Alliance Boots GmbH was a multinational pharmacy-led health and beauty group with corporate headquarters in Bern and operational headquarters in Nottingham and Weybridge, United Kingdom. The company had a presence in over 27 countries including associates and joint ventures and in 2013/14, in 2007 it was bought out in a private equity transaction by AB Acquisitions Limited, led by Stefano Pessina and Kohlberg Kravis Roberts. Alliance Boots GmbH was established in Switzerland during 2008 and is a subsidiary of AB Acquisitions Holdings Limited. In August 2012, the US company Walgreens purchased 45% of shares as part of a plan to merge the two businesses, with an option to acquire the shares within three years. It exercised that option in August 2014, and following shareholder and regulatory approvals, the groups operations were mainly carried out under the Boots and Alliance Healthcare brands. Boots UK is the UKs leading pharmacy-led health and beauty retailer, Alliance Boots is the largest pharmaceutical wholesaler in the UK through its Alliance Healthcare Ltd business.
The company employs over 120,000 staff and operates more than 4,600 retail stores, Alliance Boots pharmaceutical wholesale division serves over 180,000 pharmacies, doctors and health centres from over 370 distribution centres in 20 countries. Both companies became subsidiaries of Walgreens Boots Alliance on completion of the merger, rival firm Celesio, owner of the Lloyds Pharmacy chain, challenged the deal, although were rejected by the Competition Appeal Tribunal. The merger received approval from the Office of Fair Trading in February 2006 and completed on 31 March 2006. Former Boots Group shareholders held 50. 2% of the new company, Alliance Boots was the first company on the FTSE100 share index to be bought-out by a private equity firm. Almost £9 billion was advanced by investment banks, including Deutsche Bank, Citigroup, J. P. Morgan, UniCredit, Merrill Lynch, the Bank of America and the Royal Bank of Scotland. Simultaneously the banks, as so-called equity underwriters“, together invested around £1.4 billion in the buyout company, the reverse takeover and subsequent privatisation was dubbed as the best deal ever struck by a managing partner at a private equity firm in June 2008.
Alliance Boots GmbH was established in Switzerland during 2008 and is a subsidiary of AB Acquisitions Holdings Limited. It was announced on 19 June 2012 that Walgreens would purchase a 45% stake in Alliance Boots, the two companies had established Walgreens Boots Alliance Development Company in late 2012 to further their integration. Walgreens shareholders approved the purchase on 29 December 2014, and it was completed on 31 December, under the terms of the merger, the two companies became subsidiaries of a new holding company, Walgreens Boots Alliance Inc. which remains headquartered in Deerfield, Illinois. The new company is organised into four divisions, of which Walgreens, the two remaining divisions are Pharmaceutical Wholesale and International Retail, which includes Alliance Healthcare, and Global Brands. Alliance Boots operations are split into two areas, pharmacy-led health and beauty retailing and pharmaceutical wholesaling and distribution, the Group has a stand-alone contract manufacturing business called BCM and increasingly develops and internationalises its product brands.
Boots UK formed the retail business of Alliance Boots in the United Kingdom
Swedish Orphan Biovitrum
Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB is an international specialty healthcare company dedicated to rare diseases, based in Stockholm, Sweden. Sobi has been involved in the development and manufacturing of recombinant protein drugs since the technology was first developed around 30 years ago. Biovitrum was formed in 2001 through the merger of several units of Pharmacia and spun off to a consortium of investors led by Nordic Capital, operations included a research unit focused on metabolic diseases, a process development unit for protein drugs and a plasma product operation. In 2002 Sobi sold its operation to Octapharma as part of efforts to concentrate operations on protein-based. This partnership was extended the following year to include the development of a long-lasting recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein candidate, rFVIIIFc. In 2010, Biovitrum acquired Swedish Orphan International Holding AB, a pioneer in orphan drugs, in addition, the decisions to advance both hemophilia projects as well as Kiobrina into phase III were taken.
The company established a US subsidiary.4 M, the same year, the Sobi and partner Biogen Idec initiated global pediatric clinical trials of their long-lasting hemophilia A and B product candidates. Sobi is a specialty healthcare company dedicated to rare diseases. The companys mission is to develop and deliver innovative therapies and services to improve the lives of patients, the product portfolio is primarily focused on Inflammation and Genetic diseases, with three late stage biological development projects within Haemophilia and Neonatology. The company market a portfolio of specialty and rare disease products for partner companies, Sobi is a pioneer in biotechnology with world-class capabilities in protein biochemistry and biologics manufacturing. In 2013, Sobi had total revenues of SEK2.2 billion, the share is listed on NASDAQ OMX Stockholm. Sobi website Sobi Partner Products website Comment on Biovitrum IPO, 2006-09-04
Amgen Inc. is an American multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California. Located in the Conejo Valley, Amgen is the worlds largest independent biotechnology firm, other products include Epogen, Sensipar/Mimpara, Vectibix, Prolia and XGEVA. The word AMGen is a portmanteau of the original name, Applied Molecular Genetics. The companys first chief officer, from 1980, was co-founder George B. Rathmann, followed by Gordon M. Binder in 1988, followed by Kevin W. Sharer in 2000, robert A. Bradway became Amgen’s president and chief executive officer in May 2012 following Sharers retirement. The company has made at least five major corporate acquisitions, Amgen received approval for the first recombinant human erythropoetin product, for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney failure. Epogen would be approved for anemia due to chemotherapy, anemia due to treatment with certain HIV drugs. In February 1991, Amgen received FDA approval for Neupogen for the prevention of infections in patients whose immune systems are suppressed due to cancer chemotherapy.
In November 1998, Immunex, an acquisition of Amgen, received approval for Enbrel. On June 6,2010 Amgen received FDA approval for Prolia, in clinical trials, Prolia reduced the rate of vertebral fractures by 61% and the risk of hip fractures by 40%. 2010 In November 2010 the FDA approved Xgeva for the prevention of complications of bone metastases in patients with solid tumors, the clinical trials primarily enrolled patients with breast or prostate cancer. The Los Angeles Times reported on December 18,2012, that AMGEN pleaded guilty and agreed to pay $150 million in criminal penalty, federal prosecutors accused the company of pursuing profits while putting patients at risk. Larry Husten, a contributor at Forbes, one of the drugs mentioned in the lawsuit had sales of $492 million in the third quarter of 2012, down 17% from the same quarter the previous year due to reimbursement problems and label changes. Amgen paid $762 million after pleading guilty to charges of improper promotion. Lawmakers inserted text into the fiscal cliff bill that will allow the drugmaker to sell a class of drugs that includes Sensipar without government controls for a two years.
In September the company announced it would acquire Dezima Pharma for more than $1.55 billion, the same day the company announced a collaboration with Xencor on 6 early stage immuno-oncology and inflammation programmes. As part of the deal Amgen will pay $45 million upfront, in September, the company announced it would purchase the rights to Boehringer Ingelheims Phase I bispecific T-cell engager compound for use in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Later in the week, the company reported positive results for brodalumab in a phase III trial comparing the compound with ustekinumab
Bristol-Myers Squibb, often referred to as BMS, is an American pharmaceutical company, headquartered in New York City. Its mission is to discover and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases, the Squibb corporation was founded in 1858 by Edward Robinson Squibb in Brooklyn, New York. Mentions of the Materia Medica, Squibb products, and Edward Squibbs opinion on the utility, in 1887, Hamilton College graduates William McLaren Bristol and John Ripley Myers purchased the Clinton Pharmaceutical company of Clinton, New York. In 1898, they decided to rename it Bristol, following Myers death in 1899, Bristol changed the name to the Bristol-Myers Corporation. The first nationally recognized product was Sal Hepatica, a mineral salt in 1903. Its second national success was Ipana toothpaste, from 1901 through the 1960s, Bristol-Myers and Squibb were merged to form Bristol-Myers Squibb in 1989. The company was involved in a scandal in 2002 that resulted in a significant restatement of revenues from 1999 to 2001.
The restatement was the result of a booking of sales related to channel stuffing as the practice of offering excess inventory to customers to create higher sales numbers. The company has settled with the United States Department of Justice and Securities and Exchange Commission. As part of a Deferred Prosecution Agreement, the company was placed under the oversight of an appointed by the U. S. Attorney in New Jersey. The investigation centered on the distribution of Plavix and charges of collusion, on September 12,2006, the monitor, former Federal Judge Frederick B. Lacey, urged the company to remove CEO Peter Dolan over the Plavix dispute, that day, BMS announced that Dolan would indeed step down. The Deferred Prosecution Agreement expired in June 2007 and the Department of Justice did not take any legal action against the company for matters covered by the DPA. Under CEO Jim Cornelius, who was CEO following Dolan until May 2010, all involved in the channel-stuffing. As another cost-cutting measure Bristol-Myers reduced subsidies for health-care to retirees, in August, BMS acquired the biotechnology firm Medarex as part of the companys String of Pearls strategy of alliances and acquisitions.
In November, Bristol-Myers Squibb announced that it was splitting off Mead Johnson Nutrition by offering BMY shareholders the opportunity to exchange their stock for shares in Mead Johnson, according to Bristol-Myers Squibb, this move was expected to further sharpen the companys focus on biopharmaceuticals. BMS is a Fortune 500 Company, newsweeks 2009 Green Ranking recognized Bristol-Myers Squibb as 8th among 500 of the largest United States corporations. Also, BMS was included in the 2009 Dow Jones Sustainability North America Index of leading sustainability-driven companies, in October 2010, the company acquired ZymoGenetics, securing an existing product as well as pipeline assets in hepatitis C, cancer and other therapeutic areas
Bausch & Lomb
The company was founded in 1853 by an optician, John Jacob Bausch, and a financier, Henry Lomb. Its Ray-Ban brand of sunglasses was sold in 1999 to the Italian Luxottica Group, Bausch + Lomb was a public company listed on the NYSE until it was acquired by the private equity firm Warburg Pincus PLC in 2007. In May 2013, Valeant Pharmaceuticals agreed to buy Bausch + Lomb from Warburg Pincus LLC for $8.57 billion in cash. The deal, which was approved by share holders, included $4.2 billion earmarked to pay down Bausch + Lomb debt, the company is headquartered in Bridgewater, New Jersey, and employs about 13,000 people in 36 countries. Bausch + Lomb was founded in 1853 by John Jacob Bausch, Lomb both German immigrants, in Rochester, New York. A trained optician, Bausch found in Lomb the financier and partner he needed for a small, in 1861, the company manufactured Vulcanite rubber eyeglass frames and other precision vision products. During the American Civil War, the Union blockade caused the price of gold and this resulted in a growing demand for the Bausch & Lomb spectacles made from Vulcanite.
In 1876, Ernst Gundlach joined the company and the company began manufacturing microscopes, that year, the Bausch & Lomb Optical Company won a distinction at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. The company produced photographic lenses, spectacle lenses, binoculars, from 1892 in cooperation with Zeiss in Germany, the company produced optical lenses. In this manner, at the end of the 19th century, at the same time as this new expansion, a research department with five members was started to develop new products and improve old ones. A new alliance with the Zeiss company in Germany ensured competitive advantages for the three participants, Bausch & Lomb and Zeiss, in terms of patent use and opening new markets. In 1902, William Bausch, the son of the founder, the glass parts for the lenses had to be separated and polished in a complicated process, and this brought significant savings in time and materials. The company produced the first optical-quality glass in America during the early to mid-1900s, by the year 1903 the company began manufacturing microscopes and camera shutters.
The further development of the firm was affected by political events, until World War I, optical glass and the instruments made from it were often imported into most European and North American countries from Germany. The same was true of chemical products and laboratory equipment. The outbreak of the war, with Germanys new enemy status, in 1933, Bausch+Lomb started to honor outstanding high school science students with the Bausch+Lomb Honorary Science Award. In the 1930s, military products represented 70% of total production, the Ray-Ban brand of sunglasses was developed for pilots in 1936. After the Second World War, the photography and eyeglass sectors were strengthened and production in these sectors, in addition, production facilities were opened in Canada and Argentina
Covance Inc. with headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, is a contract research organization providing drug development and animal testing services. According to its website, it is one of the largest companies of its kind in the world, with revenues of over $2 billion. It claims to provide the worlds largest central laboratory network and it became a publicly traded company after being spun off by Corning Incorporated in 1996. In 2011 it was listed as one of the top 100 employers by the Diversity Employers Magazine, under the name Covance Research Products Inc. based in Denver, the company deals in the import and sale of laboratory animals. It breeds dogs, guinea pigs, non-human primates, and pigs, No violations of the law were found by the authorities in the first case, and a small fine was levied in the second. In response, the company drew up a new code to guide its treatment of laboratory animals. On November 3rd,2014, Labcorp announced it would be purchasing Covance for $6.1 billion, in 1972 it purchased and took the name of Hazleton Laboratories, a contract laboratory that conducted toxicology testing.
In 1977 Corning Glass Works purchased a stake in Hazleton, in 1989 Corning Glass Works purchased G. H. Corning Glass Works changed its name to Corning, and created Corning Lab Services, in April 1996 Corning spun off its lab testing and pharmaceutical services, creating two new companies, Quest Diagnostics and Covance, the latter with a head office in Princeton, New Jersey. Corning National Packaging Inc, with facilities in Allentown, PA, England, by 1998 Covance had net revenues of $731.6 million and a net income of $48.6 million. By 2012 it had revenues of over $2 billion. The net proceeds from the sale, approximately $110 million, were used to repay other Covance debt, the companys primary focus is serving the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. The company provides services to pharmaceutical and medical-device companies. Covances Nutrition division provides food and dietary supplements analysis services, in 2009 Covance and Kellogg announced that Covance will provide analytical chemistry and stability testing for Kellogg products, a deal valued at $42 million.
Covance continued its expansion with acquisitions of drug-development companies, in August 2005 it acquired GFI Clinical Services, an 80-bed clinical pharmacology business, from West Pharmaceutical Services, Inc. In May 2006 it acquired Signet Laboratories, Inc. a provider of monoclonal antibodies used in the research of cancer, infectious disease and it planned to provide services to other pharmaceutical and biotechnology clients at the Greenfield site. Covances Nutritional Chemistry and Food Safety testing capabilities are extended with a new 10,000 sqft NCFS laboratory opened in Harrogate, the lab complements services delivered from Madison, WI, Battle Creek, MI, Greenfield, IN, and Singapore. A division of the company, Covance Research Products, Inc. based in Denver, offers antibody products, CRP deals in the import and sale of laboratory animals
Almirall, S. A. is a pharmaceutical company, with headquarters in Barcelona, founded in 1943. In 2015, it generated revenue of 769 million €. With over 1,788 employees, it has a presence, through its 13 affiliates in Europe,1943 Foundation of Laboratorios Almirall SA. 1979 Launch of the gastroprokinetic clebopride in Spain, the first product from the internal research to obtain a license in another country. 1984 Launch of the antacid almagate in Spain,1985 Launch of the local anti-inflammatory piketoprofen in Spain. 1990 Launch of the antihistamine ebastine and the gastroprokinetic cinitapride in Spain, Opening of the affiliate in Belgium. 1992 Launch of the anti-inflammatory aceclofenac in Spain,1993 Opening of the affiliate in Portugal. 1994 Opening of the new headquarters of Almirall in Barcelona,1995 Inauguration of the extension and remodelling of the pharmaceutical plant in Sant Andreu de la Barca. 1997 Merger of Almirall and Prodesfarma,2000 Approval of the marketing of the anti-migraine agent almotriptan by the FDA.
This is the first medicine with Spanish R&D to receive approval by the FDA,2001 Opening of the affiliate in Mexico and acquisition of the French affiliate. 2002 Opening of the affiliate in Italy,2003 Opening of the affiliate in Germany. 2005 Almirall obtains the rights for Sativex in Europe for the treatment of spasticity associated to multiple sclerosis. 2006 Inauguration of the new R&D Centre in Sant Feliu de Llobregat, Acquisition of the Centre of Excellence for Inhalation Technology. 2007 Stock market flotation and trading on the market in Spain. Acquisition of Hermal, European company specialized in dermatology, from Reckitt Benckiser, Acquisition of a portfolio of eight products from Shire plc.2008 Opening of affiliates in Austria, United Kingdom-Ireland and Switzerland. 2010 Opening of affiliate in the Nordic Countries,2011 Almirall launches Actikerall prescribed for the local treatment of actinic keratosis. 2012 Opening of the affiliate in Canada, Launch of aclidinium, prescribed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in Europe under the brand Eklira Genuair and Bretaris Genuair and in the United States under the brand Tudorza Pressair.
Launch of Monovo for the treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis
The 3M Company, formerly known as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation based in Maplewood, Minnesota, a suburb of St. Paul. 3M has operations in more than 65 countries including 29 international companies with manufacturing operations and 35 companies with laboratories, 3M products are available for purchase through distributors and retailers, and online directly from the company. Five businessmen founded 3M in Two Harbors, Minnesota, in 1902, originally a mining venture, the goal was to mine corundum, but this failed because the mines mineral holdings were anorthosite, which had no commercial value. Co-founder John Dwan solicited funds in exchange for stock and Edgar Ober, the company moved to Duluth and began research and producing sandpaper products. William L. McKnight, a key executive, joined the company in 1907, 3M finally became financially stable in 1916 and was able to pay dividends. The company moved to St. Paul in 1910, where it remained for 52 years before outgrowing the campus and moving to its current headquarters at 3M Center in Maplewood, Minnesota in 1962.
The new Maplewood campus is 475 acres and has over 50 buildings, the company began by mining stone from quarries for use in grinding wheels. Struggling with quality and marketing of its products, management supported its workers to innovate and develop new products, twelve years after its inception, 3M developed its first exclusive product, Three-M-ite cloth. Other innovations in this era included masking tape, waterproof sandpaper, by 1929, 3M had made its first moves toward international expansion by forming Durex to conduct business in Europe. The same year, the stock was first traded over the counter. The company is currently a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the founders original plan was to sell the mineral corundum to manufacturers in the East for making grinding wheels. In reality, however and his associates were not selling what they thought, failing to make sandpaper with the anorthosite, the founders decided to import minerals like Spanish garnet, after which sale of sandpapers grew.
In 1914, customers complained that the garnet was falling off the paper, the founders discovered that the stones had traveled across the Atlantic Ocean packed near olive oil, and the oil had penetrated the stones. Unable to take the loss of selling expensive inventory, they roasted the stones over fire to remove the olive oil, the companys late innovations include waterproof sandpaper and masking tape, as well as cellophane Scotch Tape and sound-deadening materials for cars. In 1947, 3M began producing PFOA by electrochemical fluorination, during the 1950s, the company expanded worldwide with operations in Canada, France, Germany and the United Kingdom in large part by Clarence Sampair. DuPont referred to PFOA as C8, in 1951, international sales were approximately $20 million. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, 3M published a line of board games and these games were marketed to adults and sold through department stores, with easily learned simple rules but complex game play and depth and with uniformly high-quality components.
As such, they are the ancestors of the German Eurogames, the games covered a variety of topics, from business and sports simulations to word and abstract strategy games
Avella Specialty Pharmacy
Avella Specialty Pharmacy, formerly known as The Apothecary Shops, is an American specialty pharmacy company. Avella is headquartered in Phoenix and has facilities in eight states, dr. John D. Musil is the company’s founder. Avella supplies drug therapies in the fields of oncology, fertility, ophthalmology, gastroenterology. It offers drugs that treat complex diseases such as cancer, oncology, HIV/AIDS, multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, Avella offers specialty care coordinators who provide counseling and assistance to customers. Avella technologies include an application for medication refills and reminders. John Musil, a practicing pharmacist, founded Avella Specialty Pharmacy in Scottsdale, Avella has been on the Inc.5000 list since 2007. By 2009, Avella had sixteen physical locations, a center. In January 2014, Avella Specialty Pharmacy named Rebecca Shanahan as its new CEO and that same year, Avella became a registered Outsourcing Facility through the U. S. Food and Drug Administration. In March 2015, Avella was approved to register a.
pharmacy domain name which identifies safe and that same month, Avella partnered with Sentry Data Systems, a technology systems producer for hospitals and clinics, to extend coverage of entities participating in the 340B drug discount program. In 2015, Inc. named Avella to the Inc.5000 list for the ninth time, Avella Provides Guidance on Factors to Consider when Selecting a Specialty Pharmacy for Hepatitis C Patients
Actavis Generics is a global pharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing branded pharmaceuticals and over-the-counter medicines, and biologic products. Actavis has a presence across approximately 100 countries. The company has headquarters in Dublin and administrative headquarters in Parsippany-Troy Hills, New Jersey. Actavis, plc operates the worlds third-largest generics business, the company is ranked in the top 3 in 12 global markets, the top 5 in 16 global markets, and in the top 10 in 33 global markets. Actavis develops and out-licenses generic pharmaceutical products outside the U. S. through its Medis third-party business, Medis has more than 300 customers globally, and offers more than 200 products. Actavis, plc is developing products in oncology and other therapeutic categories. Actavis, plc has more than 40 manufacturing and distribution facilities around the world, Actavis Global Operations includes Anda, Inc. the fourth-largest U. S. generic pharmaceutical product distributor in the United States.
On June 15,2015, plc changed its name to Allergan, but the companys U. S. and Canadian generics business will continue to operate under the Actavis name. In July 2015, Plc announced it would sell its Generics division of the company to Teva Pharmaceuticals for $40.5 billion, a transaction proposed for completion by the first quarter of 2016. The company was founded in the spring of 1983, with funding from friends and family, colleagues Allen Chao, Ph. D. and David Hsia, Ph. D. began a small drug development enterprise. Just two months later, the established a initial product development and analytical laboratory with six employees in a leased space in Libertyville. The Corona site became the headquarters for the rapidly expanding U. S. company. Throughout its history, Actavis has expanded organically and as the result of strategic acquisitions. In 1993, Watson, announced its public offering of shares of common stock. The company was listed on the NASDAQ under the ticker symbol WATS. The company moved to the New York Stock Exchange in 1997, in 2000, the company acquired Schein Pharmaceutical, Inc. an acquisition that more than doubled the company’s size.
In that same year, the group reported revenues in excess of $1 billion, in 2007, Dr. Allen Chao retired as President and Chief Executive Officer and was succeeded by Paul M. Bisaro. The company’s international presence began with the acquisition of the Arrow Group in 2009, as a result of the Arrow acquisition, the company acquired the biopharmaceutical development organization Eden Biodesign in Liverpool, UK
Advaxis is an American company devoted to the discovery and commercialization of immunotherapies based on a technology platform which uses engineered Listeria monocytogenes. The company is headquartered in Princeton, New Jersey and was incorporated in Delaware in 2006, treatments developed using this paradigm are referred to as Lm-LLO immunotherapies. The Company has a veterinary medicine program that is evaluating an Lm-LLO based immunotherapy in a Phase 1 study in canine osteosarcoma, www. advaxis. com Advaxis was a Delaware corporation when it was acquired by a shell corporation in November 2004. The acquiring company was Great Expectations, which was incorporated in Colorado in June 1987, the official date of inception for the company is 1 March 2002. As of December 2013, the COO of Advaxis was Gregory Mayes, Advaxis immunotherapies are based on a novel platform technology using live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes that are bio-engineered to secrete an antigen/adjuvant fusion protein.
The adjuvant reduces the cancer’s defense against this attack by 80%. ADXS-HPV is in Phase 2 trials for HPV-associated diseases (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer and HPV-associated head, in 2009 Advaxis published the results of the first Phase 1 trial with the first Lm-LLO based immunotherapy, ADXS-HPV in Vaccine. This study assessed side effects associated with increasing doses of ADXS-HPV in patients with metastatic, Vaccine This study demonstrated for the first time that a live-attenuated Lm-LLO based immunotherapy could be administered to human subjects. ADXS-HPV was well-tolerated and a maximum tolerated dose was established, 4/13 evaluable patients experienced increased survival and tumor shrinkage that merited further investigation. Advaxis signed a CRADA with the Department of Homeland Security, the DHS will initially conduct a pilot “proof-of-concept” study in cattle investigating the safety of proprietary/patented Advaxis immunotherapies. Advaxis has begun a Phase 1 study with the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine to evaluate an Lm-LLO based immunotherapy in a Phase 1 study in canine osteosarcoma, advaxis’ intellectual property includes over 70 pending and issued patents.
On May 18,2010, Advaxis and the University of Pennsylvania signed an agreement granting Advaxis exclusive rights to 27 remaining patents held by the University of Pennsylvania