Monroe County, Arkansas
Monroe County is located in the Arkansas Delta in the U. S. state of Arkansas. The county is named for the fifth President of the United States. Created as Arkansas's 20th county on November 2, 1829, Monroe County is home to two incorporated town and three incorporated cities, including Clarendon, the county seat, Brinkley, the most populous city; the county is the site of numerous unincorporated communities and ghost towns. Occupying only 621 square miles, Monroe County is the 22nd smallest county in Arkansas; as of the 2010 Census, the county's population is 8,149 people in 4,455 households. Based on population, the county is the fifth-smallest county of the 75 in Arkansas. Located in the Arkansas Delta, the county is flat with fertile soils. Covered in forest, bayous and grasslands, the area was cleared for agriculture by early European-American settlers who used enslaved African Americans to do the work and to cultivate cotton, it is drained by the Cache River, Bayou DeView, the White River.
Three large protected areas preserve old growth bald cypress forest and wildlife habitat in the county: Cache River National Wildlife Refuge, Dagmar Wildlife Management Area and White River NWR and provide places for hunting and fishing. Interstate 40 is the only Interstate highway in Monroe County, crossing the county from east to west through Brinkley, the largest city; the county has three United States highways and twelve Arkansas state highways run in the county. A Union Pacific Railroad line crosses the county from southwest to northeast. Shortly after the United States had completed the Louisiana Purchase, officials began to survey the territory at a site near the intersection of Monroe and Lee counties. From forested wetlands in what would become southern Monroe County 900,000 square miles of land would be explored after President James Madison commissioned a survey of the purchase area; the point was commemorated in 1961 by the Arkansas General Assembly as part of Louisiana Purchase State Park.
Settlement in Monroe County began when Dedrick Pike settled in 1816 where the Cache River enters the White River. The settlement was named Mouth of the Cache, a post office by that name was opened years later; the community renamed itself Clarendon in 1824 in honor of the Earl of Clarendon. Monroe County was established under the Arkansas territorial legislature in 1829, the county seat was established at Lawrenceville, where a jail and courthouse were erected. A ferry across the White River was founded in 1836. In 1857 the county seat was moved to Arkansas; the new brick courthouse was nearly finished by the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. The county sent five units into Confederate service. After Union troops captured Clarendon in 1863, they destroyed the small city; the Union had dismantled the brick courthouse and shipped the bricks to De Valls Bluff. After the war, during Reconstruction, there was a high level of violence by insurgent whites seeking to suppress the rights of freedmen and to keep them from voting.
After Republican Congressman James M. Hinds was murdered by the Ku Klux Klan in Monroe County in October, 1868, Governor Powell Clayton established martial law in ten counties, including Monroe County, as the attacks and murders were out of control. Four military districts were operated for four years in an effort to suppress guerrilla insurgency by white paramilitary groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan and others, they continued to challenge enfranchisement of blacks and the increasing power of Republicans in the county. The Monroe County Sun newspaper was established in 1876. Violence continued after Reconstruction, when Democrats had regained control of the state legislature. Whites struggled to re-establish white supremacy, by violence and intimidation of black Republican voters. At the turn of the century, the state legislature passed measures that disenfranchised most blacks for decades; the Equal Justice Initiative reported in 2015 that the county had 12 lynchings of African Americans from 1877-1950, most in the decades near the turn of the 20th century.
This was the fourth-highest of any county in the state. To escape the violence, thousands of African Americans left the state in the Great Migration to northern and western cities after 1940. Mechanization of farming and industrial-scale agriculture have decreased the need for workers; the rural county has continued to lose population because of the lack of work opportunities. There has been a decrease in population every decade since 1940; the county is located in one of the six primary geographic regions of Arkansas. The Arkansas Delta is a subregion of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, a flat area consisting of rich, fertile sediment deposits from the Mississippi River between Louisiana and Illinois. Large portions of Monroe County are within the Grand Prairie, a subdivision of the Arkansas Delta known today for rice farming and aquaculture. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 621 square miles, of which 607 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Prior to settlement, Monroe County was densely forested, with bayous and swamps crossing the land.
Seeking to take advantage of the area's fertile soils, settlers cleared the land to better suit row crops. Although some swampland has been preserved in the conservation areas like the Cache River NWR and White River NWR, some former farmland has undergone reforestation, the majority of the county remains in cultivation. Another large land use in Monroe County is the Cache River NWR and White River NWR, owned by the
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
Pope County, Arkansas
Pope County is a county in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 61,754; the county seat is Russellville. The county was formed on November 2, 1829, from a portion of Crawford County and named for John Pope, the third governor of the Arkansas Territory, it is dry county. Pope County is part of AR Micropolitan Statistical Area. A large Democratic majority was ardently split into a "town or country" dichotomy at the local level. Further, the county was split between Union and Confederate sympathizers, with deep grudges held by both sides for grievances committed during the opposite's rule during the war. After the war, Republicans controlled local government and the Democrats controlled the county economy; the political situation and cultural differences kept tensions high between the groups resulting in violence. The most violent episode came to be known as the Pope County Militia War, a six-month drama involving robbery and murder; the state-controlled militia arrived to enforce martial law in the county, making the local Democrats who were providing armed resistance to Governor Powell Clayton's Republican army heroes to Confederate sympathizers around the state.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 831 square miles, of which 813 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water. Newton County Searcy County Van Buren County Conway County Yell County Logan County Johnson County Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge Ozark National Forest Centerville Dragway As of the 2000 census, there were 54,469 people, 20,701 households, 15,008 families residing in the county; the population density was 67 people per square mile. There were 22,851 housing units at an average density of 28 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.73% White, 2.61% Black or African American, 0.68% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.93% from other races, 1.39% from two or more races. 2.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 20,701 households out of which 34.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.60% were married couples living together, 10.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.50% were non-families.
23.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 11.60% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 12.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,069, the median income for a family was $39,055. Males had a median income of $29,914 versus $19,307 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,918. About 11.60% of families and 15.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.80% of those under age 18 and 14.00% of those age 65 or over. Atkins Dover London Russellville Hector Pottsville Augsburg Nogo Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas.
Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Pope County are listed below. Pope County included 10 more townships. Allen Township was moved into Hogan Township around 1910, Hill Township, Galla Creek Township, Independence Township, Lee Township, North Fork Township, Sand Spring Township, Sulphur Township were formerly active townships in Pope County. Holla Bend Township, containing the Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge, has been disbanded. List of lakes in Pope County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Pope County, Arkansas Arsenault, Raymond; the Wild Ass of the Ozarks. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press in arrangement with Temple University Press. ISBN 0-87049-569-0.
OCLC 16684346. Pope County, Arkansas entry on the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture
Little River County, Arkansas
Little River County is a county located on the southwest border of the U. S. state of Arkansas, bordering a corner with Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,171; the county seat is Ashdown. As of 1983 Little River County is no longer included in the Texarkana, TX-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. Little River County, was added to the SMSA in 1973. Little River County is Arkansas's 59th county, formed from Sevier County on March 5, 1867, during the Reconstruction era and named for the Little River; the county is separated from all other surrounding counties in the state by water. The Little River, Millwood Lake and the Red River form the boundaries of the county within the state. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 565 square miles, of which 532 square miles is land and 33 square miles is water, it is the third-smallest county in Arkansas by land fourth-smallest by total area. Future Interstate 49 U. S. Highway 59 U. S. Highway 71 Highway 32 Highway 41 Highway 108 Sevier County Howard County Hempstead County Miller County Bowie County, Texas McCurtain County, Oklahoma As of the 2000 census, there were 13,628 people, 5,465 households, 3,912 families residing in the county.
The population density was 26 people per square mile. There were 6,435 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.52% White, 21.27% Black or African American, 1.45% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, 1.67% from two or more races. 1.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,465 households out of which 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.60% were married couples living together, 12.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.40% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 25.60% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,417, the median income for a family was $36,207. Males had a median income of $32,489 versus $18,435 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,899. About 11.90% of families and 15.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.80% of those under age 18 and 17.80% of those age 65 or over. Ashdown Foreman Winthrop Ogden Wilton Yarborough Landing Alleene Comet Richmond Rocky Comfort Cerro Gordo Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications.
The townships of Little River County are listed below. Marion H. Crank, Speaker of the Arkansas House of Representatives, 1963-1964. S. state of Arkansas List of lakes in Little River County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Little River County, Arkansas Ashdown School District Foreman School District
Crittenden County, Arkansas
Crittenden County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 50,902; the county seat is Marion, the largest city is West Memphis. Crittenden County is Arkansas's twelfth county, formed October 22, 1825, named for Robert Crittenden, the first Secretary of the Arkansas Territory. Crittenden County is part of TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. Most of the county's media comes from Memphis, although some Little Rock TV is imported by Comcast Cable, it lies within Arkansas's 1st congressional district. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 636 square miles, of which 610 square miles is land and 27 square miles is water. Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 census, there were 50,902 people residing in the county. 51.2% were Black or African American, 46.1% White, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 0.8% of some other race and 1.1% of two or more races. 2.0% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the 2000 census, there were 50,866 people, 18,471 households, 13,373 families residing in the county.
The population density was 83 people per square mile. There were 20,507 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 50.91% White, 47.05% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.66% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races. 1.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 18,471 households out of which 37.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.80% were married couples living together, 21.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families. 23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.10% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 29.10% from 25 to 44, 20.50% from 45 to 64, 9.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years.
For every 100 females there were 91.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,109, the median income for a family was $34,982. Males had a median income of $31,299 versus $21,783 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,424. About 21.00% of families and 25.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.30% of those under age 18 and 23.70% of those age 65 or over. Public education for elementary and secondary school students is available from Earle School District, which leads to graduation from Earle High School; the Old Earle High School is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Is available in West Memphis and Marion. Crittenden County is served by Arkansas State University Mid-South in West Memphis; the college offers bachelor's and master's degree programs in conjunction with Arkansas State University, The University of Arkansas, The University of Central Arkansas, Arkansas Tech University and Franklin University.
Crittenden County was served by 152 Bed Crittenden Regional Hospital in West Memphis until late August 2014. The hospital operated a number of outpatient clinics in Marion and West Memphis and a Pediatric Dental Clinic in cooperation with the UT Dental School. Crittenden Regional Hospital has closed the ER and will permanently close on 7 September 2014; the nearest hospitals are located in Tennessee. The Arkansas Department of Health operates a clinic in West Memphis. A number of private clinics operate in Marion and West Memphis. Crittenden County in the nineteenth century was dominated by black Republicans, who carried the county in most elections from Reconstruction until the “Redeemers” disfranchised all blacks in Arkansas between 1900 and 1960. From 1910 until 1944 it was overwhelmingly Democratic as only whites voted, when faced with a national Civil Rights plank Crittenden was one of three Arkansas counties to vote for Strom Thurmond over Harry S. Truman in 1948. Since the re-enfranchisement of black residents began in the 1950s, Crittenden has been Democratic-voting, despite a large-scale shift of white residents to the GOP, reversing the nineteenth century party alignment.
The last Republican to win the county was George Bush senior in 1988. Crittenden County is served by the West Memphis Municipal Airport, a General Aviation facility with a Control Tower and Instrument Landing capabilities. General DeWitt Spain Airport is a civil aviation airport just north of downtown Memphis; the Memphis International Airport is nearby and provides commercial aviation through numerous carriers and is the international cargo hub for FedEx. Union Pacific operates a 600 Acre intermodal facility west of Arkansas. BNSF Railway operates a yard in Marion. Limited Passenger Rail is available on Amtrak at Memphis Central Station in nearby Memphis; the City of New Orleans runs twice daily on a North-South route from Chicago to New Orleans. Crittenden County and West Memphis jointly operate a port on the Mississippi River; the International Port of Memphis lies just across the Mississippi River via Interstate 55. The International Port of Memphis is the 4th largest inland port in the United States.
Crawfordsville Earle Marion Turrell West Memphis Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county. Each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas populat
Ouachita County, Arkansas
Ouachita County is a county located in the south central part of the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,120; the county seat is Camden. Ouachita County is part of AR Micropolitan Statistical Area. Formed on November 29, 1842, the county is named for the Ouachita River; until the late 20th century, the county was a Democratic Party stronghold, aided by the state's having disenfranchised most African Americans at the turn of the century. As in much of the rest of the South, conservative whites, who comprise the majority of the population in the county, have shifted into the Republican Party. In 1972, U. S. President Richard M. Nixon became the first Republican presidential nominee in the 20th century to win a majority in Ouachita County. Much in the 2008 presidential election, U. S. Senator John McCain won the county by nearly ten percentage votes over Senator Barack Obama, following President George W. Bush's victory over Senator John F. Kerry in 2004; the politically influential Pryor family is based here.
S. senators, David Pryor and his son Mark Pryor. The elder Pryor served as a former governor of Arkansas and US Congressman; the county is served by The Camden News. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 740 square miles, of which 733 square miles is land and 7.0 square miles is water. Future Interstate 69 U. S. Highway 79 U. S. Highway 278 Highway 4 Highway 7 Highway 9 Highway 24 Dallas County Calhoun County Union County Columbia County Nevada County Clark County The county had its peak of population in 1950; as of the 2010 census, there were 26,120 people residing in the county. The racial makeup of the county was 56.3% White, 39.9% Black, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race and 1.4% from two or more races. 1.6% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the 2000 census, there were 28,790 people, 11,613 households, 8,071 families residing in the county; the population density was 39 people per square mile. There were 13,450 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 59.74% White, 38.64% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.83% from two or more races. 0.73% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 11,613 households out of which 30.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.00% were married couples living together, 15.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.50% were non-families. 28.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.90% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 16.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,341, the median income for a family was $35,736.
Males had a median income of $30,976 versus $18,800 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,118. About 16.10% of families and 19.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.20% of those under age 18 and 18.60% of those age 65 or over. Bearden Camden Chidester East Camden Stephens Louann Reader Cullendale Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Ouachita County are listed below. List of lakes in Ouachita County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Ouachita County, Arkansas USS Ouachita County Ouachita County, Arkansas entry on the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture Ouachita County Sheriff's Office
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai