List of pirates
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This is a list of known pirates, buccaneers, corsairs, privateers, river pirates, and others involved in piracy and piracy-related activities. This list includes both captains and prominent crew members. For a list of female pirates, see women in piracy. For pirates of fiction or myth, see list of fictional pirates.
- 1 Ancient World: 315 BC–197 AD
- 2 Middle Ages: 400–1585
- 3 Rise of the English Sea Dogs and Dutch Corsairs: 1560–1650
- 4 Age of the Buccaneers: 1650–1690
- 5 Golden Age of Piracy: 1690–1730
- 6 After the Golden Age: Pirates, Privateers, Smugglers, and River Pirates: 1730–1885
- 7 Renegades of the West Indies: 1820–1830
- 8 Piracy in East and South-East Asia: 1800–1860
- 9 Blackbirders, Shanghaiers, Crimps and African Slave Traders: 1860–1900
- 10 Piracy from the 20th-21st century: 1901–
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Ancient World: 315 BC–197 AD
|Name||Life||Years active||Country of origin||Comments|
|Anicetus||d. 69||Pontus (Hellenic)||Was the leader of an unsuccessful anti-Roman uprising in Pontus in AD 69.|
|Demetrius of Pharos||d. 214 BC||Pharos (Hellenic)||His actions precipitated the Second Illyrian War.|
|Dionysius the Phocaean||494 BC||Greece||Phocaean admiral active against Carthaginian and Tyrsenian merchants in the years following the Greco–Persian Wars.|
|Gan Ning||175–218||190–197||China||His party carried bells as their trademark to frighten the commoners.|
|Genthus of Illyria||First century BC||Illyria||Was accused by the Romans of organizing and aiding pirate raids in Italy.|
|Glauketas||315–300 BC||Greek inscriptions of the Athenian navy raiding his base on Kynthnos Island and capturing him and his men, "making the sea safe for those that sailed thereon."|
|Sextus Pompeius||d. 35 BC||Rome||He was the last focus of opposition to the Second Triumvirate.|
Middle Ages: 400–1585
|Name||Life||Years Active||Country of origin||Comments|
|Giorgio Adorno||d. 1558||Malta||Knight of Malta active in the Mediterranean. Originally from Naples, he was elected "Captain-General of the Galleys" in 1547, 1549, 1557 and 1558.|
|James Alday||1516–1576||1540s||England||An English privateer. Raided Spanish ports with James Logan and William Cooke.|
|William Aleyn||fl. 1448||1432-1448||England||English pirate active in the Thames and English Channel. Associate of William Kyd.|
|Jean Ango||1480–1551||France||A French ship-owner who provided ships to Francis I for exploration of the globe.|
|Aruj||1474–1518||1503–1518||Ottoman Empire||An Ottoman privateer and Bey (Governor) of Algiers and Beylerbey (Chief Governor) of the West Mediterranean.|
|Awilda||5th century||Scandinavia||She and some of her female friends dressed like sailors and commandeered a ship.|
|Hayreddin Barbarossa||1478–1546||1504–1545||Ottoman Empire||An Ottoman privateer and later Admiral who dominated the Mediterranean for decades.|
|Barnim VI, Duke of Pomerania||1365–1405||1394–1405||Germany (Pomerania)||A Pomeranian duke supporting privateers in the Baltic Sea region and later going on pirate raids himself.|
|Baldassare Cossa (Antipope John XXIII)||1370–1415||Procida||Antipope during the Western Schism, John XXIII was accused of—among other crimes—piracy, incest and sodomy.|
|John Crabbe||1305-1332||Flanders||Flemish pirate best known for his successful use of a ship-mounted catapult. Once won the favor of Robert the Bruce and acted as a naval officer for England during the Hundred Years' War (after being captured by King Edward III.)|
|Pier Gerlofs Donia||1480–1520||Netherlands (Frisia)||a Frisian warrior, pirate, freedom fighter, folk hero and rebel.|
|Eric of Pomerania||1382–1459||Germany (Pomerania)||The first king of the Nordic Kalmar Union, he spent his last years living on the island of Gothland and "sent forth piratical expeditions against friend and foe alike".|
|Eustace the Monk||c. 1170–1217||France||He was a mercenary for both England and France.|
|Alv Erlingsson||d. 1290||Norway||He was a favorite of the Queen, yet committed countless acts of piracy throughout his life|
|Jean Fleury (Florin)||fl. 1523||1520s||France||French privateer and naval officer under Jean Ango. Seized three Spanish ships carrying Aztec treasure from Mexico to Spain in 1523.|
|Magnus Heinason||1545–1589||Faroe Islands||Faroese naval hero and privateer. Was executed for piracy, though charges were later dropped.|
|Klein Henszlein||d. 1573||to 1573||Germany||A 16th-century pirate who raided shipping in the North Sea until his defeat and capture by a fleet from Hamburg|
|Wijerd Jelckama||1490–1523||Germany (Frisia)||The nephew of Pier Gerlofs Donia (also known as Grutte Pier), fought along his side against the Saxon and Hollandic invaders.|
|William Kyd||fl. 1430–1453||1430s–1450s||England||English pirate active in Southwest England during the early-to-mid-15th century.|
|Gödeke Michels||died 1402||1392-1402||Germany||A German pirate and one of the leaders of the Likedeelers, a combination of former Victual Brothers (Vitalienbrüder)|
|Didrik Pining||c. 1430–1491||Denmark-Norway||A pirate and privateer operating in the North Sea. Often partnered with Hans Pothorst.|
|Hans Pothorst||c.1440–1490||Denmark-Norway||A pirate and privateer operating in the North Sea. Often partnered with Didrik Pining.|
|Salih Reis||1488–1568||Ottoman Empire||A Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral.|
|Turgut Reis||1485–1565||Ottoman Empire||A Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli.|
|Klaus Störtebeker||1360–1401||1392–1401||Germany||A German pirate and one of the leaders of the Likedeelers, a combination of former Victual Brothers (Vitalienbrüder)|
|Yermak Timofeyevich||c. between 1532 and 1542 – August 5 or 6, 1585||c.before 1582||Russia||A leader of a gang of river pirates, along the Don River region, of Russia and later, led an expedition, in the Russian conquest of Siberia, in the reign of Tsar Ivan the Terrible.|
|Kristoffer Trondson (Rustung)||c.1500–1565||c.1535–1542||Norway||A Norwegian nobleman-turned pirate and privateer. Operated in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Gave up piracy in 1542 and eventually, became admiral of the Danish Fleet.|
|Hennig Wichmann||1370–1402||1392-1402||Germany||A German pirate and one of the leaders of the Likedeelers, a combination of former Victual Brothers (Vitalienbrüder)|
|Cord Widderich||d. 1447||1404–1447||Germany||A pirate active during political conflicts between Dithmarschen and North Frisia in the early 15th century.|
|Wimund||b. 1147||England||He was a bishop who became a seafaring warlord adventurer.|
|Bartholomeus Voet||b. Early 1400||?||Norway||Second leader of Victual Brohers, plundered and burned down the norweagian city Bergen in 1429|
|Erlend Eindridesson||?||1445– ?||Norway||Norwegian nobleman. plundered german ships in the sognefjord.|
|Martin Pechlin||1480– 1526||Germany||Died in Mandal, Norway. One of the most feard pirates in his time|
Rise of the English Sea Dogs and Dutch Corsairs: 1560–1650
|Name||Life||Years Active||Country of origin||Comments|
|Nicholas Alvel||early 17th century||1603||England||Active in the Ionian Sea.|
|Pedro Menéndez de Avilés||1519–1574||1565||Spanish||A Spanish Admiral and pirate hunter, de Aviles is remembered for his destruction of the French settlement of Fort Caroline in 1565.|
|Samuel Axe||early 17th century||1629–1645||England||An English privateer in Dutch service, Axe served with English forces in the Dutch Revolt against Habsburg rule.|
|Sir Andrew Barton||1466–1511||to 1511||Scotland||Served under a Scottish letter of marque, but was described a pirate by English and Portuguese.|
|Abraham Blauvelt||d. 1663||1640–1663||Netherlands||One of the last Dutch corsairs of the mid-17th century, Blauvelt mapped much of South America.|
|Jean Bontemps||early 16th century||1559-1572||France||Active in the Caribbean Sea. He attacked Santa Marta, Cartagena de Indias, Rio de Hacha and Margarita island.|
|Nathaniel Butler||b. 1578||1639||England||Despite a comparatively unsuccessful career as a privateer, Butler was later colonial governor of Bermuda.|
|Jan de Bouff||early 17th century||1602||Netherlands||de Bouff served as a Dunkirker in Habsburg service during the Dutch Revolt.|
|Roche Braziliano||c. 1630–1671?||c. 1630–1671||Dutch Brazilian||Pirate born in the town of Groningen.|
|John Callis (Calles)||c. 1558–1587?||c. 1574–1587||England||Welsh pirate active along the southern coast of Wales.|
|Hendrik (Enrique) Brouwer||1581–1643||1600,
|Netherlands||Brouwer was a privateer who fought the Habsburgs during the Dutch revolt, holding the city of Castro, Chile hostage for a period of two months.|
|Thomas Cavendish||1560–1592||1587–1592||England||The first man to intentionally circumnavigate the globe, Cavendish also raided numerous Spanish towns and ships in the New World.|
|Shirahama Kenki||16th-early 17th centuries||Japan||Japanese pirate and one of the first Japanese with whom the southern Vietnamese kingdom of the Nguyễn Lords made contact.|
|Arnaut Mami||mid 16th century||1572-1576||Albania||Active in the Narrow Sea (the modern day Adriatic Sea). He was the squadron admiral and the supreme commander of all Islamic vessels in North Africa and Pasha Algiers, known as the most formidable corsair of that period.|
|Matsura Takanobu||1529–1599||Japan||One of the most powerful feudal lords of Kyūshū and one of the first lords to allow trading with Europeans|
|Peter Love||d.1610||England||An English pirate who set up base in the Outer Hebrides and was active around Ireland and Scotland. He was betrayed by the outlaw Neil MacLeod and executed in 1610.|
|Zheng Zhilong (Cheng Chih Lung)||1604–1662||1623–1645||China||A convert to Christianity, Zhilon collaborated with Dutch forces, helping to create a monopoly on trade with Japan.|
|Zheng Jing (Cheng Chin)||1643–1682||1662–1682||China||Chinese pirate and warlord. The eldest son of Koxinga and grandson of Zheng Zhilong, he succeeded his father as ruler of Tainan and briefly occupied Fukien.|
|Wang Zhi||16th century||1551–1555||China||One of the chief figures among the wokou of the 16th century.|
|Francois le Clerc (Jambe de Bois)||16th century||1550s–1560s||France||Known for his sacking of Santiago de Cuba in 1554|
|Jacob Collaart||17th century||1625–1635||Netherlands||A Flemish admiral who served as privateer and one of the Dunkirkers in Spanish Habsburg service during the Dutch Revolt, responsible for the destruction of at least 150 fishing boats.|
|Claes Compaan||1587–1660||1621–1627||Netherlands||Former Dutch corsair and privateer, he later became a pirate and was successful in capturing hundreds of ships in Europe, the Barbary coast and West Africa.|
|Jan Mendoza / Juan de mendoza||b. Late 1500||Early 1600||Spain or Netherlands||Plundered the water between Iceland and Norway, and the coast of Finnmark and Nordland. Hunted down and captured by Admiral Jørgen Daa and explorer Jens Munk by order of king Christian IV of Denmark-Norway. Mendoza was executed by hanging in Copenhagen. The king recovered 8 treasure chests of gold coins, each chest requerd 10 man to lift.|
|Baltazar de Cordes||d.1601?||1598–1601||Netherlands||A Dutch corsair who fought against the Spanish during the early 17th Century.|
|Simon Danziker||d. 1611||1600s–1610s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair and privateer who later became a Barbary corsair based in Algiers and Tunis during the early 17th century. He and John Ward dominated the Western Mediterranean during the early 17th century.|
|De Veenboer||d. 1620||1600s–1610s||Netherlands||Former Dutch corsair and privateer. Later became a Barbary corsair under Simon the Dancer and eventually commanded the Algiers corsair fleet.|
|Uluj Ali (Giovanni Dionigi)||1519–1587||1536–1550||Turkey||An Italian-born Muslim corsair, who later became an Ottoman admiral and Chief Admiral (Kaptan-ı Derya) of the Ottoman Fleet in the 16th century.|
|Sir Francis Drake||1540–1596||1563–1596||England||Known as "el Draque" (the Dragon), he was an Elizabethan corsair considered a hero in England, but little more than a pirate in Spain.|
|Peter Easton||1570–1619||1602||England||A privateer, then pirate, who was able to retire in Villefranche, Savoy with an estimated worth of two million pounds.|
|Jan Janszoon||1570–after 1641||Holland||Turkish service of the 'fleet from Salé'|
|Ben Robins||1607–1640||England||English privateer and slave trader in the West Indies.|
|Jan Evertsen||1630s||Netherlands||Dutch admiral and corsair.|
|Jean-François de La Rocque de Roberval||1500–1560||1623–1645||France||French nobleman and adventurer who, through his friendship with King Francis, became the first Lieutenant General of New France. As a corsair he attacked towns and shipping throughout the Spanish Main, from Cuba to Colombia. He died in Paris as one of the first Huguenot martyrs.|
|Juan Garcia||fl. 1622||1620s||Spain||One of the Spanish privateers who accompanied Jan Jacobsen on his last voyage in 1622.|
|Sir Michael Geare||c. 1565–?||c. 1584–1603||England||Elizabethan Sea Dog active in the West Indies up until the turn of the 17th century.|
|Sir John Hawkins||1532–1595||1554, 1564, 1567||England||An Elizabethan corsair and some-time slaves trader in West Africa and Venezuelan coasts. His work in ship design was important during the threat of invasion from the Spanish Armada.|
|Piet Hein||1577–1629||1628||Netherlands||After serving as a Spanish galley slave for four years, Hein later captured 11,509,524 guilders of cargo from the Spanish treasure fleet.|
|Richard Ingle||1609–1653||1644-1653||England||Maryland privateer and pirate. In an extension of the English Civil War in the Catholic colony of Maryland he and the Puritan settlers plundered ships belonging to Catholics and the colonial governor Lord Baltimore. Ingle seized control of the colonial capital briefly and was later hanged for piracy.|
|Pieter Adriaanszoon Ita||fl. 1628–1630||1620s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair and privateer. Commanded one of the earliest and largest expeditions against the Portugal and Spain in the Caribbean during 1628.|
|Jan Jacobsen||d. 1622||1610s–1620s||Netherlands||Flemish-born privateer in English service during the Eighty Years' War.|
|Willem Jacobszoon||fl. 1624–1625||1620s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair who accompanied Pieter Schouten on one of the first major expeditions to the West Indies.|
|Willem Jansen||fl. 1600||1600s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair based in Duinkerken and one time officer under Jacques Colaert.|
|Cornelius Jol||1597–1641||1630s–1640s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair successful against the Spanish in the West Indies. One of the first to use a wooden peg leg.|
|Lawrence Keymis||fl. –1618||1595-1596- 1617||England||Lawrence Keymis was a seaman and companion of Sir Walter Raleigh in his expeditions to Spanish colony of Guayana in 1595 and 1617 to search for England El Dorado (actual Venezuela). In another expedition in 1596 led a force inland Guayana along the banks of the Essequibo River, reaching what he wrongly believed to be Lake Parime.|
|Sir James Lancaster||1554–1618||1591–1603||England||Elizabethan Sea Dog active in India during the late 16th century. Later a chief director for the East India Company.|
|Guillaume Le Testu||1509–1573||1560s–1570s||France||French privateer, explorer and cartographer. First navigator to chart Australia in 1531.|
|Hendrick Jacobszoon Lucifer||1583–1627||1627||Netherlands||Hendrick captured 1.2 million guilders from a Honduran treasure fleet, but was mortally wounded in the process.|
|Sir Henry Mainwaring||1587–1653||1610–1616||England||English privateer and pirate hunter. His pirate fleet nearly broke the truce between England and Spain following the Anglo-Spanish War.|
|Olivier van Noort||1558–1627||1598–1601||Netherlands||Despite his venture being of limited success, it was the inspiration that led to the formation of the Dutch East India Company.|
|John Nutt||1620–1623||England||An English pirate active in Newfoundland.|
|Roger North||1585 –1652||1617||England||Roger North was a seaman and companion of Sir Walter Raleigh in his expeditions to Spanish colony of Guayana in 1617 to search for England El Dorado (actual Venezuela). North in 1619 petitioned for letters patent authorising him to establish the king's right to the coast and country adjoining the River Amazon; to found a plantation or settlement there, and to open a direct trade with the natives.|
|Gráinne O'Malley (Gráinne Ní Mháille)||1530–1603||1560s–1600s||Ireland||An important figure in Irish legend who is still present in popular culture today.|
|John Oxenham||1536–1580||1570s–1600s||England||Elizabethan Sea Dog and associate of Sir Frances Drake during the early years of the Anglo-Spanish War. First English privateer to enter the Pacific though Panama.|
|William Parker||d. 1617||1590s–1600s||England||Elizabethan Sea Dog active in the West Indies. Successfully attacked Porto Bello in 1602 without firing a shot.|
|Pedro de la Plesa||fl. 1622||1620s||Spain||He and Juan Garcia who joined Jan Jacobsen on his final voyage in 1622.|
|Sir Amyas Preston||c. ? - 1609||c. 1595–1597||England||Elizabethan Sea Dog as part of expedition of Walter Raleigh in 1595 sacked Caracas and Coro with George Somers.|
|Sir Walter Raleigh||fl. 1554–1618||1595-1617||England||Elizabethan corsair who commanded two expeditions to search for England El Dorado in Spanish colony of Guayana (actual Venezuela).|
|Murat Reis the Elder||1506–1608||1534–1608||Rhodes||An Ottoman Albanian privateer and Ottoman admiral who took part in all of the early naval campaigns of Turgut Reis.|
|Assan Reis (Jan Marinus van Sommelsdijk)||fl. 1626||1620s||Netherlands||Former Dutch privateer turned Barbary corsair. He attacked the Dutch ship St. Jan Babtista under Jacob Jacobsen of Ilpendam on March 7, 1626.|
|James Riskinner (Reiskimmer)||17th century||1630s||England||A lieutenant on the ship Warwick, then part of a fleet under the command of Nathaniel Butler, he later took part in a privateering expedition between May–September 1639.|
|Isaac Rochussen||1631–1710||1660s–1670s||Netherlands||A Dutch corsair active against the English during the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch War. His capture of The Falcon, an East India merchantman, was one of the most valuable prizes captured during the late-17th century.|
|Mahieu Romboutsen||fl. 1636||1630s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair in the service of Spain. Was part of a three ship squadron under Jacques Colaert and was captured with him after a five-hour battle with Jan Evertsen.|
|William Rous||fl. 1636–1645||1630s–1640s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair and privateer based on Providence Island. He was involved in privateering expeditions for the Providence Island Company and later commander of Fort Henry.|
|Jan van Ryen||d. 1627||1620s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair active in the West Indies. Reportedly killed with a number of colonists attempting to establish one of the first colonies on the Wiapoco in Dutch Guiana.|
|Pieter Schouten||fl. 1624–1625||1620s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair who led one of the Dutch expeditions to the West Indies.|
|Sir George Somers||c. 1564–1610||c. 1595–1607||England||Elizabethan Sea Dog in 1595 sacked Caracas and Coro with Amyas Preston. Active in the West Indies up until the turn of the 17th century.|
|Jacques de Sores||16th century||1555||France||A French pirate whose sole documented act was his attack and burning of Havana in 1555.|
|Dirck Simonszoon van Uitgeest||fl. 1628–1629||1620s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair who commanded a WIC expedition to Brazil bringing back over 12 Portuguese and Spanish prizes.|
|Sir Francis Verney||1584–1615||1608–1610||England||English nobleman who left behind his inheritance to become a Barbary corsair.|
|Johannes van Walbeeck||fl. 1634||1620s–1630s||Netherlands||Dutch admiral and corsair. Captured Curaçao in 1634 and later served as governor.|
|John Ward||1552–1622||1603–1610s||England||A notorious English pirate around the turn of the 17th century who later became a Barbary Corsair operating out of Tunis during the early 1600s.|
|Cornelis Wittebol||fl. 1622||1620s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair in Spanish service. In February 1622, attacked a fishing fleet from the Veere and Maasmond sinking several ships and bringing back the survivors to ransom in Duinkerken.|
|Jacob Willekens||1571–1633||1590s–1630s||Netherlands||Dutch admiral who led Dutch corsairs on the first major privateering expedition to the West Indies.|
|Hendrik Worst||fl. 1624||1620s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair who accompanied Pieter Schouten in his expedition to the West Indies.|
|Filips van Zuylen||fl. 1624||1620s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair active against the Portuguese in West Africa.|
|Moses Cohen Henriques||early 17th century||1620s and 1630s||Netherlands||Dutch pirate of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin active in the Caribbean against Spain and Brazil against Portugal|
Age of the Buccaneers: 1650–1690
|Name||Life||Years active||Country of origin||Comments|
|Vincenzo Alessandri||d. 1657||Italy||Originally a Knight of Malta, Alessandri was captured and enslaved.|
|Cornelius Andreson||?||1674-1675||Netherlands||He is best known for attacking English traders off Acadia and for serving in King Philip’s War.|
|Michiel Andrieszoon||17th century||1680s||Netherlands||Dutch merchant-pirate. Associated with Thomas Paine and Laurens de Graff.|
|John Ansell||d. 1689||England||Sailed with Henry Morgan and participated in his raids against Maracaibo and Gibraltar, Venezuela.|
|Jean Bart||1651–1702||1672–1697||France||Born the son of a fisherman, Bart retired an admiral in French service.|
|Michel Etchegorria / Michel le Basque||17th century||1660–1668||France||Sailed with Jean-David Nau l´Ollonais and participated in his raids against Maracaibo and Gibraltar, Venezuela.|
|John Bear (pirate)||?||1684-1689||England||English pirate active in the Caribbean who also served with the Spanish and French.|
|Philippe Bequel||17th century||1650–1669||France||Was one of the first foreign privateers awarded a letter of marque by the governor of Jamaica|
|Jacob Janssen van den Bergh||fl. 1660||1650s–1660s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair and slave trader for the Dutch West India Company.|
|Lancelot Blackburne||1653–1743||1680–1684||England||Blackburne was an English clergyman, who became Archbishop of York, and – in popular belief – a pirate.|
|Eduardo Blomar||d. 1679||1670s||Spain||Spanish renegade active in the Spanish Main during the 1670s. Tried in absentia and convicted of piracy with Bartolomé Charpes and Juan Guartem in Panama in 1679.|
|Pierre Bot||17th century||1680s||France||French buccaneer active in the Caribbean.|
|Manuel Butiens||fl. 1645||1640s||Netherlands||Dutch renegade and Dunkirker in the service of Spain.|
|Bartolomé Charpes||d. 1679||1680s||Spain||Spanish renegade who was tried in absentia and convicted of piracy with Eduardo Blomar and Juan Guartem in Panama by Governor Don Dionicio Alceda in 1679.|
|Nicholas Clough||?||1682-1683||England||Active in the Caribbean and off the coast of Africa. He is best remembered for leaving behind a well-documented Pirate Code, his “Articles of Agreement”.|
|Edward Collier||17th century||1668–1671||England||Served as Sir Henry Morgan's second-in-command throughout much of his expeditions against Spain during the mid-17th century.|
|John Cooke (Cook)||d. 1683||1680s||England||English buccaneer who led an expedition against the Spanish in the early 1680s.|
|John Coxon||d. 1689||1677–1682||England||One of the most famous of the Brethren of the Coast, a loose consortium of pirates and privateers who were active on the Spanish Main.|
|George Cusack||d. 1675||1668-1675||Ireland||Cruised both northern Europe and the West Indies, during and after the Anglo-Dutch Wars.|
|William Dampier||1651–1715||1670–1688||England||Was the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.|
|Edward Davis||17th century||1680–1688||England||Led the last major buccaneer raid against Panama.|
|John Davis (Robert Searle)||18th century||England||Davis was one of the earliest and most active buccaneers on Jamaica.|
|Charlotte de Berry||17th century||1660s||England||A female pirate, she later commanded her own ship. Her story first appeared in 1836 and she may have been fictional.|
|Jacquotte Delahaye||17th century||1660s||France||Delahaye was a French Buccaneer, and together with Anne Dieu-Le-Veut was one of very few female buccaneers.|
|Edward Dempster||17th Century||1667-1669||England||A buccaneer and privateer active in the Caribbean. He is best known for his association with Henry Morgan.|
|Anne Dieu-Le-Veut||b. 1650||1650–1704||France||Was originally one of the women – "Filles de Roi" – sent by the French government to Tortuga to become wives to the local male colonists.|
|Jean du Casse||1646–1715||168?–1697||France||Born to Huguenot parents, du Casse was allowed to join the French navy on the value of his prizes taken while a buccaneer.|
|Cornelius Essex||d. 1680||1670s||England||An English buccaneer who took part in Captain Bartholomew Sharp's privateering expedition, the "Pacific Adventure", during the late 1670s.|
|Jean Foccard||17th century||1680s||France||Associate of Laurens de Graaf and Michel de Grammont. He later joined them in their attack on Tampico in 1682.|
|Laurens de Graaf||1653–1704||1672–1697||Netherlands||Characterised as "a great and mischievous pirate" by Henry Morgan, de Graaf was a Dutch pirate, mercenary, and naval officer in the service of the French colony of Saint-Domingue.|
|John Graham (pirate)||17th Century||1683-1686||England||English pirate active off New England and the African coast.|
|Michel de Grammont||1645–1686||1670–1686||France||A French buccaneer, de Grammont primarily attacked Spanish holdings in Maracaibo, Gibraltar, Trujillo, La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Cumana and Veracruz|
|Jacob Evertson||died 1695?||1681-1688||Netherlands||He escaped Henry Morgan and sailed with Jan Willems for several years.|
|France||A French writer, most known as the author of one of the most important sourcebooks of 17th century piracy, De Americaensche Zee-Roovers.|
|Philip Fitzgerald (pirate)||17th Century||1672-1675||Ireland||Irish pirate and privateer who served the Spanish in the Caribbean.|
|John Graham (pirate)||?||1683-1686||England||English pirate active off New England and the African coast. May have been a doctor as well.|
|"Red Legs" Greaves||17th Century||1670s - 1690 (?)||Scotland||Greaves's nickname was based on a commonly used term for reddened legs often seen among the Scottish and Irish who took to wearing kilts in almost any weather. Noted for his raid of Margarita Island. He may have been fictional; his story first appeared in 1924.|
|Juan Guartem||17th century||1670s||Spain||A Spanish renegade pirate who raided Spanish settlements in New Spain during the late 17th century with his most notable raid being against Chepo in 1679.|
|Peter Harris||d. 1680||1670s||England||English buccaneer and member of Captain Bartholomew Sharp's "Pacific Expedition". Killed at Panama in 1680.|
|Jean Hamlin||17th century||1682-1684||French||French buccaneer active in the Caribbean and off the coast of Africa. He was often associated with St. Thomas’ pirate-friendly Governor Adolph Esmit.|
|Richard Hawkins||1562–1622||1593–1594||England||A buccaneer and explorer who was later knighted.|
|Thomas Henley (pirate)||?||1683-1685||Colonial America||A pirate and privateer active in the Red Sea and the Caribbean.|
|Henry Holloway (pirate)||?||1687||Colonial America||A pirate active off the American east coast, from South Carolina to Maine. Aided by a member of Governor James Colleton's Grand Council.|
|Edward Low||17th century||c. 1635–c. 1668||England||British pirate active in the Caribbean during the 1660s.|
|William Jackson||17th century||1639–1645||England||It was the fleet under his command that captured Jamaica for England.|
|Bartholomeus de Jager||fl. 1655||1650s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair active against the Portuguese. He attacked a small merchant fleet at Fernando de Noronha capturing one merchant ship and driving off the other.|
|Daniel Johnson||1629–1675||1657–1675||England||Became known as "Johnson the Terror" among the Spanish.|
|William Knight||17th century||1684–1686||England||Along with Edward Davis, he took part in the final large buccaneer attack on Spanish holdings.|
|Jelles de Lecat||17th Century||1668-1674||Netherlands||Sacked Spanish territories alongside Brasiliano, Reyning, Bradley, and Morgan. Often called "Yellahs," "Yallahs," or “Captain Yellows.”|
|Pierre Le Grand||17th century||France||Known only for a single attack against a Spanish galleon, his existence is disputed.|
|Raveneau de Lussan||b. 1663||1684–1688||France||An impoverished nobleman. Attacked targets in Central America. Known for a “long march” in 1688.|
|Thomas Magott (Mackett)||17th century||1680s||England||English buccaneer who sailed with Bartholomew Sharp and others on the "Pacific Adventure".|
|Edward Mansvelt (Mansfield)||d. 1666||1650s–1660s||Curaçao||Dutch buccaneer in English service. Known as the Admiral of the "Brethren of the Coast", Mansvelt was a mentor to Sir Henry Morgan who succeeded him following his death.|
|Marquis de Maintenon||1648–1691||1672–1676||France||A French nobleman who became a buccaneer in the Caribbean, selling his castle and title to Madame de Maintenon. Remarkable his raid of Margarita Island.|
|David Marteen||17th century||1663–1665||Netherlands||Known primarily as the sole non-English Captain who participated in the raids against Spanish strongholds in present-day Mexico and Nicaragua.|
|Daniel Montbars (Exterminator)||1645–1701?||1660s–1670s||France||A former French naval officer and gentleman adventurer, he engaged in a violent and destructive war against Spain in the Caribbean and the Spanish Main. His hatred of the Spanish earned him the name "Montbars the Exterminator".|
|Sir Henry Morgan||1635–1688||1663–1674||Wales||A privateer (and pirate) who later retired to become Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica. he participated in his raids against Panama, Maracaibo, Gibraltar, Porto Bello.|
|John Morris||17th century||1663–1672||England||A skilled pilot, he served with both Christopher Myngs and Henry Morgan before becoming a pirate hunter.|
|Sir Christopher Myngs||1625–1666||1650s–1660s||England||Described as "unhinged and out of tune" by the governor of Jamaica, Myngs nevertheless became a Vice-Admiral of the Blue in the Royal Navy. In 1658, raided the coast of South-America; failing to capture a Spanish treasure fleet, he destroyed Tolú and Santa Marta in present-day Colombia instead. In 1659, he plundered Cumaná, Puerto Cabello and Coro in present-day Venezuela.|
|François l'Ollonais (Jean-David Nau)||1635–1668||1660–1668||France||Nicknamed "The Bane of Spaniards" (French: Fléau des Espagnols). l'Ollonais had a reputation for brutality, offering no quarter to Spanish prisoners. Famous by his raids against Maracaibo and Gibraltar, Venezuela.|
|Pierre Le Picard||fl. 1666–1690||1660s–1690s||France||An officer under l'Ollonais and Henry Morgan, he and Moise Vauquelin left to pursue a career on their own. He later served in King William's War. He may have been one of the first buccaneers to raid shipping on both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts.|
|Chevalier du Plessis||d. 1668||1660s||France||French privateer active in the West Indies. He was succeeded by Moise Vauquelin following his death.|
|Baron Jean de Pointis||1635–1707||1690s||France||His greatest venture was the 1697 Raid of Cartagena.|
|Thomas Pound||d. 1703||1689||England||Briefly commanded a small ship near Massachusetts before being captured.|
|Bartolomeu Português||b. 1630||1666–1669||Portugal||One of the earliest pirates to use a pirate code.|
|Lawrence Prince||fl. 1659–1672||1650s–1670s||Netherlands||Dutch buccaneer in English service. An officer under Sir Henry Morgan, he and John Morris led the vanguard at Panama in 1671.|
|Roche Braziliano||17th century||1654–1671||Netherlands||Roasted two Spanish farmers alive when they refused to hand over their pigs.|
|Philip Ras||fl. 1652–1655||1650s||Netherlands||Captured several English ships as both a corsair and privateer during the First Anglo-Dutch War.|
|Thomas Paine||17th century||1680s||England||A colonial American privateer who raided several settlements in the West Indies with Jan Willems, most notably against Rio de la Hacha in 1680. He also drove the French from Block Island.|
|George Peterson (pirate)||17th Century||1686-1688||England||Part of his crew consisted of the remnants of the crews of Jean Hamlin and two recently deceased pirates, Jan “Yankey” Willems and Jacob Evertson.|
|Manuel Ribeiro Pardal||d. 1671||1668–1671||Portugal||Portuguese privateer in the service of Spain. One of the few successful privateers active against the buccaneers of the Caribbean during the late 17th century.|
|Stenka Razin||1630–1671||Russia||A Cossack pirate who operated on the Volga and later expanded into the Caspian Sea.|
|Peter Roderigo||?||1674-1675||Netherlands||He is best known for attacking English traders off Acadia and for serving in King Philip’s War.|
|Richard Sawkins||d. 1680||1679–1680||England||Participated, along with John Coxon and Bartholomew Sharp, in the surprise attack on Santa Marta|
|Lewis Scot||fl. 1663||1660s||England||Known for his attack on the city of Campeche, on the Yucatan Peninsula.|
|Bartholomew Sharp||1650–1690||1679–1682||England||Plundered 25 Spanish ships and numerous small towns.|
|Gustav Skytte||1637–1663||1657–1663||Sweden||Attacked ships in the Baltic Sea, along with other accomplices of noble descent.|
|Bernard Claesen Speirdyke||fl. 1663–1670||1660s–1670s||Netherlands||Dutch buccaneer active in the Caribbean, he was captured by Captain Manuel Ribeiro Pardal near Cuba and later executed.|
|Charles Swan||17th century||England||A reluctant pirate, he begged for a pirate even as he looted his way around South America.|
|Jacques Tavernier (Le Lyonnais)||1625–1673||1664–1673||France||French buccaneer who took part in expeditions with Laurens de Graaf, Michel de Grammont, Pierre Le Grand, François l'Ollonais and Sir Henry Morgan before his execution in 1673. His existence is disputed as the only pre-20th century reference to him appears in Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography.|
|Nicholas (Nikolaas) van Hoorn||1635–1683||1663–1683||Netherlands||Merchant, privateer and later pirate, van Hoorn was hugely successful before dying of wound infection.|
|Cornelis Janszoon van de Velde||fl. 1655||1650s||Netherlands||Dutch corsair active near the Antillen, he was briefly associated with Bartholomeus de Jager.|
|Moise Vauquelin (Moses Vanclein)||fl. 1650–1672||1650s–1670s||France||An officer under l'Ollonais, he also had a partnership with Pierre le Picard. In his later years, he wrote a book detailing the coastline of Honduras and the Yucatan along with fellow buccaneer Philippe Bequel.|
|Captain Veale||17th Century||1685||England||Attacked ships along New England from Virginia to Boston with pirate John Graham.|
|Thomas Veale||17th Century||mid-1600s||England||Known for legends of his buried treasure.|
|Lionel Wafer||1640–1705||1679–1688||Wales||An explorer whose work helped inspire the Darien Scheme.|
|Yankey (Janke) Willems||fl. 1681–1687||1680s||Netherlands||Dutch buccaneer active in the Caribbean.|
|Thomas Woolerly||?||1683-1687||Colonial America||A pirate and privateer active in the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean.|
|William Wright||17th century||1675–1682||England||Despite being English, Wright was active as a privateer under a French commission. He later became a buccaneer.|
Golden Age of Piracy: 1690–1730
|Name||Life||Years Active||Country of origin||Comments|
|James Allison||?||1689-1691||Colonial America||Active near Cape Verde and the Bay of Campeche. Almost the entire record of Allison’s piracy comes from trial records of a single incident, the seizure of the merchantman Good Hope.|
|Thomas Anstis||d. 1723||1718–1723||England||Was mainly active in the Caribbean, and served under first Howell Davis and later Bartholomew Roberts.|
|Leigh Ashworth||?||1716-1719||Unknown||A pirate and privateer operating in the Caribbean in the early 1700s.|
|John Auger||1678-1718||1718||Unknown||Active in the Bahamas around 1718. He is primarily remembered as the best known pirate captured by pirate turned pirate-hunter Benjamin Hornigold.|
|Adam Baldridge||?||fl. c. 1685–1697||England||English pirate and one of the early founders of the pirate settlements in Madagascar.|
|Bartholomew Roberts (Black Bart)||1682–1722||1719–1722||Wales||The most successful pirate of the Golden Age of Piracy, estimated to have captured more than 470 vessels.|
|George Booth||d. 1700||1696–1700||England||One of the earliest pirates active in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea.|
|John Bowen||d. 1704||1700–1704||Bermuda||Was active in the Indian Ocean, his contemporaries included George Booth and Nathaniel North.|
|Samuel Bellamy (Black Sam)||1689–1717||1716–1717||Hittisleigh, Devonshire, England||Despite having a career of only 16 months, Bellamy was extraordinarily successful, capturing more than 50 ships before his death at age 28. His acquired wealth of five tons of treasure from his short career is speculated at US $120 million in 2008 dollars. Bellamy began his pirate career under the command of Henry Jennings, a Buccaneer that turned pirate; but double-crossing Jennings, Bellamy fled to the Bahamas and joined Jennings' nemesis, Benjamin Hornigold of the Mary Anne. But quickly growing wearisome of Hornigold's refusal to attack English ships, Bellamy called for a vote of no confidence, and the crew ousted Hornigold and Blackbeard by a majority vote, electing Bellamy as captain. Bellamy's prize flagship, Whydah Galley, discovered by underwater explorer Barry Clifford in 1984, is currently the world's only fully authenticated Golden Age pirate shipwreck ever found.|
|Blackbeard (Edward Teach)||1680–1718||1716–1718||England||With his fearsome appearance, Blackbeard is often credited with the creation of the stereotypical image of a pirate. Although his real name remains unknown, he began his pirate career as the first officer of Buccaneer-turned-pirate Captain Benjamin Hornigold of the Mary Anne. When a young crewman, Samuel Bellamy, called for a vote of no confidence in Hornigold for his refusal to attack English ships, the crew by a vote ousted Hornigold and Blackbeard, leaving the Mary Anne to Bellamy whom the crew elected their new captain. His legend solidified after he took command of the Queen Anne's Revenge.|
|Black Caesar||d. 1718||1700s–1718||Africa||A captured slave turned pirate, Black Caesar was a well-known pirate active off the Florida Keys during the early 18th century. He later acted as a lieutenant to Blackbeard and was one of five Africans serving on his flagship.|
|Augustin Blanco||?||1700-1725||Cuba||He was noted for attacking in open boats, and for having a mixed-race crew.|
|Richard Bobbington||d. 1697||1695-1696||Unknown||Active in the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Persian Gulf. Sailed with Thomas Tew's crew after Tew's death. One of several captains of the Charming Mary.|
|Jean Bonadvis||?||1717-1720||France||He is best known for his involvement with Benjamin Hornigold and "Calico Jack" Rackham.|
|Stede Bonnet||1688–1718||1717–1718||Barbados||Nicknamed "The Gentleman Pirate", Bonnet was born into a wealthy family before turning to piracy.|
|Anne Bonny||1698–1782||to 1725||Ireland||Despite never commanding a ship herself, Anne Bonny is remembered as one of few female historical pirates.|
|Nicholas Brown||d. 1726||to 1726||England||Active off the coast of Jamaica, Brown was eventually killed – and his head pickled – by childhood friend John Drudge.|
|Josiah Burgess||1689-1719||1716-1719||England||He is best known as one of the heads of New Providence’s “Flying Gang.”|
|Samuel Burgess||1650-1716||1690-1708||England||Member of Captain William Kidd's crew in 1690 when the Blessed William was seized by Robert Culliford and some of the crew.|
|William Burke (pirate)||d. 1699||1699||Ireland||Pirate and trader active in the Caribbean and near Newfoundland, best known for aiding William Kidd.|
|James Carnegie||?||1716||Unknown||Sailed in consort with Henry Jennings.|
|Dirk Chivers||early 18th century||1694–1699||Netherlands||Active in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, Chivers later retired from piracy and returned to the Netherlands.|
|Edward Coates||?||1689-1694||Colonial America||A colonial American privateer in English service during the King William's War and later a pirate operating in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean during the mid-1690s.|
|Thomas Cocklyn||early 18th century||1717 to death||England||Primarily known for his association with Howell Davis and Oliver La Buze, Cocklyn's activities after 1719 are unknown.|
|John Cockram||?||1713-1718||England||Pirate, trader, and pirate hunter in the Caribbean, best known for his association with Benjamin Hornigold.|
|John Cole (pirate)||d. 1718||1718||England||Associated with Richard Worley and William Moody. He is known more for the unusual cargo of his pirate ship than for his piracy.|
|Robert Colley||d. 1698||1695-1698||Colonial America||An American pirate active near Newfoundland and the Indian Ocean.|
|Thomas Collins (pirate)||d. 1719||1690s - 1719||Unknown||Active in the Indian Ocean. He is best known for leading a pirate settlement and trading post on Madagascar.|
|Christopher Condent||d. 1770||1718–1720||England||After entering into piracy in 1718, Condent later took a prize of £150,000 and retired to France, becoming a wealthy merchant.|
|William Condon||d. 1721||to 1721||England||Captaining the Fiery Dragon, Condon was killed when she caught fire and sank.|
|Joseph Cooper||d .1725||1718-1725||Colonial America||Active in the Caribbean and the American east coast. He was best known for sailing alongside Francis Spriggs, and for the manner of his death.|
|Mary Critchett||died 1729||1729||Colonial America||She is best known for being one of only four female pirates from the Golden Age of Piracy.|
|Robert Culliford||early 18th century||1690–1698||England||The former first mate of William Kidd, Culliford led a first mutiny against Kidd, stealing his ship Blessed William.|
|Alexander Dalzeel||1662–1715||1685–1715||Scotland||Served under Henry Every. Was captured four times before finally being hanged.|
|Howell Davis||1690–1719||1718–1719||Wales||Having a career that lasted only 11 months, Davis was ambushed during an attempt to kidnap the governor of Príncipe.|
|Captain Davy||early 18th Century||1704-1705||France||French privateer active off New England during Queen Anne’s War. He is best known for repeatedly evading capture by rival English and Dutch privateers such as Adrian Claver and Thomas Penniston.|
|Robert Deal||d. 1721||1718-1721||England||He is best known for his association with Charles Vane.|
|Francis Demont||?||1716-1717||Colonial America||Pirate active in the Caribbean. His trial was important in establishing Admiralty law in South Carolina.|
|George Dew||1666-1703||1686-1695||England||He once sailed alongside William Kidd and Thomas Tew, and his career took him from Newfoundland to the Caribbean to the coast of Africa.|
|Edward England||1690–1720||1717–1720||Ireland||Differing from many other pirates of his day, England did not kill captives unless necessary.|
|John Evans||d. 1723||1722–1723||Wales||After an unsuccessful career as a legitimate sailor, Evans turned to piracy – initially raiding houses from a small canoe.|
|Henry Every (Avery)||1659–1699||1694–1699||England||Famous as one of the few pirates of the era who was able to retire with his takings without being either arrested or killed in battle.|
|Joseph Faro||?||1694-1696||Colonial America||Active in the Indian Ocean. He is best known for sailing alongside Thomas Tew to join Henry Every’s pirate fleet which captured and looted the fabulously rich Mughal ship Gunsway.|
|John Fenn||d. 1723||to 1723||England||Sailed with Bartholomew Roberts and, later, Thomas Anstis.|
|Lewis Ferdinando||?||1699-1700||Unknown||Active near Bermuda during the Golden Age of Piracy.|
|James Fife||d. 1718||1718||Unknown||Active in the Caribbean. Murdered by forced men on his crew.|
|William Fly||d. 1726||to 1726||England||Raided off the New England coast before being captured and hanged at Boston, Massachusetts.|
|Richard Frowd||?||1718-1719||England||He is best known for sailing with William Moody. He was one of a number of pirates to have both white and black sailors in his crew.|
|Ingela Gathenhielm||1692–1729||1718–1721||Sweden||Widow of Lars Gathenhielm, active on the Baltic Sea.|
|Lars Gathenhielm||1689–1718||1710–1718||Sweden||Active on the Baltic Sea|
|Richard Glover||d. 1698||1694-1698||Colonial America||A pirate and slave-trader active in the Caribbean and the Red Sea in the late 1690s.|
|Robert Glover||d. 1698||1693-1698||Ireland / Colonial America||An Irish-American pirate active in the Red Sea area in the late 1690s.|
|Christopher Goffe||?||1683-1691||Colonial America||A pirate and privateer active in the Red Sea and the Caribbean. He was eventually trusted to hunt down his former comrades.|
|Thomas Goldsmith||d. 1714||1714||England||Chiefly remembered not for his piracy but for retiring and dying peacefully in his bed, and for his gravestone inscription.|
|Thomas Griffin (pirate)||?||1691||Colonial America||A pirate and privateer active off New England. He is known for his association with George Dew.|
|Captain Grinnaway||?||1718||Unknown||A pirate from Bermuda, best known for being briefly and indirectly involved with Edward Teach (or Thatch, alias Blackbeard).|
|Jean Baptiste Guedry||d. 1726||1726||Acadia||Took over a small ship off Acadia and was tried for piracy. The trial was publicized to Indians as an example of English law.|
|Charles Harris||1698-1723||1722-1723||England||He is best known for his association with George Lowther and Edward Low.|
|John Halsey||d. 1708||1705–1708||Colonial America||Active in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, Halsey is remembered by Defoe as "brave in his Person, courteous to all his Prisoners, lived beloved, and died regretted by his own People."|
|Israel Hands||?||1700s–1718||Colonial America||Also known as Basilica Hands. He is best known for being second in command to Edward Teach, better known as Blackbeard. Hands' first historical mention was in 1718, when Blackbeard gave him command of David Herriot's ship Adventure after Herriot was captured by Teach in March 1718.|
|Don Miguel Enríquez (Henríquez)||1674–1743||1701–1735||Puerto Rico||Although born a shoemaker, Enríquez was later awarded a letter of marque by Spain, going on to become knighted and gathering a fortune of over 500,000 pieces of eight. Considered the "most accomplished" of the Hispanic privateers.|
|David Herriot||?||1700s–1718||Jamaica||Captain of the Jamaican sloop Adventure, captured by Edward Teach, alias Blackbeard, in 1718. He joined Blackbeard's crew, and later when Stede Bonnet separated from Blackbeard, Herriott became his sailing master. During the Battle of Cape Fear River Herriott was taken by Col. Rhet, of the sloop Royal James, on September 27, 1718. Herriott and boatswain, Ignatius Pell, turned King's evidence at their trial but escaped their Charleston prison on October 25. Herriott was shot and killed on Sullivan Island a few days later.|
|John Hoar||d. 1697||1694-1697||Colonial America||A pirate and privateer active in the late 1690s in the Red Sea area.|
|Benjamin Hornigold||1680–1719||1717–1719||England||Known for being less aggressive than other pirates, Hornigold once captured a ship for the sole purpose of seizing the crew's hats.|
|Thomas Howard||early 18th century||1698–1703||England||Howard served under both George Booth and John Bowen and later commanded the Prosperous.|
|Samuel Inless||?||1698-1699||Unknown||Active in the Indian Ocean, best known for serving as Captain over Nathaniel North and George Booth.|
|John Ireland||?||1694-1701||Colonial America||A pirate active in the Indian Ocean. He is best known for sailing with Thomas Tew. One of several captains of the Charming Mary.|
|John James||?||1699-1700||Wales||A Welsh pirate active near Madagascar, Nassau, and the American east coast.|
|Henry Jennings||d. 1745||1715||England||Jennings was a later governor of the pirate haven of New Providence. Although the Governor of Jamaica personally commissioned Jennings' privateering in 1715, after Jennings' began attacking salvage camps and Spanish, English and French vessels, Jennings was declared a pirate in April 1716. Jennings and his fleet of pirates and privateers subsequently moved to Nassau. Jennings was one of 400 pirates who took advantage of the British amnesty in 1718, and afterwards retired to Bermuda to live the rest of his life "as a wealthy, respected member of society."|
|John Julian||d. 1733||1716–1717||Miskito origins||Recorded as the first black pirate to operate in the New World.|
|James Kelly (James Gilliam)||d. 1701||to 1699||England||Active in the Indian Ocean, Kelly was a long-time associate of William Kidd.|
|William "Captain" Kidd||1645–1701||1695–1699||Scotland||Although modern historians dispute the legitimacy of his trial and execution, the rumor of Captain Kidd's buried treasure has served only to build a legend around the man as a great pirate. His property was claimed by the crown and given to the Royal Hospital, Greenwich, by Queen Anne.|
|Henry King (pirate)||?||1700||Unknown||He is best known for attacking the slave ship John Hopewell, whose captured crew turned the tables and took his ship from him.|
|John King (pirate)||c. 1706/9-1717||1716-1717||England||Although not ever a captain, King joined the crew of Sam Bellamy when they boarded the ship he was on, and is one of the youngest known pirates on record. His age is disputed at anywhere from 8–11 years.|
|Montigny la Palisse||?||1720-1721||France||Sailed in consort with Bartholomew Roberts.|
|Robert Lane||d. 1719||1719||Unknown||Was given command of a prize ship by Edward England, which was lost off Brazil with all hands.|
|Thomas Larimore||?||1677-1706||Colonial America||Active in the Caribbean and off the eastern seaboard of the American colonies. After helping suppress Bacon’s Rebellion and serving as a militia leader he turned to piracy, operating alongside John Quelch.|
|Francis Leslie (pirate)||?||1717-1718||England||He is best known as one of the leaders of the "Flying Gang" of pirates operating out of New Providence.|
|Olivier Levasseur (Oliver La Buse)||1688–1730||1716–1730||France||Nicknamed "la Buse" (the Buzzard) for the speed with which he attacked his targets, Levasseur left behind a cryptic message that has yet to be deciphered fully today.|
|Samuel Liddell||?||1716||Unknown||A pirate, privateer, and merchant active in the Caribbean. He is best known for sailing alongside Henry Jennings.|
|Edward "Ned" Low||1690–1724||1721–1724||England||A pirate known for his vicious torture, his methods were described as having "done credit to the ingenuity of the Spanish Inquisition in its darkest days".|
|George Lowther||d. 1723||to 1723||England||Active in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, one of Lowther's lieutenants included Edward Low.|
|Matthew Luke (Matteo Luca)||d. 1722||1722||Italy||A pirate and Spanish Guarda Costa active in the Caribbean.|
|Philip Lyne||d. 1726||1725-1726||Unknown||Known for his cruelty and his association with Francis Spriggs.|
|Simon Mascarino||?||1701-1721||Portugal||A Portuguese pirate active in the Caribbean. He was also a privateer in service of the Spanish.|
|William May||?||1689-1700||Unknown||Active in the Indian Ocean. He was best known for taking over William Kidd’s ship Blessed William and sailing with Henry Every.|
|Christopher Moody||d. 1718||1713–1718||England||Active off North and South Carolina, Moody offered no quarter to captured crews, signified by his flying of a red standard. Often conflated with William Moody.|
|William Moody (pirate)||d. 1718||1717-1718||England||He is best known for his association with Olivier Levasseur and Thomas Cocklyn, crewmembers who succeeded him as Captains in their own right. Often conflated with Christopher Moody.|
|Captain Napin||?||1717-1718||Unknown||A pirate active in the Caribbean and off the American east coast. He is best known for sailing alongside Benjamin Hornigold.|
|Thomas Nichols (pirate)||?||1717-1718||Unknown||A pirate active in the Caribbean and off the American east coast. He is best known as a leader among the "Flying Gang" of pirates operating out of New Providence.|
|Richard Noland||?||1717-1724||Ireland||He was best known for sailing with Samuel Bellamy before working for the Spanish.|
|Nathaniel North||b. 1672||1689–1709||Bermuda||Active in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, North served with other famous contemporaries, including John Bowen and George Booth.|
|Amaro Pargo||1678-1695||1703-1737||Spain||He was one of the most famous pirates of the golden age of piracy, and one of the most important personalities of the 18th century of Spain.|
|James Plantain||early 18th century||Jamaica||Plantain ruled the island of Madagascar between 1725 and 1728, primarily through fear, and was known as the "King of Ranter Bay".|
|John Prie||d. 1727||1727||Unknown||A mutineer and minor pirate in the Caribbean.|
|John Pro||d. 1719||1690s - 1719||Netherlands||Best known for leading a pirate trading post near Madagascar.|
|John Quelch||1666–1704||1703–1704||England||Quelch was the first person tried for piracy outside England under Admiralty Law and therefore without a jury.|
|"Calico Jack" John Rackham||1682–1720||to 1720||England||Earned his nickname for the colourful calico clothes that he wore.|
|George Raynor||1665-1743||1683-1694||Colonial America||Active in the Red Sea. Before he was briefly a pirate captain, he was a sailor on the Batchelor’s Delight which circumnavigated the globe with William Dampier.|
|Mary Read||1690–1721||to 1720||England||Along with Anne Bonny, one of few female historical pirates. When captured, Read escaped hanging by claiming she was pregnant, but died soon after of a fever while still in prison.|
|William Read (pirate)||d. 1701||1701||England||Active in the Indian Ocean near Madagascar. He is best known for rescuing fellow pirate captains John Bowen and Thomas White.|
|Lieutenant Richards (pirate)||?||1718||Unknown||Active in the Caribbean and off the Carolinas. He is best known for sailing alongside Blackbeard (Edward Teach / Thatch).|
|John Rivers (pirate)||d. 1719||1686-1719||England||A pirate best known for leading a settlement and trading post on Madagascar.|
|Philip Roche (pirate)||1693-1723||1721||Ireland||Active in the seas of northern Europe, best known for murdering the crews and captains of ships he and his men took over.|
|Tempest Rogers||1672-1704||1693-1699||England||A pirate trader active in the Caribbean and off Madagascar. He is best known for his association with William Kidd.|
|Woodes Rogers||1679–1732||1709–1710||England||Played a major role in the suppression of pirates in the Caribbean.|
|Jasper Seagar||d. 1721||1719-1721||England||Active in the Indian Ocean, best known for sailing with Edward England, Olivier Levasseur, and Richard Taylor.|
|Robert Semple (Richard Sample)||d. 1719||1719||Unknown||Was given command of a prize ship by Edward England, which was run ashore and captured off Brazil.|
|Richard Shipton||d. 1726||1723-1726||Unknown||Active in the Caribbean, best known for sailing alongside Edward Low and Francis Spriggs.|
|James Skyrme||d. 1722||1720-1722||Wales||A Welsh pirate best known for Captaining two of Bartholomew Roberts’ prize ships.|
|Francis Spriggs||d. 1725||to 1725||England||Along with George Lowther and Edward Low, Spriggs was primarily active in the Bay of Honduras during the early 1720s.|
|Daniel Stillwell||?||1715-1718||England||A minor pirate in the Caribbean, best known for his association with Benjamin Hornigold.|
|Ralph Stout||d. 1697||1692-1697||Unknown||Active in the Indian Ocean. He is best known for rescuing fellow pirate Robert Culliford after each of them spent separate 4-year periods in Mughal Empire prisons.|
|Thomas Sutton||1699-1722||1719-1722||Scotland||Active off the coast of Africa. He was best known for sailing alongside Bartholomew Roberts.|
|John Swann (pirate)||?||1698-1699||Unknown||A minor pirate in the Indian Ocean, known almost entirely for speculation about his relationship with Robert Culliford.|
|John Taylor||early 18th century||England||At Reunion Island, Taylor is reputed to have captured the most valuable prize in pirate history.|
|Captain Thompson||d. 1719||1719||Cuba||Active in the Caribbean. He is primarily known for a single incident involving grenades.|
|Thomas Tew||d. 1695||1692–1695||England||Despite only going on two pirate voyages, Tew pioneered a route later known as the Pirate Round.|
|Charles Vane||1680–1721||1716–1721||England||Disliked due to his cruelty, Vane showed little respect for the pirate code, cheating his crew out of their shares in the takings.|
|Hendrick van Hoven||d. 1699||1698-1699||Netherlands||A buccaneer and pirate active in the Caribbean. He was known as “the grand pirate of the West Indies.”|
|John Vidal||?||1727||Ireland / Colonial America||A minor Irish-American pirate briefly active near Ocracoke Inlet off North Carolina. He is best known for bringing the Farley family with him, causing Martha Farley to be one of the few women tried for piracy.|
|Thomas Wake||d. 1696||1694-1696||Colonial America||Best known for sailing alongside Thomas Tew to join Henry Every in the Indian Ocean, hunting the Moghul treasure fleet.|
|Richard Want||?||1692-1696||Colonial America||Active in the Indian Ocean. He is best known for sailing alongside Thomas Tew and Henry Every.|
|Brigstock Weaver||?||1720-1725||Unknown||He is best known for his association with fellow pirates Thomas Anstis and Bartholomew Roberts.|
|John West (pirate)||?||1713-1714||Unknown||A minor pirate in the Caribbean, best known for his association with Benjamin Hornigold.|
|Joseph Wheeler (pirate)||?||1696-1698||Unknown||He is best known for sailing alongside Dirk Chivers and Robert Culliford.|
|Thomas White (pirate)||d. 1708||d. 1708||1698-1708||He was only briefly a captain on his own but served under several more prominent captains such as George Booth, John Bowen, Thomas Howard, John Halsey, and Nathaniel North.|
|David Williams (pirate)||d. 1709||1698-1709||Wales||Welsh sailor who turned pirate after being abandoned on Madagascar. He was only briefly a Captain, and is best known for sailing under a number of more prominent pirate captains.|
|Paulsgrave Williams||?||1716-1723||Colonial America||A pirate who sailed the Caribbean, American eastern seaboard, and off West Africa. He is best known for sailing alongside Samuel Bellamy.|
|Nicholas Woodall||?||1718||Unknown||He is best known for his involvement with Charles Vane and Benjamin Hornigold.|
|Richard Worley||d. 1719||to 1719||England||Credited as one of the first pirates to fly the skull and crossbones pirate flag.|
|Emanuel Wynn||early 18th century||France||Was the first pirate to fly the "skull and crossbones" Jolly Roger. His design also incorporated an hourglass below the skull.|
|Charles Yeats||?||1718||Unknown||He is best known for sailing alongside and then abandoning Charles Vane.|
After the Golden Age: Pirates, Privateers, Smugglers, and River Pirates: 1730–1885
|Name||Life||Years Active||Country of origin||Comments|
|Peter Alston||1765–1804||1797–1804||United States||River pirate, highwayman, and counterfeiter, son of counterfeiter, Philip Alston, alias James May, who was believed to be an associate of the Samuel Mason and Micajah "Big" Harpe and Wiley "Little" Harpe.|
|Philip Alston||1740 or 1741–after 1799||1770?–1799?||United States||River pirate and counterfeiter, an associate of the counterfeiter John Duff and father of river pirate, highwayman, and counterfeiter, Peter Alston.|
|François Aregnaudeau||1774–1813||1810–1821||France||Breton who commanded a number of privateers, most notably Blonde, and Duc de Dantzig. In them he captured numerous prizes. He and Duc de Dantzig disappeared without at trace around the end of 1812. Their disappearance gave rise to an unsubstantiated gruesome ghost ship legend.|
|Louis-Michel Aury||1788–1821||1810–1821||France||French privateer, served to the Republics of Venezuela and Mexico.|
|Joseph Baker||d. 1800||1800||Canada||The single piratical action of his career consisted of an unsuccessful attempt to commandeer the sloop Eliza.|
|Renato Beluche||1780–1860||1803–1823||Louisiana, New Spain||A known associate of the Lafitte Brothers active in the Caribbean before joining Simon Bolivar army in his fight for South American independence.|
|Hippolyte Bouchard||1780–1843||1817–1819||France||A French and Argentine sailor who fought for Argentina, Chile and Peru.|
|Luis Brion de Trox||1782–1821||1806–1821||Curazao||Dutch privateer, served to the Republics of Venezuela and Great Colombia.|
|Flora Burn||fl. 1741||1740s–1750s||England||Female pirate active mainly off the East coast of North America from 1741.|
|Cabeza de Perro||1800 - ?||?||Spain||Was a Spanish pirate. His physical characteristics earned him his nickname, which translates to Dog Head.|
|Henri Caesar||early 19th century||1805–1830||Haiti||Haitian pirate supposedly active in the Caribbean during the early 19th century. Historical existence is doubtful.|
|Eric Cobham and Maria Lindsey||1700–1760||1720s–1740s||England||Cobham and his wife, Maria, were primarily active in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.|
|James Copeland||1823-1857||1830s-1857||United States||A leader of a gang of pirates, smugglers, and outlaws in southern Mississippi and southern Alabama, around Mobile, known as the Wages and Copeland Clan.|
|Richard Coyle||d. 1738||1738||England||He is known for a single incident involving the murder of the Captain of the ship St. John.|
|Jacob Pettersson Degenaar||1692-1766||1740s||Sweden|
|Sadie Farrell (Sadie The Goat)||?||1869||United States||An Irish American New York City river pirate and the criminal leader of the Charlton Street Gang in 1869.|
|James Ford||1770?–1833||1799?-1833||United States||A civic leader and business owner in western Kentucky and southern Illinois, secretly, was the leader of a gang of river pirates and highwaymen, along the Ohio River, known as the "Ford's Ferry Gang."|
|Hezekiah Frith||Early 19th century||1790s–1800s||Bermuda||British ship owner and smuggler known as Bermuda's "gentleman privateer". Alleged to have used his business as a cover to withhold cargo sized in privateering expeditions and amass a small fortune.|
|Vincent Gambi||d. 1820||Italy||A pirate based out of New Orleans, he was an associate of Jean Lafitte.|
|José Gaspar (Gasparilla)||1756–1821||1783–1821||Spain||Spanish naval officer who turned to piracy and operated from a base in southwest Florida. Although Gaspar is a popular figure in local folklore and was the inspiration for Tampa's Gasparilla Pirate Festival, there is no evidence of his existence.|
|Leoncio Prado Gutiérrez||1853–1883||1876-1877||Peru||Prado a Peruvian mariner with Cuban revolutionaries seized the Spanish ship Moctezuma in the Caribbean sea at North of La Hispaniola. Renamed as Cespedes failed to liberate Cuba under Spanish rule. Realizing how the ship remained in the hands of the royalist navy, Prado ordered his men to leave and lit a barrel of gunpowder inside of the ammunition storage facilities.|
|Catherine Hagerty and Charlotte Badger||early 19th century||1806||England||Australian convicts. Among a group of convicts taken on board a shorthanded ship as crew. The convicts commandeered the ship and sailed for New Zealand. Hagerty was put ashore and died, Badger was never seen again.|
|Micajah and Wiley Harpe||Before 1768–1799 (Micajah)
Before 1770–1799 (Wiley)
|United States||America's first known serial killers, were Loyalists in the American Revolution, as well as, river pirates and highwaymen, who preyed on travelers along the Ohio River and the waterways of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois. The Harpe Brothers were associates of Samuel Mason and Peter Alston.|
|Pugsy Hurley||1846-after 1886||1865?-after 1886||United States||English-born American burglar, river pirate and underworld figure in New York City during the mid-to late 19th century. An old time thief from the old Seventh Ward, he was also a well-known waterfront thug whose criminal career lasted over two decades. He especially gained notoriety as a member of the Patsy Conroy Gang|
|Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah||1760–1826||1780–1826||Kuwait||The most famous pirate in the Persian Gulf, he ruled over Qatar and Dammam for short periods and fought alongside the Wahhabis against the Al-Khalifa tribe of Bahrain.|
|Bill Johnston||1782–1870||1810–1860||United States||Nicknamed "Pirate of the Thousand Islands".|
|Edward Jordan||1771–1809||1794–1809||Canada||Irish rebel, fisherman and pirate of Nova Scotia.|
|Jorgen Jorgensen||1780–1841||1807–1808||Denmark||Danish adventurer and writer, he was captured by the British as a privateer during the Napoleonic Wars.|
|Jean Lafitte||c. 1776–1826?||1803–1815
|France||French pirate (or privateer) active in the Gulf of Mexico during the early 1800s. A wanted fugitive by the United States, he later participated, during the War of 1812, in the Battle of New Orleans on the side of Andrew Jackson and the Americans. In 1822, Lafitte approached the navy of Gran Colombia and Simon Bolivar granted a commission and given a new ship, a 40-ton schooner named General Santander.|
|Pierre Lafitte||1770–1821||1803–1821||France||French pirate, and lesser-known brother of Jean Lafitte, active mainly in the Gulf of Mexico.|
|Narciso Lopez||1797–1851||1850–1851||Venezuela||Venezuelan adventurer, enlisted in United States about six hundred filibusters and successfully reached Cuba in May 1850 to liberate the island from Spanish Crown rule. His troops took the town of Cárdenas, carrying a flag that López had designed, which later became the banner of modern Cuba. After another failed attempt to free Cuba he was executed in Havana by the royalists in 1851.|
|Sam Hall Lord||1778–1844||1800s–1840s||Barbados||Sam Lord was one of the most famous buccaneers on the island of Barbados.|
|Kazimierz Lux||1780–1846||1803–1819||Poland||The Polish Pirates of the Caribbean. After pacifying the slave rebellion in Haiti, Lux started a career of piracy - shooting and boarding an American brig was one of his more spectacular successes; the vessel was later sold for 20 000 francs in Havana.[clarification needed]|
|Gregor MacGregor||1786–1845||1810–1830||Scotland||Adventurer, land speculator, and colonizer who fought in Venezuela and New Granada struggle for independence. In 1817, led an army of only 150 men in an assault on Amelia Island, Florida. After his return to Britain in 1820, he claimed to be cacique of Poyais a fictional Central American country that MacGregor had invented which, with his promotional efforts, drew investors and eventually colonists.|
|Francisco de Miranda||1750–1816||1806||Venezuela||Venezuelan militar and adventurer, who organized in 1806 two private filibustering expeditions from New York and Trinidad with the intention of liberate Venezuela under Spanish rule since XVI siecle. On April 28 of 1806 the small fleet was overtaken by Spanish warships off the coast of Venezuela. Only the Leander escaped. The Backus and Bee were captured with all the revolutionaries. Sixty men were put on trial for piracy and Ten were sentenced to death in Puerto Cabello. The Leander and the expeditionary force regrouped on the British islands of Barbados and Trinidad, assisted by HMS Lilly. The new expedition landed at La Vela de Coro on August 3, captured the fort and raised the tricolor flag for the first time on Venezuelan soil. Before dawn the next morning the expeditionaries occupied Coro, but found no support from the city residents and Miranda returned to England.|
|Samuel Mason||1739–1803||to 1803||United States||Initially, a Revolutionary War Patriot captain in the Ohio County, Virginia militia and an associate judge and squire in Kentucky, Mason later, ran a gang of highway robbers and waterways river pirates.|
|John A. Murrell||1806?–1844||to 1834||United States||Near-legendary bandit, known as the "Great Western Land Pirate," ran a gang of river pirates and highwaymen along the Mississippi River.|
|Robert Surcouf||1779-1823||1789–1808||France||French privateer and slave trader who operated in the Indian Ocean between 1789 and 1801, and again from 1807 to 1808, capturing over 40 prizes, while amassing a large fortune as a ship-owner, both from privateering and from commerce.|
|Rachel Wall||1760-1789||1781–1782||Province of Pennsylvania||Rachel and her husband George Wall were active off the New Hampshire coast until George and the crew were washed out to sea. She was hanged in Boston on 8 October 1789.|
|William Walker||1824–1860||1852–1860||United States||American lawyer, journalist and adventurer, who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking colonies under his personal control. Walker became president of the Republic of Nicaragua in 1856 and ruled until 1857, when he was defeated by a coalition of Central American armies. He was executed in Trujillo by the government of Honduras in 1860.|
|Alexander White||d. 1784||fl. 1784||East Coast of America||Hanged for piracy in Cambridge, Massachusetts in November 1784.|
|Dominique You||1775–1830||1802–1814||Haiti||Acquired a reputation for daring as a pirate. Retired to become a politician in New Orleans.|
Renegades of the West Indies: 1820–1830
|Name||Life||Years active||Country of origin||Comments|
|Mansel Alcantra (Alcantara)||fl. 1829||1820s||Spain||In 1829, he captured the Topaz off St. Helena and had the entire crew murdered.|
|Roberto Cofresí||1791–1825||1818-1825||Puerto Rico||Considered the "last of the [successful] West India pirates", Cofresí avoided capture by the navies of six nations (including Naval powers Spain and Britain) for years and became the final target of the West Indies Anti-Piracy Operations. After being captured by the Puerto Rican militia, he claimed to have a stash of 4,000 pieces of eight hidden, which he tried to use as a bribe.|
|Diabolito (Little Devil)||d. 1823||Cuba||Cuban-born pirate active in the Caribbean during the early 19th century. He was one of the first pirates to be hunted down by Commodore David Porter and the Mosquito Fleet during the early 1820s.|
|Charles Gibbs||1798–1831||1816–1831||United States||One of the last pirates active in the Caribbean, and one of the last people executed for piracy by the United States.|
|"Don" Pedro Gilbert||1800–1834||1832–1834||Colombia||Took part in the last recorded incident of piracy in Atlantic waters.|
|Benito de Soto||1805–1830||1827–1830||Spain||The most notorious of the last generation to attack shipping on the Atlantic Ocean.|
|Jacque Alexander Tardy||1767-1827||1817-1827||France|
Piracy in East and South-East Asia: 1800–1860
|Name||Life||Years Active||Country of origin||Comments|
|Tuanku Abbas||early 19th century||to 1844||Malay Archipelago||The brother of a rajah of Achin, known for his sponsoring and leading of pirate raids.|
|Eli Boggs||1810–1857||1830–1857||United States||Pirate who sailed in Chinese junk for smuggling.|
|Cheng I||d. 1807||to 1807||China||A pirate on the Chinese coast in the 18h and 19th centuries.|
|Cheung Po Tsai||early 19th century||to 1810||China||Active along the Guangdong coast and is said to have commanded a fleet of 600 junks.|
|Ching Shih||d. 1844||1807–1810||China||A prominent female pirate in late Qing China.|
|Chui A-poo||d. 1851?||1840s–1850||China||Based in Bias Bay east of Hong Kong, Chui preyed on opium ships in the South China Sea until his fleet was destroyed by the British in 1849.|
|Abdulla al-Hadj||d. 1843||1800s||England/Arabia||English pirate primarily known for his activity in the South China Sea|
|Shap Ng-tsai||fl. 1840s||1845–1849||China||Commanded around 70 junks in the South China Sea before retiring and accepting a pardon from the Chinese government.|
Blackbirders, Shanghaiers, Crimps and African Slave Traders: 1860–1900
|Name||Life||Years Active||Country of origin||Comments|
|Nathaniel Gordon||1826–1862||1860||United States||The first and only American slave trader to be tried, convicted, and executed "for being engaged in the Slave Trade" in accordance with the Piracy Law of 1820.|
|Bully Hayes||1829–1877||1850–1877||United States||The Pirate of the South Sea, was a notorious blackbirder in the South Pacific, and was described as "the last of the Buccaneers".|
|Albert W. Hicks||1820–1860||1860||United States||New York waterfront thug who killed the 3-man crew of an oyster sloop after being shanghaied. He was the last man hung for piracy in the United States.|
|James "Shanghai" Kelly||1830-1892||1850-1870||United States||A legendary figure in San Francisco history who owned several boarding houses and saloons, Kelly was renowned for his ability to supply men to understaffed ships. He was reported to have shanghaied 100 men for three ships in a single evening, by hosting a free booze cruise to celebrate his "birthday", then serving opium-laced whiskey to knock out his guests.|
|Joseph "Bunko" Kelly||d. aft. 1908||1879–1894||England||The "King of the Crimps" in Portland, Oregon, he shanghaiied over 2,000 men in all. In 1893, he delivered 20+ men who had mistakenly consumed embalming fluid from the open cellar of a mortuary. The ship sailed off before the captain realized most of the men were dead.|
|Ben Pease||1837-1870||1860-1870||United States||A New England sea captain who kidnapped Pacific Islanders aboard the Pioneer, providing labor for the plantations of Fiji. When Bully Hayes was arrested for piracy in Samoa, Pease helped him to escape. When next the Pioneer returned to port, Hayes was at the helm, and was rumored to have killed Pease during a fight.|
Piracy from the 20th-21st century: 1901–
|Name||Life||Years active||Country of origin||Comments|
|Asad 'Booyah' Abdulahi||1966-||1998-||Somalia||Somali pirate boss, active in capturing ships in the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean for ransoms.|
|Román Delgado Chalbaud||1882–1929||1929||Venezuela||On 11 August 1929 Delgado Chalbaud led the steamship Falke, (renamed General Anzoátegui for the occasion) into Cumaná in a failed attempt to overthrow Venezuelan dictator Juan Vicente Gomez. After landing in Cumana the expeditionary force of 250-300 men soon ran into problems by government troops. Delgado was killed on the first day, and on 24 August, the leaders of the expedition surrendered. Venezuela's roving diplomat in Europe, José Ignacio Cárdenas, had reported on the planned expedition, which helped defeat it.|
|Rafael de Nogales Méndez||1879–1936||1902||Venezuela||With the support of president Zelaya of Nicaragua, Nogales participated in a failed attempt to overthrow Venezuelan dictator Cipriano Castro involving an expedition aboard of schooner La Libertad. The forces landed in La Guajira peninsula but were defeated by general Antonio Davila in Carazua.|
|Paul del Rio||1943–2015||1963||Venezuela||On 13 February 1963 Paul del Rio at the age of 19 was the leader of a Venezuelan revolutionary group of the Armed Forces of National Liberation that seized the Venezuelan cargo ship Anzoategui in the Caribbean, in a failed attempt to overthrow the president Romulo Betancourt. Involving 25 men the ship was hauled off to Brazilian coast evading both the Venezuelan Navy and the U.S. Navy.|
|Henrique Galvão||1895–1970||1961||Portugal||On January 22, 1961, Henrique Galvão led the Santa Maria hijacking, also known as Operation Dulcinea. The Portuguese revolutionaries isolated the vessel by cutting off all communication, and killed one officer and wounded several others. Galvão used the hijacking to send radio broadcasts from the ship calling attention to his concerns and views on what he characterized as the president Salazar regime of fascism. The liner evaded both the U.S. Navy and British Royal Navy for eleven days before docking safely at Recife, Brazil.|
|Abdul Hassan||1969-||2005-||Somalia||Somali pirate nicknamed "the one who never sleeps". Leader of the 350-men strong group "Central Regional Coast Guard", active in capturing ships for ransoms.|
|Felix von Luckner||1881–1966||1916–1917||Germany||German navy officer nobleman privateer who the epithet Der Seeteufel (the Sea-Devil) -- and his crew that of Die Piraten des Kaisers (the Emperor's Pirates) -- for his exploits in command of the sailing commerce raider SMS Seeadler (Sea Eagle) in 1916–17, during World War I.|
|Manuel Antonio Matos||1847–1929||1902-1903||Venezuela||With the support of the New York & Bermudez Company and Orinoco Steamship Company, in 1901 Matos participated in a failed Revolution to overthrow Venezuelan dictator Cipriano Castro involving an expedition from Trinidad aboard of steamship Bay Righ with men, weapons, ammunition for the revolutionary army. The forces landed in Coro, Paraguana peninsula, but were defeated in La Victoria by government forces on November 2, 1902.|
|Gustavo Machado Morales||1898–1987||1929||Venezuela||Participated in Rafael Simón Urbina 's June 1929 taking of Fort Amsterdam in Curaçao, in another failed attempt to overthrow dictator Juan Vicente Gómez involving 250 men. This attempt involved the kidnapping of the governor of Curaçao, Leonardus Albert Fruytier who was hauled off to invade Venezuela on the stolen American ship Maracaibo. After this raid was defeated by Gómez forces he went into exile in Colombia with Urbina and others revolutionaries.|
|Abduwali Muse||1990-||2008-2009||Somalia||On 16 February 2011, Muse was a defendant in the first piracy trial in the United States in almost two centuries.|
|Peter de Neumann||1917–1972||21 June 1941||United Kingdom||Second Officer aboard the RN prize vessel Criton (captured from the Vichy French). Widely known as "The Man From Timbuctoo".|
|"Roaring" Dan Seavey||1865–1949||1900–1930||United States||Active as a "Timber Pirate", "Lake Pirate", and "Great Lakes Pirate", in Wisconsin and Michigan, on the Great Lakes.|
|Boysie Singh||1908–1957||1947–1956||Trinidad||Active in the waters between Venezuela and Trinidad. Singh commonly attacked fishing boats, killing the crew and stealing the boat engine, before sinking the boat and selling the engine.|
|Rafael Simón Urbina||1897–1952||1929-1931||Venezuela||Participated in Gustavo Machado Morales 's June 1929 taking of Fort Amsterdam in Curaçao, involving 250 men. This attempt involved the kidnapping of the governor of Curaçao, Leonardus Albert Fruytier who was hauled off to invade Venezuela on the stolen American steamship Maracaibo to overthrow the dictatorship of general Gomez . After this raid was defeated by troops conducted by Leon Jurado and he went into exile in Colombia with Machado and others revolutionaries. In October 1931, aboard of the stolen American tanker Progresso with 137 Mexican braceros and 8 Venezuelans, it landing at Puerto Gutiérrez and takes Capatárida being defeated once more by the troops of the general Leon Jurado, before which he fled the country again.|
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- Serle, Percival (1949). "Jorgensen, Jorgen". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
- Edwin A. Sherman (1902). "The life of the late Rear-Admiral John Drake Sloat". Retrieved 2015-05-19.
- Fernández Valledor, Roberto (2006). Cofresí: El pirata Cofresí mitificado por la tradición oral puertorriqueña. Casa Paoli. p. 117. ISBN 0847705560.
- Gibbs, Joseph (2007), "Dead Men Tell No Tales: The Lives and Legends of the Pirate Charles Gibbs." University of South Carolina Press.
- Gilbert, Pedro. A Report of the Trial of Pedro Gilbert. Boston: Russell, Oridorne and Metcalf, 1834.
- Gilbert, Pedro. Trial of the Twelve Spanish Pirates of the Schooner Panda, A Guinea Slaver... For Robbery and Piracy, Committed on Boards the Brig Mexican, 20th Sept. 1832. Boston: Lemuel Gulliver, 1834.
- Martin Booth. Opium: A History. New York: Thomas Dunne, 1996. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-312-20667-3
- Rutter, Owen (1986) . The Pirate Wind: Tales of the Sea-robbers of Malaya. p. 134.
- Soodalter, Ron Hanging Captain Gordon: The Life and Trial of an American Slave Trader, Atria Books, New York, 2006. ISBN 0-7432-6728-1
- Bacon, Daniel (2000). "The Barbary Coast Trail". GrandTimes. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- "Portland History". Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- 'We consider ourselves heroes' - a Somali pirate speaks The Guardian
- (in Spanish) venezuelatuya.com, Rafael Simón Urbina
- (in Spanish) Martinez Dorsi, Gustavo Adolfo (2004), "La Invasion del 'Falke' a Cumana, un Intento por Derrocar la Dictadura Gomecista[permanent dead link]", Procesos Históricos, July, Number 6, University of the Andes (Venezuela)
- (in Spanish) venezuelatuya.com, José Ignacio Cárdenas, accessed 4 June 2012
- As brigands hold the Sirius Star supertanker to ransom, we go inside the Somali pirates' lair The Daily Mail
- John D. Brown - Dawn of the Pirate
- US wants to take fight against Somali pirates on to land The Guardian
- Edwards, Bernard Death in the Doldrums: U Cruisers Off West Africa, 2005. ISBN 978-1-84415-261-2
- Daily Express, London, 10 February 1943, London - The Man From Timbuctoo
- Bickerton, Derek. The Murders of Boysie Singh: Robber, Arsonist, Pirate, Mass-Murderer, Vice and Gambling King of Trinidad. Arthur Barker Limited, London. 1962.
- Bulwer, Edward Lytton. Athens, Its Rise and Fall: With Views of the Literature, Philosophy, and Social Life of the Athenian People. New York: Harper & brothers Publishers, 1852.
- Livy, History of Rome, Rev. Canon Roberts (translator), Ernest Rhys (Ed.); (1905) London: J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd.
- Plutarch, "Aratus" in Plutarch's Lives, Arthur Hugh Clough (editor), John Dryden (translator). Two volumes. Modern Library; Modern Library Paperback Ed edition (April 10, 2001). Downloadable version at Project Gutenberg. Vol. 2: ISBN 0-375-75677-9.
- Polybius, Histories, Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (translator); London, New York. Macmillan (1889); Reprint Bloomington (1962).
- Pritchett, William Kendrick. The Greek State at War. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1974. ISBN 0-520-02565-2
- Rawlinson, George; Benjamin Jowett, Henry Graham Dakyns and Edward James Chinnock. Greek Historians: The Complete and Unabridged Historical Works of Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon and Arrian. New York: Random House Incorporated, 1942.
- Rogozinski, Jan. Pirates!: Brigands, Buccaneers, and Privateers in Fact, Fiction, and Legend. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996. ISBN 0-306-80722-X
- Shaw, Philip. The Sublime. New York: Routledge, 2006. ISBN 0-415-26847-8
- Strabo, Geography, translated by Horace Leonard Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd. (1924). Books 8-9: ISBN 0-674-99216-4, Books 13-14: ISBN 0-674-99246-6.
- Thirlwall, Connop. A History of Greece. London: Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, 1846.
- Walbank, F. W., Philip V of Macedon, The University Press (1940).
- Waltari, Mika; The Etruscan (Turms kuolematon, 1955).
- Wilkes, John, The Illyrians (Peoples of Europe), Blackwell Publishers, (December 1, 1995) ISBN 0-631-19807-5.
- Bono, Salvatore, Corsari nel Mediterraneo (Corsairs in the Mediterranean), Oscar Storia Mondadori. Perugia, 1993.
- Bottling, Douglas. The Pirates. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books Inc., 1978.
- Bracker, Jörgen : Klaus Störtebeker – only one of them. The history of the Vitalienbrüder. In: Wilfried honour-break (Hrsg.): Störtebeker. 600 years after its death (Hansi studies; Bd. 15). Porta Alba publishing house, Luebeck 2001, ISBN 3-933701-14-7
- Bradford, Ernle, The Sultan's Admiral: the Life of Barbarossa, London, 1968.
- Currey, E. Hamilton, Sea-Wolves of the Mediterranean,, London, 1910
- John of Fordun, Chronicle of the Scottish Nation. Edited by William Forbes Skene, translated by Felix J.H. Skene. Reprinted, Llanerch Press, Lampeter, 1993. ISBN 1-897853-05-X
- Knecht, R.J. Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-521-57885-X
- McDonald, R. Andrew Outlaws of Medieval Scotland: Challenges to the Canmore Kings, 1058–1266. Tuckwell Press, East Linton, 2003. ISBN 1-86232-236-8
- Oram, Richard, David I: The King who made Scotland. Tempus, Stroud, 2004. ISBN 0-7524-2825-X
- Rogozinski, Jan. Pirates!: Brigands, Buccaneers, and Privateers in Fact, Fiction, and Legend. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996. ISBN 0-306-80722-X
- William of Newburgh, Historia rerum anglicarum, Book 1 Ch.24, "Of bishop Wimund, his life unbecoming a bishop, and how he was deprived of his sight", Full-text online.
- Wolf, John B., The Barbary Coast: Algeria under the Turks, New York, 1979; ISBN 0-393-01205-0
Rise of the English Sea Dogs and Dutch Privateers: 1560–1650
- Andrade, Tonio. The Company's Chinese Pirates: How the Dutch East India Company Tried to Lead a Coalition of Pirates to War Against China, 1621–1662].
- Bicheno, Hugh Crescent and Cross: The Battle of Lepanto 1571, Phoenix Paperback, 2004, ISBN 1-84212-753-5
- Rachel Carley (2000). Cuba: 400 Years of Architectural Heritage. Watson-Guptill. p. 224. ISBN 0-8230-1128-3.
- David Cordingly (1997). Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates. Harvest Books. p. 320. ISBN 0-15-600549-2.
- Currey, E. Hamilton Sea-Wolves of the Mediterranean, London, 1910.
- Earle, Peter (2003). The Pirate Wars. Methuen Publishing. p. 304. ISBN 0-413-75880-X.
- Gerhard, Peter. Pirates of New Spain, 1575–1742. Mineola, NY: Courier Dover Publications, 2003. ISBN 0-486-42611-4
- van der Hoven, Marco, ed. Exercise of Arms: Warfare in the Netherlands, 1568–1648. Brill Academic Publishers, 1997. ISBN 90-04-10727-4
- Hughes-Hallett, Lucy. Heroes: A History of Hero Worship. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York, 2004. ISBN 1-4000-4399-9.
- Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Providence Island, 1630–1641: The Other Puritan Colony. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-521-55835-8
- Lane, Kris E. Pillaging the Empire: Piracy in the Americas, 1500–1750. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1998. ISBN 0-7656-0257-1
- Manthorpe, Jonathan. Forbidden Nation: A History of Taiwan. New York, 2005.
- Mattingly, Garett, The Defeat of the Spanish Armada, ISBN 0-395-08366-4 – a detailed account of the defeat of the Spanish Armada, it received a special citation from the Pulitzer Prize committee in 1960.
- Maxwell, Kenneth. Naked Tropics: Essays on Empire and Other Rogues. London: Routledge (UK), 2003. ISBN 0-415-94576-3
- Mcgrath, John Terrence. The French in Early Florida: In the Eye of the Hurricane. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. ISBN 0-8130-1784-X
- Michael, Franz. The Origin of Manchu Rule in China. Baltimore, 1942. Journal of World History, 2004 Dec.; 15(4):415-444.
- Miguel de Cervantes, in chapter XXXIX of his classic El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha, mentions Uluç Ali under the name of "Uchali", describing briefly his rise to the regency of Algiers.
- Rodger, N.A.M. The Safeguard of the Sea; A Naval History of Britain 660–1649. (London, 1997).
- Roding, Juliette and Lex Heerma van Voss, ed. The North Sea and Culture (1550–1800). Larenseweg, Netherlands: Uitgeverij VerLoren, 1996. ISBN 90-6550-527-X
- Schmidt, Benjamin. Innocence Abroad: The Dutch Imagination and the New World, 1570–1670. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-521-80408-6
- Stradling, R.A. The Armada of Flanders: Spanish Maritime Policy and European War, 1568–1668 (Cambridge Studies in Early Modern History). Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-521-40534-8 (issued in paperback 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-52512-1)
- Wolf, John B. The Barbary Coast: Algeria under the Turks, W.W. Norton, New York/London, 1979, ISBN 0-393-01205-0.
Age of the Buccaneers: 1650–1690
- The Pirates of the Caribbean II in Tortuga in the XVII Century Tortuga, 1918.
- Haring, Clarence. The Buccaneers in the West Indies in the XVII Century. Methuen, 1910.
- Walpole, Horace, Letters, Volume 4 (at Project Gutenberg)
- Marley, David F. Pirates and Privateers of the Americas. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1994.
- Morris, Mowbray. Tales of the Spanish Main. Kessinger Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-4179-5373-X
- Riccardo Capoferro, Frontiere del racconto. Letteratura di viaggio e romanzo in Inghilterra, 1690–1750, Meltemi, 2007.
- Rogozinski, Jan. Pirates: an A-Z Encyclopedia. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996.
- The Voyages and Adventures of Capt. Barth. Sharp and Others in the South Sea, Being a Journal of the Same; Also Capt. Van Horn with His Buccanieres Surprising of La Veracruz; to Which is Added the True Relation of Sir Henry Morgan His Expedition Against the Spaniards in the West-Indies and His Taking Panama; Together with the President of Panama’s [i.e., Juan Perez de Guzman] Account of the Same Expedition, Translated Out of the Spanish; and Col. Beeston’s Adjustment of the Peace Between the Spaniards and English in the West Indies. London: Printed by B.W. for R.H. and S.T. and are to be sold by Walter Davis…, 1684.
- The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Golden Age of Piracy: 1690–1730
- Andrews, Thomas F. (editor) (1979) English Privateers at Cabo San Lucas: the Descriptive Accounts of Puerto Seguro by Edward Cooke (1712) and Woodes Rogers (1712), with Added Comments by George Shelvocke (1726) and William Betagh (1728). Dawson's Book Shop, Los Angeles.
- Bolster, W. Jeffrey. Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail.
- Breverton, Terry (2003) The Book of Welsh Pirates and Buccaneers. Glyndwr Publishing. ISBN 1-903529-09-3
- Cooke, Edward (1712) A Voyage to the South Sea and Round the World. 3 vols. Lintot, London
- Ellms, Charles (1837) The Pirate's Own Book: Authentic Narratives of the Most Celebrated Sea Robbers. Portland ME: Sanborn & Carter (reissued: New York: Dover Publications 1993 ISBN 0-486-27607-4)
- Gilbert, H. (1986) The Book of Pirates. London: Bracken Books.
- Johnson, Charles (1724) A General History of the Pyrates. 2 vols. London: Charles Rivington
- Johnson, Charles (1724) A General History of the Pyrates, from their First Rise and Settlement in the Island of Providence, to the Present Time.... 2nd ed. London: Printed for, and sold by, T. Warner
- Johnson, Charles (1724) A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates (1998 ed.). Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-85177-732-0.
- Johnson, Charles (1728) The History of the Pirates: containing the lives of Captain Mission…. London: Printed for, and sold by, T. Woodward, 1728.
- Little, Bryan (1960) Crusoe's Captain: Being the Life of Woodes Rogers, seaman, trader, colonial governor. London: Odhams Press
- Menefee, S. P. "Vane, Charles," in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 56 (2004): pp. 94–95.
- Pennell, C. R. (2001) Bandits at Sea: a Pirates Reader. New York: NYU Press ISBN 0-8147-6678-1
- Pickering, David (2006) Pirates". CollinsGem. New York: HarperCollins Publishers; pp 80–82
- Rediker, Marcus (2004) Villains of All Nations: Atlantic pirates in the Golden Age. Boston: Beacon Press ISBN 0-8070-5024-5
- Rogers, Woodes (1712) A Cruising Voyage Round the World. London: Andrew Bell
- Rogozinski, Jan (1996) Pirates!: Brigands, Buccaneers, and Privateers in Fact, Fiction, and Legend. New York: Da Capo Press ISBN 0-306-80722-X
- Rogozinski, Jan (2000) Honor Among Thieves: Captain Kidd, Henry Every, and the Pirate Democracy in the Indian Ocean. Stackpole Books ISBN 0-8117-1529-9
- Seitz, Don Carlos, Gospel, Howard F. & Wood, Stephen (2002) Under the Black Flag: Exploits of the Most Notorious Pirates. Mineola, New York: Courier Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-42131-7
- Smith, Captain Alexander (1926) History of the Highwaymen. London: George Routledge & Sons ISBN 0-415-28678-6
- Steele, Philip (2004) The World of Pirates. Boston: Kingfisher Publications ISBN 0-7534-5786-5
- The Tryals of Major Stede Bonnet, and Other Pirates. London: Printed for Benj. Cowse at the Rose and Crown in St Paul's Church-Yard, 1719.
Decline of Piracy: 1730–1900
- Cordingly, David (1997). Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates. Harvest Books.
- Gregory, Kristiana. The Stowaway: A Tale of California Pirates. Scholastic Trade, 1995. ISBN 0-590-48822-8
- Pickering, David. "Pirates". CollinsGem. HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY. pp-96-97. 2006
- Rothert, Otto A. The Outlaws of Cave-In-Rock, Otto A. Rothert, Cleveland 1924; rpt. 1996 ISBN 0-8093-2034-7
- Ancient World
- An article about the Roman Navy, with information on Anicetus.
- Herodotus - The History of Herodotus, with information on Dionysius the Phocaean.
- The Pirates Hold - Entry for Glauketas.
- Middle Ages
- Jean Ango at Encyclopædia Britannica.com
- Genealogy - Pier Gerlofs Donia at Langenberg-Laagland.com, see Pier Gerlofs biography, downloadable PDF
- An article from the English Historical Review, vol 27 (1912) gives biographical details of Eustace the Monk.
- Chronological list of important dates and events in the life of Turgut Reis (Italian)
- Agreement on reparations for injuries and damages by vitalians (made between King Henry IV of England and the Hanseatic League)
- Magister Wigbold and the Likedeelers (in German)[permanent dead link]
- "Heard at Byland: Wimund’s Woes" from Byland Abbey website, Retrieved Jan. 2005.
- Rise of the English Sea Dogs and Dutch Privateers (1560–1650)
- Two variants on the ballad of Andrew Bartin / Barton.
- (in Dutch) A short biography of Hendrik Brouwer.
- John D. Neville. "History of Thomas Cavendish", Heritage Education Program, US National Park Service.
- Christian Isobel Johnstone (1831). Lives and Voyages of Drake, Cavendish, and Dampier. Oliver & Boyd. From Google Books.
- Christian Isobel Johnstone (1892). Early English voyagers : or, The adventures and discoveries of Drake, Cavendish, and Dampier. London: Nelson. From Internet Archive
- Francois Le Clerc, at Rob Ossian's Pirate Cove
- Isle of Tortuga: Jacob Collaart[dead link]
- Oliver Seeler's website "Sir Francis Drake"
- Hunt, E. (1979) . "Eaton, Peter". In Brown, George Williams. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
- An exhibit in the National Archives on John Hawkins.
- A timeline of Piet Hein's life.
- Privateers and Pirates: James Riskinner
- Piracy in the Caribbean
- Age of the Buccaneers (1650–1690)
- Jean Bart (English)
- Un dictionnaire biographique de la flibuste (1648–1688), Biographies - B (in French)
- Famous Historical Pirates - Edward Collier
- John Coxon at The Pirate King
- Works by William Dampier at Project Gutenberg
- A Voyage to New Holland at Project Gutenberg
- A Continuation of a Voyage to New Holland at Project Gutenberg
- Notable Voyagers, W.H.G. Kingston and Henry Frith - Chapter XXI: Voyages and adventures of William Dampier – from AD 1674
- Piracy in the Caribbean
- Golden Age of Piracy (1690–1730)
- Brethren of the Coast: Captain Thomas Anstis
- Biography of Bartholomew Roberts
- The Pirate Cove! - George Booth
- National Geographic, "Capt. Samuel Bellamy, Rogue Romeo"
- A Biography of Stede Bonnet
- Anne Bonny at TheWayofthePirates.com
- Christopher Condent at Rob Ossian's Pirate Cove!
- Pirate Encyclopedia: Howell Davis
- Pirates hold: William Fly
- The Pirate Cove! - John Halsey
- Biography of Miguel Henríquez
- Benjamin Hornigold at TheWayofthePirates.com
- Benjamin Hornigold at AgeofPirates.com
- Piracy in the Caribbean
- Decline of Piracy (1730–1900)
- The California State Military Museum - Spanish and Mexican California: Hippolyte de Bouchard and His Attacks on the California Missions
- Hipólito (Hypolite) Bouchard and the Raid of 1818 article at the Monterey County Historical Society official website – URL accessed on December 2, 2005.
- American Museum of Natural History - Spanish Colonial History
- Gasparilla Pirate Festival
- José Gaspar site
- Bradlee's account of Gasparilla and the Story of Juan Gomez
- Charles Gibbs Treasure
- Charles Gibbs at Rob Ossian's Pirate Cove!
- Don Pedro Gilbert at Age of Pirates.com
- "The Execution of Gordon, The Slave-Trader", Harper's Weekly, March 8, 1862.
- "Slave Captain to be Hanged", Worcester Aegis and Transcript, December 7, 1861, p 1. (From Letters of the Civil War (website), archived at Wayback Machine, November 15, 2004.)
- Australian Broadcasting Commission, 22 September 2003, transcript of television program on Jorgen Jorgenson
- A biography of Jørgensen
- Bell Anthology - Samuel Mason
- Cheung Po Tsai Cave at discoverhongkong.com
- Piracy in the Caribbean
- Piracy in the 20th and 21st centuries