began writing short stories as well. Most of them have been printed in these three collections entitled The Enchanted Light, Gamaliel's Bewitchment and Cure Against Evil Spirits. In the novel The Good Hope, his main character the Rev. Peder Børresen is based on the historical person Rev. Lucas Debes; when Heinesen was asked how long it had taken to write it, he answered "Forty years.
But I did other things in between." He was awarded the Danish literary prize Holberg Medal in 1960. He received The Nordic Council's Literature Prize in 1965 for his novel Det gode håb, published in 1964. In the story Heinesen had the difficult task of reproducing 17th-century Danish, he succeeded, won the prize. It is considered his best work; when there were rumours that William Heinesen was about to receive the Nobel Prize for literature in 1981, he wrote to the Swedish Academy and renounced his candidacy. He explained why: The Faroese language was once held in little regard – indeed it was suppressed outright. In spite of this, the Faroese language has created a great literature, it would have been reasonable to give the Nobel Prize to an author who writes in Faroese. If it had been given to me, it would have gone to an author who writes in Danish, in consequence Faroese efforts to create an independent culture would have been dealt a blow, he was awarded with the Faroese Literature Prize in 1975.
In 1980 on his 80th birthday Heinesen was appointed "Tórshavn's Citizen of Honour" by his home town. In 1980 he received the Danish Critics Prize for Literature. In 1984 he received the Children's Books Prize of Tórshavn City Council In 1985 he was awarded the Karen Blixen Medal from the Danish Academy. In 1987 he was awarded the Swedish Academy Nordic Prize. Information in this bibliography is taken from the Danish Literature Centre. Arktiske Elegier og andre Digte, Copenhagen 1921 Høbjergningen ved Havet, Copenhagen 1924 Sange mod Vaardybet, Copenhagen 1927 Stjernerne vaagner, Copenhagen 1930 Den dunkle Sol, Copenhagen 1936 Digte i udvalg, Copenhagen 1955 Hymne og harmsang, Copenhagen 1961 Panorama med regnbue, Copenhagen 1972 Vinterdrøm. Digte i udvalg 1920–30, Copenhagen 1983 Samlede digte, Copenhagen 1984 Digte, Copenhagen 1990 Det fortryllede lys, Copenhagen 1957 Gamaliels besættelse, Copenhagen 1960 Kur mod onde ånder, Copenhagen 1967 Don Juan fra Tranhuset, Copenhagen 1970 Fortællinger fra Thorshavn, Copenhagen 1973 Grylen og andre noveller, Copenhagen 1978 Her skal danses, Copenhagen 1980 Laterna magica, Copenhagen 1985 Laterna Magica.
Fjord Press, 1987 - ISBN 0-940242-23-0 Blæsende Gry, Copenhagen 1934 Windswept Dawn. Dedalus, 2009 - ISBN 978-1-903517-78-9 Noatun, Copenhagen 1938 Den sorte gryde, Copenhagen 1949 The Black Cauldron. Dedalus, 2000 - ISBN 978-0-946626-97-7 De fortabte spillemænd, Copenhagen 1950 The Lost Musicians, Dedalus, 2006 - ISBN 978-1-903517-50-5 Moder Syvstjerne, Copenhagen 1952 Mother Pleiades Dedalus, 2011 - ISBN 978-1-907650-07-9 Det gode håb, Copenhagen 1964 The Good Hope Dedalus, 2011 - ISBN 978-1-903517-98-7 Tårnet ved verdens ende, Copenhagen 1976 The Tower at the Edge of the World Dedalus, 2018 - ISBN 978-1-910213-66-7 Hedin Brønner Three Faroese Novelists: An Appreciation of Jørgen-Frantz Jacobsen, William
Dr. Jakob Jakobsen, was a Faroese linguist as well as a scholar of literature, he was the first Faroese person to earn a doctoral degree. The subject of his doctoral thesis was the Norn language in Shetland. Jakob Jakobsen's parents were Hans Nicolai Jacobsen from Tórshavn, Johanne Marie Hansdatter from Sandoy. Jakob was the youngest of three children, having two older sisters, their father, H. N. Jacobsen, earned his living as a bookbinder and ran a bookshop in Tórshavn; the original bookshop was in the old town, but H. N. Jacobsen moved the shop in 1918, to a central location further uptown, where it still stands today, retaining its traditional Faroese grass roof. Founded in 1865, H. N. Jacobsens Bókahandil is one of the oldest shops still in business in the Faroe Islands today. Jakob Jakobsen went to the “realskolen” school in Torshavn, where he showed a natural talent for learning languages. At the age of thirteen he went to school in Denmark and finished college in Herlufsholm in 1883. In 1891 he French and Latin as subsidiary subjects.
In 1897 he earned a doctorate with his work “det norrøne sprog på Shetland”. In life, one of Jakobsen's sisters played a great role in her brother's life in Copenhagen. J. Jakobsen’s work within the field of Faroese folklore and oral poetry played an important role in the rise of modern Faroese written literature; this is the case most of all with his collection of Faroese legends and folktales, Færøske Folkesagn og Æventyr. He looked upon folk tales as a kind of fictional literature, while the legends to him were a kind of source about early Faroese history, he collected oral poetry, worked with Faroese place-names and created many neologisms. He was the first to point out some Celtic place-names in the Faroes, is responsible for the grammar section and texts-samples in the 1891 Færøsk Anthologi edited by V. U. Hammershaimb. In 1898 J. Jakobsen proposed a new Faroese orthography based on a new science, phonetics; the principle of the 1898 orthography is that there must be a one-to-one correspondence between phoneme and letter, that the written language should be easy to learn by children.
Due to political controversy, the proposal was abandoned. Dr. Jakob Jakobsen is a key figure in Shetland's culture; as John J. Graham writes in his preface to the 2nd edition, his "Dictionary of the Norn Language in Shetland" is the unrivaled source-book of information on the origins and usage of the Shetland tongue. Based on Jakobsen's fieldwork in Shetland during 1893-95, it first appeared in Danish in four volumes between 1908 and 1921, was subsequently published in English in two volumes, 1928 and 1932; the dictionary has established itself internationally as a major work of scholarship in Scandinavian philology. In 1985 The Shetland Folk Society, of which Graham was President at the time, succeeded in finding funds to reprint the two volume English edition in facsimile; when Jakobsen left the Faroes for Leith near Edinburgh, his only knowledge of the language of Shetland was drawn from Thomas Edmondston's glossary and those parts of George Stewart's Shetland Fireside Tales that are written in dialect.
In Edinburgh he met Gilbert Goudie, there he read "a valuable manuscript supplement" to Edmondston's work written by Thomas Barclay. He arrived in Shetland in 1893 and during his field work there he interviewed a large number of Shetlandic speakers and scholars, including Haldane Burgess, James Stout Angus, John Irvine, Robert Jamieson, James Inkster, John Nicolson, Laurence Williamson. Jakobsen's correspondence with Goudie was edited by E. S. Reid Tait and published in 1953. In 1981, Roy Grønneberg published a study entitled Shetland; the Dialect and Place Names of Shetland. Two Popular Lectures, Lerwick: T. & J. Manson, 1897, 1926. Tórshavn 1957; this article is based on http://shetlopedia.com/Jakob_Jakobsen a GFDL wiki. Larsen, Kaj. 1991. "Hin fyrsti málreinsarin". Málting 9:12-19Larsen, Kaj. 1994. Stavsetingaruppskot Jakobs Jakobsens. Varðin 61:7-41 Petersen Hjalmar P. 2007. Jakobsen's Orthography from 1889. To appear in a Conference book on Jakobsen. John J. Graham's poem to Jakob Jakobsen is here H. N. Jacobsens Bókahandil´s Homepage is here