Gustav Radbruch was a German legal scholar and politician. He served as Minister of Justice of Germany during the early Weimar period. Radbruch is regarded as one of the most influential legal philosophers of the 20th century. Born in Lübeck, Radbruch studied law in Munich and Berlin, he passed his first bar exam in Berlin in 1901, the following year he received his doctorate with a dissertation on "The Theory of Adequate Causation". This was followed in 1903 by his qualification to teach criminal law in Heidelberg. In 1904, he was appointed Professor of legal philosophy in Heidelberg. In 1914 he accepted a call to a professorship in Königsberg, that year assumed a professorship at Kiel. Radbruch was a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, held a seat in the Reichstag from 1920 to 1924. In 1921-22 and throughout 1923, he was minister of justice in the cabinets of Joseph Wirth and Gustav Stresemann. During his time in office, a number of important laws were implemented, such as those giving women access to the justice system, after the assassination of Walter Rathenau, the law for the protection of the republic.
In 1926, Radbruch accepted a renewed call to lecture at Heidelberg. After the Nazi seizure of power in January 1933, Radbruch, as a former Social Democratic politician, was dismissed from his university post under the terms of the so-called "Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service". Despite the employment ban in Nazi Germany, during 1935/36 he was able to spend a year in England, at University College, Oxford. An important practical outcome of this was his book, "Der Geist des englischen Rechts", although this could be published only in 1945. During the Nazi period, he devoted himself to cultural-historical work. After the end of the Second World War in 1945, he resumed his teaching activities, but died at Heidelberg in 1949 without being able to complete his planned updated edition of his textbook on legal philosophy. In September 1945, Radbruch published a short paper Fünf Minuten Rechtsphilosophie, influential in shaping the jurisprudence of values, prevalent in the aftermath of World War II as a reaction against legal positivism.
Radbruch's legal philosophy derived from Neokantianism, which assumes that a categorical cleavage exists between "is" and "ought". According to this view, "should" can never be derived from "Being." Indicative of the Heidelberg school of neokantianism to which Radbruch subscribed was that it interpolated the value-related cultural studies between the explanatory sciences and philosophical teachings of values. In relation to the law, this triadism shows itself in the subfields of legal sociology, legal philosophy and legal dogma. Legal dogma assumes a place in between, it posits itself in opposition to positive law, as the latter depicts itself in social reality and methodologically in the objective "should-have" sense of law, which reveals itself through value-related interpretation. The core of Radbruch's legal philosophy consists of his tenets the concept of law and the idea of law; the idea of law is defined through a triad of justice and certainty. Radbruch thereby had the idea of utility or usefulness spring forth from an analysis of the idea of justice.
Upon this notion was based the Radbruch formula, still vigorously debated today. The concept of law, for Radbruch, is "nothing other than the given fact, which has the sense to serve the idea of law." Hotly disputed is the question whether Radbruch was a legal positivist before 1933 and executed an about-face in his thinking due to the advent of Nazism, or whether he continued to develop, under the impression of Nazi crimes, the relativistic values-teaching he had been advocating before 1933. The problem of the controversy between the spirit and the letter of the law, in Germany, has been brought back to public attention due to the trials of former East German soldiers who guarded the Berlin Wall—the so-called necessity of following orders. Radbruch's theories are posited against the positivist "pure legal tenets" represented by Hans Kelsen and, to some extent from Georg Jellinek. In sum, Radbruch's formula argues that where statutory law is incompatible with the requirements of justice "to an intolerable degree", or where statutory law was designed in a way that deliberately negates "the equality, the core of all justice", statutory law must be disregarded by a judge in favour of the justice principle.
Since its first publication in 1946 the principle has been accepted by Germany's Federal Constitutional Court in a variety of cases. Many people blame the older German legal tradition of legal positivism for the ease with which Hitler obtained power in an outwardly "legal" manner, rather than by means of a coup. Arguably, the shift to a concept of natural law ought to act as a safeguard against dictatorship, an untrammeled State power and the abrogation of civil rights. Kaufmann, Arthur. Gustav Radbruch - Rechtsdenker, Sozialdemokrat. Munich: Piper Verlag. von Hippel, Fritz. Gustav Radbruch als rechtsphilosophischer Denker. Heidelberg: Schneider Verlag. Van Niekerk, Barend; the Warning Voice from Heidelberg: the life and thought of Gustav Radbruch. Kenwyn: Juta. Newspaper clippings about Gustav Radbruch in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Janet Radcliffe Richards
Janet Radcliffe Richards is a British philosopher specialising in bioethics and feminism. She is the author of The Sceptical Feminist, Philosophical Problems of Equality, Human Nature after Darwin, The Ethics of Transplants. Richards was Lecturer in Philosophy at the Open University 1979–1999, Director of the Centre for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine at University College London until 2007, she is the author of several books and articles, has sat on a variety of advisory and working committees in areas of philosophy and bioethics. Since 2008, she has been Professor of Practical Philosophy at Oxford University, she is a Distinguished Research Fellow at the Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics and posts at the University of Oxford's Practical Ethics: Ethical Perspectives on the News website. Her identification with feminism and her focus on bioethics both occurred "by accident" during the writing of her first book, The Sceptical Feminist: A Philosophical Enquiry – bioethics being central to the abortion debate.
The book proved to be controversial within and outside feminism, e.g. in regard to standards of rationality and style, her liberal stance. Her second book, Human Nature After Darwin: A Philosophical Introduction explores the so-call Darwin Wars, including what implications Darwinism raises for philosophy and the application of critical thinking to various arguments put forward in the debate, it was written as an introduction to philosophical techniques for Open University students using the controversies relating to Darwinian thinking and human nature. At present, her name arises in articles and discussions on organ transplantation, in particular the idea of a legitimate organ trade, she was married to the philosopher Derek Parfit from 2010 until his death in 2017. The Sceptical Feminist: A Philosophical Enquiry, Human Nature After Darwin: A Philosophical Introduction, Routledge, "Why Feminist Epistemology Isn't" in The Flight from Science and Reason P. Gross, N. Levitt & M. Lewis. "Organs For Sale", Janet Radcliffe Richards, Issues Med Ethics.
François Rabelais was a French Renaissance writer, Renaissance humanist and Greek scholar. He has been regarded as a writer of fantasy, the grotesque, bawdy jokes and songs, his best known work is Pantagruel. Because of his literary power and historical importance, Western literary critics consider him one of the great writers of world literature and among the creators of modern European writing, his literary legacy is such that today, the word Rabelaisian has been coined as a descriptive inspired by his work and life. Merriam-Webster defines the word as describing someone or something, "marked by gross robust humor, extravagance of caricature, or bold naturalism". No reliable documentation of the place or date of the birth of François Rabelais has survived. While some scholars put the date as early as 1483, he was born in November 1494 near Chinon in the province of Touraine, where his father worked as a lawyer; the estate of La Devinière in Seuilly in the modern-day Indre-et-Loire the writer's birthplace, houses a Rabelais museum.
Rabelais became a novice of the Franciscan order, a friar at Fontenay-le-Comte in Poitou, where he studied Greek and Latin as well as science and law becoming known and respected by the humanists of his era, including Guillaume Budé. Harassed due to the directions of his studies and frustrated with the Franciscan order's ban on the study of Greek, Rabelais petitioned Pope Clement VII and gained permission to leave the Franciscans and to enter the Benedictine order at Maillezais in Poitou, where he was more warmly received, he left the monastery to study medicine at the University of Poitiers and at the University of Montpellier. In 1532 he moved to Lyon, one of the intellectual centres of the Renaissance, in 1534 began working as a doctor at the Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon, for which he earned 40 livres a year. During his time in Lyon, he edited Latin works for the printer Sebastian Gryphius, wrote a famous admiring letter to Erasmus to accompany the transmission of a Greek manuscript from the printer.
Gryphius published Rabelais' translations & annotations of Hippocrates and Giovanni Manardo. As a physician, he used his spare time to write and publish humorous pamphlets critical of established authority and preoccupied with the educational and monastic mores of the time. In 1532, under the pseudonym Alcofribas Nasier, he published his first book, Pantagruel King of the Dipsodes, the first of his Gargantua series; the idea of basing an allegory on the lives of giants came to Rabelais from the folklore legend of les Grandes chroniques du grand et énorme géant Gargantua, which were sold as popular literature at the time in the form of inexpensive pamphlets by colporters and at the fairs of Lyon. Pantagruelisme is an "eat, drink and be merry" philosophy, which led his books into disfavor with the church brought them popular success and the admiration of critics for their focus on the body; this first book, critical of the existing monastic and educational system, contains the first known occurrence in French of the words encyclopédie, progrès and utopie among others.
Despite the book's popularity, both it and the subsequent prequel book about the life and exploits of Pantagruel's father Gargantua were condemned by the "Sorbonne" in 1543 and the Roman Catholic Church in 1545. Rabelais taught medicine at Montpellier in 1534 and again in 1539. In 1537, Rabelais gave an anatomy lesson at Lyon's Hôtel-Dieu using the corpse of a hanged man. In June 1543 Rabelais became a Master of Requests. Between 1545 and 1547 François Rabelais lived in Metz a free imperial city and a republic, to escape the condemnation by the University of Paris. In 1547, he became curate of Saint-Christophe-du-Jambet in Maine and of Meudon near Paris, from which he resigned in January 1553 before his death in Paris in April 1553. With support from members of the prominent du Bellay family, Rabelais received approval from King Francis I to continue to publish his collection. However, after the king's death in 1547, the academic élite frowned upon Rabelais, the French Parlement suspended the sale of his fourth book published in 1552.
Rabelais traveled to Rome with his friend and patient Cardinal Jean du Bellay, lived for a short time in Turin as part of the household of du Bellay's brother, Guillaume. Rabelais spent some time lying low, under periodic threat of being condemned of heresy depending upon the health of his various protectors. Only the protection of du Bellay saved Rabelais after the condemnation of his novel by the Sorbonne. Gargantua and Pantagruel relates his son Pantagruel; the tales are adventurous and erudite and gross, toxic ecumenical and rarely—if ever—solemn for long. The first book, was Pantagruel and the Gargantua mentioned in the Prologue refers not to Rabelais' own work but to storybooks that were being sold at the Lyon fairs in the early 1530s. In the first chapter of the earliest book, Pantagruel's lineage is listed back 60 generations to a giant named Chalbroth; the narrator dismisses the skeptics of the time—who would have thought a giant far too large for Noah's Ark—stating that Hurtaly rode the Ark like a kid on a rocking horse, or like a fat Swiss guy on a cannon.
In the Prologue to Gargantua the narrator addr
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek, φιλόσοφος, meaning "lover of wisdom"; the coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras. In the classical sense, a philosopher was someone who lived according to a certain way of life, focusing on resolving existential questions about the human condition, not someone who discourses upon theories or comments upon authors; these particular brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers. A philosopher is one who challenges what is thought to be common sense, doesn’t know when to stop asking questions, reexamines the old ways of thought. In a modern sense, a philosopher is an intellectual who has contributed in one or more branches of philosophy, such as aesthetics, epistemology, metaphysics, social theory, political philosophy. A philosopher may be one who worked in the humanities or other sciences which have since split from philosophy proper over the centuries, such as the arts, economics, psychology, anthropology and politics.
The separation of philosophy and science from theology began in Greece during the 6th century BC. Thales, an astronomer and mathematician, was considered by Aristotle to be the first philosopher of the Greek tradition. While Pythagoras coined the word, the first known elaboration on the topic was conducted by Plato. In his Symposium, he concludes. Therefore, the philosopher is one. Therefore, the philosopher in antiquity was one who lives in the constant pursuit of wisdom, living in accordance to that wisdom. Disagreements arose as to what living philosophically entailed; these disagreements gave rise to different Hellenistic schools of philosophy. In consequence, the ancient philosopher thought in a tradition; as the ancient world became schism by philosophical debate, the competition lay in living in a manner that would transform his whole way of living in the world. Among the last of these philosophers was Marcus Aurelius, regarded as a philosopher in the modern sense, but refused to call himself by such a title, since he had a duty to live as an emperor.
According to the Classicist Pierre Hadot, the modern conception of a philosopher and philosophy developed predominately through three changes: The first is the natural inclination of the philosophical mind. Philosophy is a tempting discipline which can carry away the individual in analyzing the universe and abstract theory; the second is the historical change through the Medieval era. With the rise of Christianity, the philosophical way of life was adopted by its theology. Thus, philosophy was divided between a way of life and the conceptual, logical and metaphysical materials to justify that way of life. Philosophy was the servant to theology; the third is the sociological need with the development of the university. The modern university requires professionals to teach. Maintaining itself requires teaching future professionals to replace the current faculty. Therefore, the discipline degrades into a technical language reserved for specialists eschewing its original conception as a way of life.
In the fourth century, the word philosopher began to designate a man or woman who led a monastic life. Gregory of Nyssa, for example, describes how his sister Macrina persuaded their mother to forsake "the distractions of material life" for a life of philosophy. During the Middle Ages, persons who engaged with alchemy was called a philosopher – thus, the Philosopher's Stone. Many philosophers still emerged from the Classical tradition, as saw their philosophy as a way of life. Among the most notable are René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Nicolas Malebranche, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. With the rise of the university, the modern conception of philosophy became more prominent. Many of the esteemed philosophers of the eighteenth century and onward have attended and developed their works in university. Early examples include: Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. After these individuals, the Classical conception had all but died with the exceptions of Arthur Schopenhauer, Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche.
The last considerable figure in philosophy to not have followed a strict and orthodox academic regime was Ludwig Wittgenstein. In the modern era, those attaining advanced degrees in philosophy choose to stay in careers within the educational system as part of the wider professionalisation process of the discipline in the 20th century. According to a 1993 study by the National Research Council, 77.1% of the 7,900 holders of a PhD in philosophy who responded were employed in educational institutions. Outside academia, philosophers may employ their writing and reasoning skills in other careers, such as medicine, business, free-lance writing and law; some known French social thinkers are Claude Henri Saint-Simon, Auguste Comte, Émile Durkheim. British social thought, with thinkers such as Herbert Spencer, addressed questions and ideas relating to political economy and social evolution; the political ideals of John Ruskin were a precursor of social economy. Important German philosophers and social thinkers included Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Georg Simmel, Martin Heidegger.
Important Chinese philosophers and social thinke
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology and economics. Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics. In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi.
Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris
Frank P. Ramsey
Frank Plumpton Ramsey was a British philosopher and economist who made major contributions to all three fields before his death at the age of 26. He was a close friend of Ludwig Wittgenstein and was instrumental in translating Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus into English, as well as persuading Wittgenstein to return to philosophy and Cambridge. Like Wittgenstein, he was a member of the Cambridge Apostles, the intellectual secret society, from 1921. Ramsey was born on 22 February 1903 in Cambridge where his father Arthur Stanley Ramsey a mathematician, was President of Magdalene College, his mother was Mary Agnes Stanley. He was the eldest of two brothers and two sisters, his brother Michael Ramsey, the only one of the four siblings, to remain Christian became Archbishop of Canterbury, he entered Winchester College in 1915 and returned to Cambridge to study mathematics at Trinity College. While studying mathematics at Trinity College, Ramsey became a student to John Maynard Keynes, an active member in the Apostles, a Cambridge discussion group.
In 1923, he received his bachelor's degree in mathematics, passing his examinations with the result of first class with distinction. He was named Senior Wrangler. Easy-going and modest, Ramsey had many interests besides his scientific work; as a teenager Ramsey exhibited both a profound ability and, as attested by his brother, an diverse range of interests: He was interested in everything. He was immensely read in English literature. In 1923, Ramsey was befriended by Geoffrey and Margaret Pyke on the point of founding the Malting House School in Cambridge. Margaret found herself to be the object of his affection, Ramsey recording in his diary: One afternoon I went out alone with her on Lake Orta and became filled with desire and we came back and lay on two beds side by side she reading, I pretending to, but with an awful conflict in my mind. After about an hour I said ‘Margaret will you fuck with me?’ Margaret wanted time to consider his proposition and thus began an uncomfortable dance between them, which contributed to Ramsey's depressive moods in early 1924.
He, like many of his contemporaries, including his Viennese flatmate and fellow Apostle Lionel Penrose, was intellectually interested in psychoanalysis. Ramsey's analyst was a disciple of Freud; as one of the justifications for undertaking the therapy, he asserted in a letter to his mother that unconscious impulses might affect the work of a mathematician. While in Vienna, he visited Wittgenstein in Puchberg, was befriended by the Wittgenstein family and visited A. S. Neill's experimental school four hours from Vienna at Sonntagsberg. In the summer of 1924, he continued his analysis by joining Reik at Dobbiaco, where a fellow analysand was Lewis Namier. Ramsey returned to England in October 1924, he joined a Psychoanalysis Group in Cambridge with fellow members Arthur Tansley, Lionel Penrose, Harold Jeffreys, John Rickman and James Strachey, the qualification for membership of, a completed psychoanalysis. Ramsey married Lettice Baker in September 1925, the wedding taking place in a Register Office since Ramsey was, as his wife described him, a ‘militant atheist'.
After Ramsey's death, Lettice Ramsey opened a photography studio in Cambridge with photographer Helen Muspratt. The marriage produced two daughters. Despite his atheism, Ramsey was quite tolerant towards his brother when the latter decided to become a priest in the Church of England. In 1926 he became a university lecturer in mathematics and a Director of Studies in Mathematics at King's College; the Vienna Circle manifesto lists three of his publications in a bibliography of related authors. When I. A. Richards and C. K. Ogden, both Fellows of Magdalene, first met Ramsey, he expressed his interest in learning German. According to Richards, he mastered the language "in hardly over a week", although other sources show he had taken one year of German in school. Ramsey was able, at the age of 19, to make the first draft of the translation of the German text of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico Philosophicus. Ramsey was impressed by Wittgenstein's work and after graduating as Senior Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos of 1923 he made a journey to Austria to visit Wittgenstein, at that time teaching in a primary school in the small community of Puchberg am Schneeberg.
For two weeks Ramsey discussed the difficulties. Wittgenstein made some corrections to the English translation in Ramsey's copy and some annotations and changes to the German text that subsequently appeared in the second edition in 1933. Ramsey and John Maynard Keynes cooperated to try to bring Ludwig Wittgenstein back to Cambridge. Once Wittgenstein had returned to Cambridge, Ramsey became his nominal supervisor. Wittgenstein submitted the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus as his doctoral thesis. G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell acted as examiners; the three of them arranged financi
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan listen was an Indian philosopher and statesman who served as the first Vice President of India and the second President of India. One of India's most distinguished twentieth-century scholars of comparative religion and philosophy, after completing his education at Madras Christian College in 1911, he became Assistant Professor and Professor of Philosophy at Madras Presidency College subsequently Professor of Philosophy at the University of Mysore, he was Upton Lecturer at Manchester College, Oxford in 1926, 1929, 1930. In 1930 he was appointed Haskell lecturer in Comparative Religion at the University of Chicago, his philosophy was grounded in Advaita Vedanta, reinterpreting this tradition for a contemporary understanding. He defended Hinduism against "uninformed Western criticism", contributing to the formation of contemporary Hindu identity, he has been influential in shaping the understanding of Hinduism, in both India and the west, earned a reputation as a bridge-builder between India and the West.
Radhakrishnan was awarded several high awards during his life, including a knighthood in 1931, the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award in India, in 1954, honorary membership of the British Royal Order of Merit in 1963. He was one of the founders of Helpage India, a non profit organisation for elderly underprivileged in India. Radhakrishnan believed that "teachers should be the best minds in the country". Since 1962, his birthday is being celebrated in India as Teachers' Day on 5th September. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born in a Telugu-speaking Niyogi Brahmin family, in Tiruttani in Madras Presidency, his surname was Sarvepalli, for his forefathers were from Sarvepalli, a village fifteen miles from Nellore town of Andhra Pradesh. His grand father migrated to a village near Tiruttani in erstwhile Chittoor district of the Madras Presidency, his father's name was Sarvepalli Veeraswami and his mother's name was Sarvepalli Sita. His early years were spent in Tirupati, his father was a subordinate revenue official in the service of a local zamindar.
His primary education was at K. V High School at Thiruttani. In 1896 he moved to the Hermansburg Evangelical Lutheran Mission School in Tirupati and Government Higher Secondary School, Walajapet. Radhakrishnan was awarded scholarships throughout his academic life, he joined Voorhees College in Vellore but switched to the Madras Christian College at the age of 17. He graduated from there in 1906 with a Voorha master's degree in Philosophy, being one of its most distinguished alumni. Radhakrishnan studied philosophy by chance rather than choice. Being a financially constrained student, when a cousin who graduated from the same college passed on his philosophy textbooks in to Radhakrishnan, it automatically decided his academic course. Radhakrishnan wrote his thesis for the M. A. degree on "The Ethics of the Vedanta and its Metaphysical Presuppositions". It "was intended to be a reply to the charge that the Vedanta system had no room for ethics." He was afraid that this M. A. thesis would offend Dr. Alfred George Hogg.
Instead, Hogg commended Radhakrishnan on having done most excellent work. Radhakrishnan's thesis was published. According to Radhakrishnan himself, the criticism of Hogg and other Christian teachers of Indian culture "disturbed my faith and shook the traditional props on which I leaned." Radhakrishnan himself describes how, as a student, The challenge of Christian critics impelled me to make a study of Hinduism and find out what is living and what is dead in it. My pride as a Hindu, roused by the enterprise and eloquence of Swami Vivekananda, was hurt by the treatment accorded to Hinduism in missionary institutions; this led him to his critical study of Indian philosophy and religion and a lifelong defence of Hinduism against "uninformed Western criticism". Radhakrishnan was married to Sivakamu, a distant cousin, at the age of 16; as per tradition the marriage was arranged by the family. The couple had a son, Sarvepalli Gopal. Sarvepalli Gopal went on to a notable career as a historian. Sivakamu died in 1956.
They were married for over 51 years. In April 1909, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was appointed to the Department of Philosophy at the Madras Presidency College. Thereafter, in 1918, he was selected as Professor of Philosophy by the University of Mysore, where he taught at its Maharaja's College, Mysore. By that time he had written many articles for journals of repute like The Quest, Journal of Philosophy and the International Journal of Ethics, he completed his first book, The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore. He believed Tagore's philosophy to be the "genuine manifestation of the Indian spirit", his second book, The Reign of Religion in Contemporary Philosophy was published in 1920. In 1921 he was appointed as a professor in philosophy to occupy the King George V Chair of Mental and Moral Science at the University of Calcutta, he represented the University of Calcutta at the Congress of the Universities of the British Empire in June 1926 and the International Congress of Philosophy at Harvard University in September 1926.
Another important academic event during this period was the invitation to deliver the Hibbert Lecture on the ideals of life which he delivered at Manchester College, Oxford in 1929 and, subsequently published in book form as An Idealist View of Life. In 1929 Radhakrishnan was invited to take t