Politics and government of Arkansas
The government of Arkansas is divided into three branches: executive and judicial. These consist of the state governor's office, a bicameral state legislature known as the Arkansas General Assembly, a state court system; the Arkansas Constitution delineates the function of the state government. In the early 21st century, Arkansas has four seats in the U. S. House of Representatives and two seats in the U. S. Senate. Reflecting the state's large evangelical population, the state has a strong conservative bent; the 1874 Arkansas Constitution established this as a right to work state, in the 21st century its voters passed a ban on same-sex marriage with 75% voting yes, the state is one of a handful with legislation on its books banning abortion in the event Roe v. Wade is overturned. Since the late 19th century, Democrats have traditionally had an overwhelming majority of registered voters in the state. At that time, they consolidated their power and achieved effective disfranchisement of African Americans voters by passage of the Election Law of 1891 and a poll tax amendment in 1892, which dropped many poor white Democrats from the rolls.
Together these suppressed the coalition of Republican and farmer-labor parties, which had threatened the Democrats. Assessing fees to register and vote resulted in many poor people being dropped from voter rolls; the Election Law set up secret ballots and standardized ballots in progressive reforms that made voting more complicated and closed out illiterate voters. It set up a state election board and officials, putting power into the hands of the Democratic Party, rather than county workers. Voter rolls declined for both white voters. By 1895, there were no longer any African-American representatives in the state house. African Americans were closed out of the political system for decades. In the 20th and 21st centuries, Arkansas Democrats have tended to be more conservative than their national counterparts in areas outside metropolitan Little Rock. Traditionally having strength in most areas outside the Northwest and North Central parts of the state, in the 21st century Democrats in Arkansas predominate along the Mississippi River in the East, in central Little Rock, around Pine Bluff and the areas south of there along the Louisiana border.
Republicans in the state were based in the northwestern areas, long a supporter of the Unionist cause in the Civil War. These were areas of yeomen farmers in the antebellum years. Planters and major slaveholders lived in the Delta area along the Mississippi River and tended to ally with the Democratic Party; as noted above, disenfranchisement of African Americans and consolidation of power by the Democrats left the Republicans nearly powerless. They concentrated on developing patronage positions. In 1966, Republican John Paul Hammerschmidt won a U. S. House seat from this northwestern area, the first Republican from Arkansas to be elected to Congress since after Reconstruction, he held the seat until 1992. What was more surprising, that year multi-millionaire Winthrop Rockefeller was elected to the governorship. A 1950s migrant from New York, he was joined by Republican Maurice "Footsie" Britt, a World War II hero elected as lieutenant governor. Unlike in other parts of the South at the time, Rockefeller's coalition was based on "progressive Democrats and newly enfranchised black voters."
They elected him in 1968. Rockefeller faced resistance from the conservative Democratic legislature. In 1970 the Democrats defeated Rockefeller. Rockefeller died in 1973, it was 1978. It was not until the late 20th century that more white conservatives in Arkansas began to shift from the Democratic to the Republican Party. In 1989 Democratic Congressman Tommy Robinson announced his shift to the Republican Party, an indication of change; the party continues to be strongest in the northwestern part of the state, due to historic conditions of that area in Fort Smith and Bentonville, as well as North Central Arkansas around the Mountain Home area. In the latter area, Republicans have been known to get more of the vote. While the rest of the state used to be more Democratic, since the late 20th century Republicans have attracted members from the Little Rock suburbs, the southwest, the northeast around Jonesboro. Tim Hutchinson in 1996 was the first Republican elected to the United States from Arkansas since Reconstruction.
As an indication of increasing Republican strength in the state, he has been followed by the elections to the US Senate of Republicans John Boozman in 2010 and Tom Cotton in 2014, giving the state all-Republican representation in the Senate. Arkansas had the distinction in 1992 of being the only state in the country to give the majority of its vote to a single presidential candidate: native son Bill Clinton; every other state's electoral votes were won by pluralities of the vote among the three candidates. Since the turn of the 21st century, Arkansas voters have tended to support Republicans in presidential elections; the state voted for John McCain in 2008 by a margin of 20 percentage points, making it one of the few states in the country to vote more Republican that year than it had in 2004. While supporting Republican candidates for president, Arkansas voters continued to favor Democrats for statewide offices. In 2006, Democrats were elected to all statewide offices in a Democ
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Yell County, Arkansas
Yell County is a county in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,185; the county has two county seats and Danville. Yell County is Arkansas's 42nd county, formed on December 5, 1840 from portions of Scott and Pope counties, it was named after Archibald Yell, the state's first member of the United States House of Representatives and the second governor of Arkansas. It is dry county. Yell County is part of AR Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 949 square miles, of which 930 square miles is land and 19 square miles is water. Highway 7 Highway 10 Highway 27 Highway 28 Highway 60 Highway 80 Highway 154 Pope County Conway County Perry County Garland County Montgomery County Scott County Logan County Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge Ouachita National Forest Ozark National Forest As of the 2000 census, there were 21,139 people, 7,922 households, 5,814 families residing in the county; the population density was 23 people per square mile.
There were 9,157 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.63% White, 1.47% Black or African American, 0.58% Native American, 0.69% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 8.99% from other races, 1.62% from two or more races. 12.73% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 12.00% reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 7,922 households out of which 33.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.50% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.60% were non-families. 23.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 22.00% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.50 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,916, the median income for a family was $33,409. Males had a median income of $23,172 versus $18,148 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,383. About 11.70% of families and 15.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.20% of those under age 18 and 12.80% of those age 65 or over. The chief officer of the law in Yell County, as in all Arkansas counties, is the sheriff; the current sheriff of Yell County is Bill Gilkey, who has served since 1998. In 2017, he became the longest currently-serving sheriff in Arkansas, after 19 years in the office, he is the longest-serving sheriff in the county's history. He has announced that he will retire after his term ends in 2022. Gilkey has sat on state boards such as the Arkansas Crime Lab Board and is still on the Arkansas Act 309 Board. Gilkey is credited with the creation of the Yell County Law Enforcement Center in 2016, which replaces two of the county's older jails that did not meet state standards, houses the sheriff's office.
The new building houses CID offices, revenue office, an updated E911 dispatch center. Early childhood and secondary education within Yell County is provided by four public school districts: Danville School District Dardanelle School District Two Rivers School District—formed in 2004 by the consolidation of the former Fourche Valley School District, Ola School District, Perry–Casa School District, Plainview–Rover School District. Western Yell County School District—formed in 1985 by the consolidation of the former Belleville School District and Havana School District. Fourchvalley School District Ola School District Plainview Rover School District Havana School District Belleville School District Carden Bottoms School District The Arkansas River Valley Regional Library System, is headquartered in Dardanelle and serves multiple counties and consists of one central library and six branch libraries, including the Yell County Library, a branch library in Danville. Belleville Danville Dardanelle Havana Ola Plainview Corinth Alpha Aly Ard Bluffton Briggsville Centerville Chickalah Gravelly Mount George New Neely Oynx Pleasant Hill Rover Shark Sulphur Springs Wing Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county.
Each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Yell County are listed below. Ray R. Allen, public official in Alexandria, was born in Yell County. John Daly, professional golfer Arthur Hunnicutt, Academy Award-nominated Western Actor Kelly Ring, WTVT news anchor Johnny Sain, Major League Baseball player William L. Spicer, Republican state chairman, 1962–1964, was born in Yell County but owned a chain of drive-in theaters in Fort Smith. Cousins Jim Walkup (
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
Cleburne County, Arkansas
Cleburne County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,970; the county seat and most populous city is Heber Springs. The county was formed on February 1883 as the last of Arkansas's 75 counties to be formed, it is named for Confederate General Patrick Cleburne. Cleburne is dry county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 592 square miles, of which 554 square miles is land and 38 square miles is water. Much of the water area in the County includes Greers Ferry Lake, which extends westward into neighboring Van Buren County. Stone County Independence County White County Faulkner County Van Buren County As of the 2000 census, there were 24,046 people, 10,190 households, 7,408 families residing in the county; the population density was 44 people per square mile. There were 13,732 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.20% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races.
1.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,190 households out of which 26.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.70% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were non-families. 24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.74. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.30% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 24.10% from 25 to 44, 26.90% from 45 to 64, 21.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 93.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,531, the median income for a family was $37,273. Males had a median income of $28,844 versus $19,672 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,250.
About 9.00% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.10% of those under age 18 and 11.90% of those age 65 or over. Fairfield Bay Greers Ferry Heber Springs Quitman Concord Higden Tumbling Shoals Drasco Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Cleburne County are listed below. List of lakes in Cleburne County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Cleburne County, Arkansas
Index of Arkansas-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U. S. state of Arkansas..ar.us – Internet second-level domain for the state of Arkansas 25th state to join the United States of America Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 Adjacent states: State of Louisiana State of Mississippi State of Missouri State of Oklahoma State of Tennessee State of Texas Agriculture in Arkansas Airports in Arkansas Alta Louisiana, 1762–1800 Amusement parks in Arkansas AR – United States Postal Service postal code for the state of Arkansas Arboreta in Arkansas commons:Category:Arboreta in Arkansas Archaeology in Arkansas Category:Archaeological sites in Arkansas commons:Category:Archaeological sites in Arkansas Architecture in Arkansas Arkansas website Category:Arkansas commons:Category:Arkansas commons:Category:Maps of Arkansas Arkansas in the American Civil War, 1861–1865 Arkansas Post, first territorial capital 1819-1821 Arkansas Post, the unincorporated community near the historical settlement Arkansas Razorbacks and Arkansas Ladybacks Arkansas lunar sample displays Arkansas Register of Historic Places Arkansas River Arkansas State Capitol Arkansas State Police Arkansas Teacher Corps Arkansas–Texas League Art museums and galleries in Arkansas commons:Category:Art museums and galleries in Arkansas Astronomical observatories in Arkansas commons:Category:Astronomical observatories in Arkansas Attorney General of the State of Arkansas Botanical gardens in Arkansas commons:Category:Botanical gardens in Arkansas Buildings and structures in Arkansas commons:Category:Buildings and structures in Arkansas Capital of the State of Arkansas Capitol of the State of Arkansas commons:Category:Arkansas State Capitol Caves of Arkansas commons:Category:Caves of Arkansas Census statistical areas of Arkansas Cities in Arkansas commons:Category:Cities in Arkansas Climate of Arkansas Colleges and universities in Arkansas commons:Category:Universities and colleges in Arkansas Communications in Arkansas commons:Category:Communications in Arkansas Companies in Arkansas Category:Companies based in Arkansas Congressional districts of Arkansas Constitution of the State of Arkansas Convention centers in Arkansas commons:Category:Convention centers in Arkansas Counties of the state of Arkansas commons:Category:Counties in Arkansas Culture of Arkansas commons:Category:Arkansas culture Demographics of Arkansas District of Louisiana, 1804–1805 Economy of Arkansas Category:Economy of Arkansas commons:Category:Economy of Arkansas Education in Arkansas Category:Education in Arkansas commons:Category:Education in Arkansas Elections of the state of Arkansas commons:Category:Arkansas elections Environment of Arkansas commons:Category:Environment of Arkansas Flag of the state of Arkansas Forts in Arkansas Category:Forts in Arkansas commons:Category:Forts in Arkansas Geography of Arkansas Category:Geography of Arkansas commons:Category:Geography of Arkansas Geology of Arkansas commons:Category:Geology of Arkansas Ghost towns in Arkansas Category:Ghost towns in Arkansas commons:Category:Ghost towns in Arkansas Golf clubs and courses in Arkansas Government of the state of Arkansas website Category:Government of Arkansas commons:Category:Government of Arkansas Governor of the State of Arkansas List of Governors of Arkansas Great Seal of the State of Arkansas Herbine, Arkansas Heritage railroads in Arkansas commons:Category:Heritage railroads in Arkansas High schools of Arkansas Higher education in Arkansas Hiking trails in Arkansas commons:Category:Hiking trails in Arkansas History of Arkansas Historical outline of Arkansas Category:History of Arkansas commons:Category:History of Arkansas Hospitals in Arkansas Hot springs of Arkansas commons:Category:Hot springs of Arkansas House of Representatives of the State of Arkansas Images of Arkansas commons:Category:Arkansas Ivory-billed woodpecker, long thought extinct re-discovered in the Big Woods of Arkansas Islands in Arkansas La Haute-Louisiane, 1800–1803 La Louisiane, 1699–1762 Lakes in Arkansas Category:Lakes of Arkansas commons:Category:Lakes of Arkansas Landmarks in Arkansas commons:Category:Landmarks in Arkansas Lieutenant Governor of the State of Arkansas Lists related to the state of Arkansas: List of airports in Arkansas List of census statistical areas in Arkansas List of cities in Arkansas List of colleges and universities in Arkansas List of companies in Arkansas List of United States congressional districts in Arkansas List of counties in Arkansas List of individuals executed in Arkansas List of forts in Arkansas List of ghost towns in Arkansas List of Governors of Arkansas List of high schools in Arkansas List of highways in Arkansas List of hospitals in Arkansas List of islands in Arkansas List of lakes in Arkansas List of law enforcement agencies in Arkansas List of Lieutenant Governors of Arkansas List of museums in Arkansas List of National Historic Landmarks in Arkansas List of native plants of Arkansas List of people from Arkansas List of places in Arkansas List of radio stations in Arkansas List of railroads in Arkansas List of Registered Historic Places in Arkansas List of rivers of Arkansas List of school districts in Arkansas List of snakes in Arkansas List of state forests in Arkansas List of state highway routes in Arkansas List of state parks in Arkansas List of state prisons in Arkansas List of state symbols of Arkansas List of television stations in Arkansas List of United States congressional delegations from Arkansas List of United States congressional districts in Arkansas List of United States Representatives from Arkansas List of United States Senators from Arkansas Literature of Arkansas Little Rock, Arkansas and state capital since 1821 Little Rock Nine, 1957 Louisiana Purchase of 1803 Main Street Arkansas Maps of Arkansas Mississippi River Mountains of Arkansas commons:Category:Mountains of Arkansas Museums in Arkansas Categ
Little Rock, Arkansas
Little Rock is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Arkansas. It is the county seat of Pulaski County, it was incorporated on November 7, 1831, on the south bank of the Arkansas River close to the state's geographic center. The city derives its name from a rock formation along the river, named the "Little Rock" by the French explorer Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe in the 1720s; the capital of the Arkansas Territory was moved to Little Rock from Arkansas Post in 1821. The city's population was 198,541 in 2016 according to the United States Census Bureau; the six-county Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 78th in terms of population in the United States with 738,344 residents according to the 2017 estimate by the United States Census Bureau. Little Rock is a cultural, economic and transportation center within Arkansas and the South. Several cultural institutions are in Little Rock, such as the Arkansas Arts Center, the Arkansas Repertory Theatre, the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra, in addition to hiking and other outdoor recreational opportunities.
Little Rock's history is available through history museums, historic districts or neighborhoods like the Quapaw Quarter, historic sites such as Little Rock Central High School. The city is the headquarters of Dillard's, Windstream Communications, Stephens Inc. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Heifer International, the Clinton Foundation, the Rose Law Firm, Arkansas Blue Cross and Blue Shield. Other corporations, such as Dassault Falcon Jet, LM Wind Power, Simmons Bank, Euronet Worldwide, AT&T, Entergy have large operations in the city. State government is a large employer, with many offices downtown. Two major Interstate highways, Interstate 30 and Interstate 40, meet in Little Rock, with the Port of Little Rock serving as a shipping hub. Little Rock derives its name from a small rock formation on the south bank of the Arkansas River called the "Little Rock"; the Little Rock was used by early river traffic as a landmark and became a well-known river crossing. The Little Rock is across the river from The Big Rock, a large bluff at the edge of the river, once used as a rock quarry.
Archeological artifacts provide evidence of Native Americans inhabiting Central Arkansas for thousands of years before Europeans arrived. The early inhabitants may have been the Folsom people, Bluff Dwellers, Mississippian culture peoples who built earthwork mounds recorded in 1541 by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto. Historical tribes of the area were the Caddo, Osage and Cherokee. Little Rock was named for a stone outcropping on the bank of the Arkansas River used by early travelers as a landmark, it was named in 1722 by French explorer and trader Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe, marked the transition from the flat Mississippi Delta region to the Ouachita Mountain foothills. Travelers referred to the area as the "Little Rock." Though there was an effort to name the city "Arkopolis" upon its founding in the 1820s, that name did appear on a few maps made by the US Geological Survey, the name Little Rock is what stuck. Little Rock is located at 34°44′10″N 92°19′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 116.8 square miles, of which 116.2 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water.
Little Rock is located on the south bank of the Arkansas River in Central Arkansas. Fourche Creek and Rock Creek run through the city, flow into the river; the western part of the city is located in the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains. Northwest of the city limits are Pinnacle Mountain and Lake Maumelle, which provides Little Rock's drinking water; the city of North Little Rock is located just across the river from Little Rock, but it is a separate city. North Little Rock was once the 8th ward of Little Rock. An Arkansas Supreme Court decision on February 6, 1904, allowed the ward to merge with the neighboring town of North Little Rock; the merged town renamed itself Argenta, but returned to its original name in October 1917. The 2017 U. S. Census population estimate for the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area was 738,344; the MSA covers the following counties: Pulaski, Grant, Lonoke and Saline. The largest cities are Little Rock, North Little Rock, Jacksonville, Sherwood, Cabot and Bryant.
Little Rock lies in the humid subtropical climate zone, with hot, humid summers and cool winters, with little snow. It has experienced temperatures as low as −12 °F, recorded on February 12, 1899, as high as 114 °F, recorded on August 3, 2011; as of the 2005–2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U. S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 52.7% of Little Rock's population. Blacks or African Americans made up 42.1% of Little Rock's population, with 42.0% being non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 0.4% of Little Rock's population while Asian Americans made up 2.1% of the city's population. Pacific Islander Americans made up less than 0.1% of the city's population. Individuals from some other race made up 1.2% of the city's population. Individuals from two or more races made up 1.4% of the city's population. In addition and Latinos made up 4.7% of Little Rock's population. As of the 2010 census, there were 193,524 people, 82,018 households, 47,799 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,576.0 people p