List of philosophers (I–Q)

Topics 
Philosophers (and others important in the history of philosophy), listed alphabetically:
 Note: This list has a minimal criterion for inclusion and the relevance to philosophy of some individuals on the list is disputed.
I[edit]
 Iamblichus, (ca. 245 ADca. 325)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Yahya ibn Adi, (893–974)^{[e]}
 Ibn Arabi, (1164–1240)^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Ibn arRawandi, (c. 910)^{[e]}
 Ibn Bajjah (or Avempace), (died 1138)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Ibn Daud (or Rabad I or Avendauth, or John of Spain), (1110–1180)^{[a]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Abraham ibn Ezra, (1092/3–1167)^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Moses ibn Ezra, (1070–1138)^{[e]}
 Ibn Falaquera, (1223–1290)^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Solomon Ibn Gabirol, (1021–1058)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Ibn Hazm, (994–1069)^{[e]}
 Ibn Kammuna, (1215–1284)^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Ibn Khaldun, (1332–1406)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Ibn Masarra, (883–931)^{[e]}
 Ibn Miskawayh, (940–1030)^{[a]}^{[e]}
 Bahya ibn Paquda, (1040–1110)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Ibn Sabin, (1217–1268)^{[e]}
 Ibn Taymiya, (1263–1328)^{[e]}
 Samuel ibn Tibbon, (c. 1165 – 1232)^{[f]}
 Ibn Tufail, (1110–1185)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Joseph ibn Tzaddik, (c. 1149)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Ivan Aleksandrovich Il'in, (1883–1954)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Evald Vassilievich Ilyenkov, (1924–1979)^{[e]}
 Immanuel the Roman, (c. 1270 – c. 1330)^{[e]}
 Roman Ingarden, (1893–1970)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 William Ralph Inge, (1860–1954)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 José Ingenieros, (1877–1925)^{[b]}
 Nae Ionescu, (1890–1940)^{[b]}
 Muhammad Iqbal, (1877–1938)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Luce Irigaray, (born 1930)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Terence Irwin, (born 1947)^{[d]}
 Isocrates, (436–338 BC)^{[a]}
 Isaac of Stella, (1105–1177)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Isaac Israeli, (c. 850–950)^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Ito Jinsai, (1627–1705)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov, (1866–1949)^{[b]}
J[edit]
 Frank Jackson, (born 1943)^{[d]}
 Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, (1743–1819)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 James of Viterbo, (1255–1308)^{[e]}
 Henry James Sr., (1811–1882)^{[b]}
 William James, (1842–1910)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Vladimir Jankélévitch, (1903–1985)^{[b]}
 Karl Jaspers, (1883–1969)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[c]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 James Hopwood Jeans, (1877–1946)^{[b]}
 Thomas Jefferson, (1743–1826)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Richard C. Jeffrey, (1926–2002)^{[d]}
 William Stanley Jevons, (1835–1882)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[f]}
 Rudolf von Jhering, (1818–1892)^{[e]}
 Jinul (or Chinul), (1158–1210)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Joachim of Fiore, (1135–1201)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Friedrich Jodl, (1849–1914)^{[b]}
 John of Damascus, (c. 676–749)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 John of Jandun, (1280–1328)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 John of La Rochelle, (1190–1245)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 John of Mirecourt, (c. 1345)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 John of Paris, (1260–1306)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 John of Salisbury, (c. 1115 – 1180)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 John of St. Thomas (or Jean Poinsot), (1589–1644)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 John of the Cross, (1542–1591)^{[b]}
 Alexander Bryan Johnson, (1786–1867)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Samuel Johnson, (1649–1703)^{[e]}
 Samuel Johnson, (1696–1772)^{[b]}
 Samuel Johnson, (1709–1784)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 William Ernest Johnson, (1858–1931)^{[a]}^{[d]}
 Jørgen Jørgensen, (1894–1969)^{[d]}
 Théodore Simon Jouffroy, (1796–1842)^{[b]}
 Judah ben Moses of Rome (orJudah Romano), (1292–1330)^{[e]}
 Carl Jung, (1875–1961)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Ernst Jünger, (1895–1998)^{[b]}
 Joachim Jungius, (1587–1657)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Justinian I, (483–565)^{[e]}
 AlJuwayni, (1028–1085)^{[e]}
K[edit]
 Franz Kafka, (1883–1924)^{[b]}
 Kaibara Ekiken, (1630–1740)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Kang Youwei, (1858–1927)^{[a]}
 Immanuel Kant, (1724–1804)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Kao Tzu, (c. 420 BC)^{[a]}
 David Kaplan, (born 1933)^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Mordecai Kaplan, (1881–1983)^{[e]}
 Nikolai Ivanovich Kareev, (1850–1931)^{[b]}
 Lev Platonovich Karsavin, (1882–1952)^{[b]}
 Joseph Kaspi, (1279–1340) ^{[f]}
 Suzy Kassem, (born 1975) ^{[f]}
 Walter Kaufmann, (1921–1980)^{[b]}
 Karl Kautsky, (1854–1938)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Khedrup Gelek Pelzang, (1385–1438)^{[e]}
 Konstantin Kavelin, (1818–1885)^{[b]}
 Bartholomew Keckermann, (1571–1609)^{[e]}
 Hans Kelsen, (1881–1973)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Norman Kemp Smith, (1872–1958)^{[e]}
 Anthony Kenny, (born 1931)^{[d]}
 Johannes Kepler, (1571–1630)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 John Maynard Keynes, (1883–1946)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Hermann Graf Keyserling, (1880–1946)^{[b]}
 Aleksey Khomyakov, (1804–1860)^{[b]}
 Søren Kierkegaard, (1813–1855)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Richard Kilvington, (1302–1361)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Robert Kilwardby, (1215–1279)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Jaegwon Kim, (born 1934)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}
 AlKindi, (801–873)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Martin Luther King, Jr., (1929–1968)^{[b]}
 Ivan Kireevsky, (1806–1856)^{[b]}
 Patricia Kitcher, (born 1948)^{[b]}
 Ludwig Klages, (1872–1956)^{[b]}
 Heinrich von Kleist, (1777–1811)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 William Calvert Kneale, (1906–1990)^{[d]}
 Martin Knutzen, (1713–1751)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Ko Hung, (4th century)^{[a]}
 Kurt Koffka, (1886–1941)^{[b]}
 Wolfgang Köhler, (1887–1967)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 Alexandre Kojève, (1902–1968)^{[e]}
 Alejandro Korn, (1860–1936)^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Tadeusz Kotarbiński, (1886–1981)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Alexandre Koyre, (1892–1964)^{[e]}
 Aleksei Aleksandrovich Kozlov, (1831–1901)^{[b]}
 Karl Kraus, (1874–1936)^{[d]}
 Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, (1781–1832)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Georg Kreisel, (born 1923)^{[d]}
 Saul Kripke, (born 1940)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Julia Kristeva, (born 1941)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Nachman Krochmal, (1785–1840)^{[e]}
 Leopold Kronecker, (1823–1891)^{[e]}
 Peter Kropotkin, (1842–1921)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Felix Krueger, (1874–1948)^{[b]}
 Thomas Samuel Kuhn, (1922–1996)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Kūkai, (774–835)^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Kuki Shūzō, (1888–1941)^{[e]}
 Oswald Külpe, (1862–1915)^{[b]}
 Kumazawa Banzan, (1619–1691)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Kuo Hsiang (or Guoxiang), (c. 312)^{[a]}
L[edit]
 Ernst Laas, (1837–1885)^{[b]}
 Lucien Laberthonnière, (1860–1932)^{[b]}
 Antonio Labriola, (1843–1904)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Jean de La Bruyère, (1645–1696)^{[b]}
 Jacques Lacan, (1901–1981)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Jules Lachelier, (1832–1918)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Philippe LacoueLabarthe, (born 1940)^{[e]}
 Pierre Laffitte, (1823–1903)^{[a]}
 Louis de La Forge, (1632–1666)^{[a]}^{[e]}
 Imre Lakatos, (1922–1974)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 André Lalande, (1867–1964)^{[b]}
 JeanBaptiste Lamarck, (1744–1829)^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Johann Heinrich Lambert, (1728–1777)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Hughes Felicité Robert de Lamennais, (1752–1854)^{[b]}
 Julien Offray de La Mettrie, (1709–1751)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 François de La Mothe Le Vayer, (1588–1672)^{[b]}
 Ludwig Landgrebe, (1902–1992)^{[b]}
 Friedrich Albert Lange, (1828–1875)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Susanne Langer, (1895–1985)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Lao Zi (or Lao Tzu), (4th century BC)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[f]}
 Isaac La Peyrère, (1596–1676)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 PierreSimon Laplace, (1749–1827)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Ivan Ivanovich Lapshin, (1870–1952)^{[b]}
 François de La Rochefoucauld, (1613–1680)^{[b]}
 Pierre Laromiguière, (1756–1837)^{[b]}
 Abdullah Laroui, (born 1935)^{[b]}
 Ferdinand Lassalle, (1825–1864)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Johann Kaspar Lavater, (1741–1801)^{[b]}
 Louis Lavelle, (1883–1951)^{[b]}
 Antoine Lavoisier, (1743–1794)^{[b]}
 Peter Lavrovitch Lavrov, (1823–1900)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 William Law, (1686–1761)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Jean Le Clerc, (1657–1737)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Michèle Le Dœuff, (born 1948)^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Henri Lefebvre, (1901–1991)^{[e]}
 Antoine Le Grand, (1629–1699)^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Keith Lehrer, (born 1936)^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Gottfried Leibniz, (1646–1716)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Yeshayahu Leibowitz, (1903–1994)^{[e]}
 Vladimir Lenin, (1870–1924)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Leonardo da Vinci, (1452–1519)^{[b]}
 Konstantin Nikolaevich Leont'ev, (1831–1891)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Giacomo Leopardi, (1798–1837)^{[b]}
 Jules Lequier, (1814–1862)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 Pierre Leroux, (1798–1871)^{[a]}
 Edouard Louis Emmanuel Julien Le Roy, (1870–1954)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 René Le Senne, (1882–1954)^{[b]}
 Stanisław Leśniewski, (1886–1939)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, (1729–1781)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Leucippus, (5th century BC)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Emmanuel Levinas, (1906–1995)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Claude LéviStrauss, (1908–2009)^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Lucien LévyBruhl, (1857–1939)^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Kurt Lewin, (1890–1947)^{[a]}
 Clarence Irving Lewis, (1883–1964)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 C. S. Lewis, (1898–1963)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 David Kellogg Lewis, (1941–2001)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Li Ao, (722–841)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 Liang Qichao (or Liang Ch'ich'ao), (1873–1929)^{[a]}
 Liang Souming, (1893–1988)^{[a]}
 Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, (1742–1799)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Arthur Liebert, (1878–1946)^{[b]}
 Otto Liebmann, (1840–1912)^{[b]}
 Liezi (or Lieh Tzu), (c. 440 BC – c. 360 BC)^{[a]}
 Linji Yixuan (or Lin Chi), (c. 810–867)^{[e]}
 Carl Linnaeus, (1707–1778)^{[e]}
 Theodor Lipps, (1851–1914)^{[b]}
 Justus Lipsius, (1547–1606)^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Émile Littré, (1801–1881)^{[b]}
 Liu Shaoqi (orLiu Shaoch'i), (1898–1969)^{[a]}
 Liu Tsungchou (or Ch'ishan), (1578–1645)^{[a]}
 Genevieve Lloyd, (born 1941)^{[b]}
 Karl Nickerson Llywelyn, (1893–1962)^{[e]}
 Ramon Llull, (1235–1315)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 John Locke, (1632–1704)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Alfred Loisy, (1857–1940)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Peter Lombard, (c. 1100 – 1160)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Bernard Lonergan, (1904–1984)^{[e]}
 PseudoLonginus, (1st century)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 Leo Mikhailovich Lopatin, (1855–1920)^{[b]}
 Paul Lorenzen, (1915–1995)^{[e]}
 Aleksei Fedorovich Losev, (1893–1988)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Nicholas Onufrievich Lossky, (1870–1965)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Domenico Losurdo, (1941–2018)
 Yuri Lotman, (1922–1993)^{[b]}
 Hermann Lotze, (1817–1881)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Arthur O. Lovejoy, (1873–1962)^{[b]}^{[d]}
 John R. Lucas, (born 1929)^{[d]}
 Lucian, (c. 120c. 180)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Lucretius, (c. 99–55 BC)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Lu Jiuyuan (or Lu Xiangshan, or Lu Chiuyuan, or Tzuching, or Ts'unchai), (1139–1193)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Georg Lukács, (1885–1971)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Jan Łukasiewicz, (1878–1956)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Anatoliy Lunacharskiy, (1875–1933)^{[b]}
 Martin Luther, (1483–1546)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Rosa Luxemburg, (1871–1919)^{[e]}
 William Lycan, (born 1945)^{[d]}
 JeanFrançois Lyotard, (1924–1998)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
M[edit]
 Ernst Mach, (1838–1916)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Niccolò Machiavelli, (1469–1527)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Alasdair MacIntyre, (born 1929)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 John Leslie Mackie, (1917–1981)^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Madhava, (died 1386)^{[e]}
 Shri Madhvacharya, (1238–1317)^{[a]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Mahavira, (599–527 BC)^{[a]}^{[e]}
 Benoît de Maillet, (1656–1738)^{[b]}
 Salomon Maimon (or Salomon ben Joshua), (1753–1800)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Abraham ben Moses Maimonides (or Abraham ben Maimon), (1186–1237)^{[e]}
 Maimonides (or Rambam), (1135–1204)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Maine de Biran, (1766–1824)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 John Major (or John Mair), (1467–1550)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Errico Malatesta, (1853–1932)
 Norman Malcolm, (1911–1990)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Nicolas Malebranche, (1638–1715)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Ernst Mally, (1879–1944)^{[f]}
 André Malraux, (1901–1976)^{[b]}
 Thomas Malthus, (1766–1834)^{[b]}
 Merab Mamardashvili, (1930–1990)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Bernard de Mandeville, (1670–1733)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Mani, (3rd century)^{[b]}
 Karl Mannheim, (1893–1947)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Henry Longueville Mansel, (1820–1871)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 Mao Zedong (or Mao Tsetung), (1893–1976)^{[a]}
 Gabriel Marcel, (1887–1973)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Marcion, (110–160)^{[b]}
 Ruth Barcan Marcus, (1921–2012)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Herbert Marcuse, (1898–1979)^{[a]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Joseph Maréchal, (1878–1944)^{[b]}
 Juan de Mariana, (1536–1624)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 Julián Marías, (1914–2005)^{[b]}
 José Carlos Mariátegui, (18941930)
 Jacques Maritain, (1882–1973)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Gaius Marius Victorinus, (4th century)^{[e]}
 Svetozar Marković, (1846–1875)^{[b]}
 Odo Marquard, (born 1928)
 Marsilius of Inghen, (1330–1396)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Marsilius of Padua (or Marsiglio or Marsilio dei Mainardine), (1270–1342)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Roger Marston, (1235–1303)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Charles B. Martin, (born 1924)^{[d]}
 Harriet Martineau, (1802–1876)^{[e]}
 James Martineau, (1805–1900)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Piero Martinetti, (1872–1943)^{[b]}
 Anton Marty, (1847–1914)^{[b]}^{[f]}
 Marko Marulić, (1450–1524)^{[b]}
 Karl Marx, (1818–1883)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Tomáš Masaryk, (1850–1937)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Damaris Cudworth Masham, (1659–1708)^{[a]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Cotton Mather, (1663–1728)^{[b]}
 Matthew of Aquasparta, (1238–1302)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Pierre Louis Maupertuis, (1698–1759)^{[b]}
 Fritz Mauthner, (1849–1923)^{[e]}
 James Clerk Maxwell, (1831–1879)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 James McCosh, (1811–1894)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 William McDougall, (1871–1938)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 John McDowell, (born 1942)^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Evander Bradley McGilvary, (1864–1953)^{[b]}
 Colin McGinn, (born 1950)^{[d]}
 John Ellis McTaggart, (1866–1925)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 George Herbert Mead, (1863–1931)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Bartolomé de Medina, (1527–1580)^{[a]}
 Georg Friedrich Meier, (1718–1777)^{[b]}
 Friedrich Meinecke, (1862–1954)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Alexius Meinong, (1853–1920)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Philipp Melanchthon, (1497–1560)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Melissus of Samos, (late 5th century BC)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 D. Hugh Mellor, (born 1938)^{[d]}
 Menasseh Ben Israel, (1604–1657)^{[b]}
 Mencius (or Meng K'o or Mengtzu or Mengzi), (372 – 289 BC)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Gregor Mendel, (1822–1884)^{[a]}
 Moses Mendelssohn, (1729–1786)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 DésiréJoseph Mercier, (1851–1926)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 Maurice MerleauPonty, (1908–1961)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Marin Mersenne, (1588–1648)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Jean Meslier, (1664–1729)^{[b]}
 Judah Messer Leon, (c. 1425 – c. 1495)^{[e]}
 István Mészáros, (1930–2017)
 Emile Meyerson, (1859–1933)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Conyers Middleton, (1683–1750)^{[b]}
 Nikolai Konstantinovich Mikhailovskii, (1842–1904)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Miki Kiyoshi, (1897–1945)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Mikyo Dorje (or Mi bskyod rdo rje), (1507–1554)^{[e]}
 Gaston Milhaud, (1858–1918)^{[b]}
 James Mill, (1773–1836)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 John Stuart Mill, (1806–1873)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 John Millar, (1735–1801)^{[e]}
 Dickinson Miller, (1868–1963)^{[b]}
 Ruth Millikan, (born 1933)^{[b]}^{[d]}
 John Milton, (1608–1674)^{[b]}
 Minagawa Kien, (1734–1807)^{[b]}
 Mir Damad (or Mir Mohammad Baqer Esterabadi), (died 1631)^{[e]}
 Miura Baien, (1723–1789)^{[b]}
 Jacob Moleschott, (1822–1893)^{[b]}
 Luis de Molina, (1535–1600)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Enrique Molina Garmendia, (1871–1962)^{[b]}
 Lord Monboddo (or James Burnett), (1714–1799)^{[e]}
 Richard Montague, (1930–1971)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 William Pepperell Montague, (1873–1953)^{[b]}
 Michel de Montaigne, (1533–1592)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Baron de Montesquieu, (1689–1755)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Edmund Montgomery, (1835–1911)^{[b]}
 G. E. Moore, (1873–1958)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Henry More, (1614–1687)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Thomas More, (1478–1535)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 C. Lloyd Morgan, (1852–1936)^{[b]}
 Lewis H. Morgan, (1818–1881)^{[b]}
 Thomas Morgan, (Died 1743)^{[b]}
 Karl Philipp Moritz, (1756–1793)^{[b]}
 Gaetano Mosca, (1858–1941)^{[a]}^{[b]}
 Motoori Norinaga, (1730–1801)^{[e]}
 Emmanuel Mounier, (1905–1950)^{[b]}
 Mou Tsungsan, (1909–1995)^{[a]}
 Mozi (or Mo Tzu, or Mo Ti, or Micius), (c. 470 – c. 390 BC)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 David Ibn Merwan AlMukammas (or Daud Ibn Marwan alMuqammas or David haBavli), (died 937)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Mulla Sadra, (1571–1640)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Iris Murdoch, (1919–1999)^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Muro Kyuso, (1658–1734)^{[b]}
 Arthur Edward Murphy, (1901–1962)^{[b]}
 Musonius Rufus, (1st century)^{[b]}^{[e]}
N[edit]
 Arne Næss, (1912–2009)^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Nagarjuna, (ca. 200 CE)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Ernest Nagel, (1901–1985)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Thomas Nagel, (born 1937)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Nahmanides, (1194–1270)^{[e]}
 JacquesAndré Naigeon, (1738–1810)^{[b]}
 Toju Nakae, (1608–1648)^{[b]}
 JeanLuc Nancy, (born 1940)^{[e]}
 Hossein Nasr, (born 1933)^{[b]}
 Paul Gerhard Natorp, (1854–1924)^{[b]}^{[f]}
 Alexander Neckham, (1157–1217)^{[e]}
 Leonard Nelson, (1882–1927)^{[b]}
 Nemesius of Emesa, (fl. c. 400)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 John von Neumann, (1903–1957)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Otto Neurath, (1882–1945)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 John Henry Newman, (1801–1890)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Isaac Newton, (1642–1727)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Nichiren, (1222–1282)^{[e]}
 Nicholas of Autrecourt, (c. 1300 – 1369)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Nicholas of Cusa, (1401–1464)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Christoph Friedrich Nicolai, (1733–1811)^{[b]}
 Pierre Nicole, (1625–1695)^{[b]}
 H. Richard Niebuhr, (1894–1962)^{[e]}
 Reinhold Niebuhr, (1892–1971)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Friedrich Nietzsche, (1844–1900)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Agostino Nifo, (1470–1538)^{[e]}
 Nishi Amane, (1829–1897)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Nishida Kitaro, (1870–1945)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Nishitani Keiji, (1900–1990)^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Kwame Nkrumah, (1909–1972)^{[d]}
 John Norris, (1657–1711)^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Novalis, (1772–1801)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[f]}
 Robert Nozick, (1938–2001)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Numenius of Apamea, (2nd century)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Martha Nussbaum, (born 1947)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Anders Nygren, (1890–1978)^{[e]}
O[edit]
 Michael Oakeshott, (1901–1990)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 William of Ockham, (c. 1285 – 1349)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Ogyū Sorai, (1666–1728)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Lorenz Oken, (1779–1851)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Karl Olivecrona, (1897–1980)^{[e]}
 Peter Olivi, (1248–1298)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Olympiodorus the Younger, (495–570)^{[f]}
 John Wood Oman, (1860–1939)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Onora O'Neill, (born 1941)^{[d]}
 Nicole Oresme, (1320–1382)^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Origen of Alexandria, (c. 182c. 251)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Isaac Orobio de Castro, (1617–1687)^{[b]}
 Hans Christian Ørsted, (1777–1851)
 José Ortega y Gasset, (1883–1955)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Wilhelm Ostwald, (1853–1932)^{[b]}
 James Oswald, (1703–1793)^{[e]}
 Rudolf Otto, (1869–1937)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Richard Overton, (d. c. 1665)^{[e]}
 Gwilyn Ellis Lane Owen, (1922–1982)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
P[edit]
 Thomas Paine, (1737–1809)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Menyhért Palágyi, (1859–1924)^{[b]}
 William Paley, (1743–1805)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Elihu Palmer, (1764–1806)^{[b]}
 Panaetius, (c. 185 – c. 110 BC)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Wolfhart Pannenberg, (born 1928)^{[b]}
 David Papineau, (born 1947)^{[d]}
 Giovanni Papini, (1881–1956)^{[b]}
 Paracelsus, (1493–1541)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Vilfredo Pareto, (1848–1923)^{[b]}
 Derek Parfit, (1942–2017)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Theodore Parker, (1810–1860)^{[b]}
 Parmenides, (5th century BC)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Blaise Pascal, (1623–1662)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 John Arthur Passmore, (1914–2004)^{[e]}
 Valentino Annibale Pastore, (1868–1956)^{[b]}
 Patañjali, (2nd century BC)^{[e]}
 Walter Pater, (1839–1904)^{[b]}
 Jan Patočka, (1907–1977)^{[e]}
 Francesco Patrizi da Cherso (or Franciscus Patritius), (1529–1597)^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Akos Pauler, (1876–1933)^{[b]}
 Linus Pauling, (1901–1994)^{[b]}
 Paul of Venice, (1369–1429)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Friedrich Paulsen, (1846–1908)^{[b]}
 Ivan Pavlov, (1849–1936)^{[b]}
 Christopher Peacocke, (born 1950)^{[d]}
 Giuseppe Peano, (1858–1932)^{[b]}^{[d]}
 David Pears, (1921–2009)^{[d]}
 Karl Pearson, (1857–1936)^{[b]}
 John Peckham, (died 1292)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Benjamin Peirce, (1809–1880)^{[f]}
 Charles Sanders Peirce, (1839–1914)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Pelagius, (c. 360c. 435)^{[b]}^{[d]}
 William Penbygull, (died 1420)^{[f]}
 Thomas Percival, (1740–1804)^{[a]}
 Ralph Barton Perry, (1876–1957)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, (1746–1827)^{[b]}
 Peter of Auvergne, (13th century)^{[e]}
 Peter of Spain, (13th century; usually identified with Pope John XXI)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Richard Stanley Peters, (1919–2011)^{[d]}
 Petrarch, (1304–1374)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Leon Petrazycki, (1867–1931)^{[e]}
 Joane Petrizi, (12th century)^{[f]}
 Branislav Petronijević, (1875–1954)^{[b]}
 Petar II PetrovićNjegoš, (1813–1851)^{[b]}
 Joseph Petzoldt, (1862–1929)^{[b]}
 Alexander Pfänder, (1870–1941)^{[b]}
 Philip the Chancellor, (1160–1236)^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, (20 BC – 40 AD)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Philo of Larissa, (1st century BC)^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Philo the Dialectician, (c. 300 BC)^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Philodemus of Gadara, (1st century BC)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Philolaus of Croton, (c. 480c. 405 BC)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Philo of Larissa, (154 BC – 84 BC)^{[b]}
 Philo of Megara, (300 BC c.)^{[b]}
 John Philoponus, (early 6th century)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Jean Piaget, (1896–1980)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, (1463–1494)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Dimitri Pisarev, (1840–1868)^{[b]}
 Max Planck, (1858–1947)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Alvin Plantinga, (born 1932)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}
 Plato, (c. 427 BC – c. 347 BC)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Georgi Plekhanov, (1856–1918)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Helmuth Plessner, (1892–1985)^{[b]}
 Gemistus Pletho, (c. 1355 – c. 1452)^{[b]}
 Plotinus, (died 270)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Gottfried Ploucquet , (1716–1790)^{[b]}
 Mestrius Plutarch of Chaeronia, (c. 45c. 120)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Henri Poincaré, (1854–1912)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Michael Polanyi, (1891–1976)^{[e]}
 Pietro Pomponazzi, (1462–1525)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Alexander Pope, (1688–1744)^{[b]}
 Karl Popper, (1902–1994)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Josef PopperLynkeus, (1838–1921)^{[b]}
 Porphyry, (c. 232c. 304)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Noah Porter, (1811–1892)^{[b]}
 Posidonius, (c. 135 – 51 BC)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Richard Posner, (born 1939)^{[b]}
 Emil Leon Post, (1897–1954)^{[e]}
 Robert Joseph Pothier, (1699–1772)^{[e]}
 Roscoe Pound, (1870–1964)^{[e]}
 Caio Prado Júnior, (1907–1990)
 Henry Habberley Price, (1899–1984)^{[d]}
 Richard Price, (1723–1791)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Harold Arthur Prichard, (1871–1947)^{[a]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Joseph Priestley, (1733–1804)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Andrew Seth PringlePattison, (1856–1931)^{[b]}
 Arthur Prior, (1914–1969)^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Proclus, (412–487)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Prodicus, (c. 450 – 399 BC)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Protagoras, (c. 481 – 420 BC)^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 PierreJoseph Proudhon, (1809–1865)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Marcel Proust, (1871–1922)^{[b]}
 PseudoDionysius the Areopagite, (5th century)^{[b]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 PseudoGrosseteste, (13th century)^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Ptolemy, (c. 85c. 165)^{[e]}
 Samuel Pufendorf, (1632–1694)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[e]}
 Hilary Putnam, (born 1926)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Pyrrho, (c. 360c. 270)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
 Pythagoras, (582 BC – 496 BC)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}^{[f]}
Q[edit]
 Ismael Quiles (1906–1993)
 W. V. O. Quine, (1908–2000)^{[a]}^{[b]}^{[d]}^{[e]}
 Anthony Quinton, (born 1925)^{[d]}
References[edit]
 The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, (Second Edition). Cambridge University Press; 1999. ISBN 0521637228
 Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Second Edition). Martin Gale; 2006. ISBN 0028657802
 Karl Jaspers Society of North America and Existenz
 The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford University Press; 1995. ISBN 0198661320
 Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge; 1998. ISBN 9780415073103
 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Biographies covered as of January 16, 2010