The River Usk rises on the northern slopes of the Black Mountain, Wales, in the westernmost part of the Brecon Beacons National Park. Forming the boundary between Carmarthenshire and Powys, it flows north into Usk Reservoir east by Sennybridge to Brecon before turning southeast to flow by Talybont-on-Usk and Abergavenny after which it takes a more southerly course. Beyond the eponymous town of Usk it passes the Roman legionary fortress of Caerleon to flow through the heart of the city of Newport and into the Severn estuary at Uskmouth beyond Newport at Newport Wetlands; the Monmouthshire and Brecon Canal follows the Usk for most of the length of the canal. The name of the river derives from a Common Brittonic word meaning "abounding in fish", this root appears in other British river names such as Exe, Axe and other variants; the name is cognate with the Welsh word for fish, borrowed from Latin piscis. The name of the river appears as "Wÿsk" on the Cambriae Typus map of 1573; the whole river has been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest.
It contains estuary with mudflats and salt marsh, lagoons and marsh, varied grassland and woodland habitats along its course. Its flora and fauna are diverse and includes Atlantic salmon, twait shad, lamprey, European perch, brown trout, common dace and common roach as well as kingfishers and other wildfowl and bird life. Dippers can be seen upriver along with red kites in the river's valley upstream from around the town of Usk; the Usk has long been trout fishing river. Salmon of over 30 pounds may still be caught; the river has the highest estimated salmon egg deposition of any river south of Cumbria and the Scottish rivers, exceeded its spawning target. The river has been rated as the best fly fishing water in Wales for salmon and inside the UK Top Ten; the normal tidal limit of the river is just below the bridge at Newbridge-on-Usk, some five miles north of Newport. The River Usk has played an important role in the history of Wales and features in some local folk-tales; the tidal reaches of the Usk have been used as a major shipping port for much of the last millennium because of its wide and deep mouth, good navigable access from the Severn Estuary and the Bristol Channel and thence access to home waters and further overseas.
Evidence of the Usk's long-standing use in transport and trade came in the form of the remains of the Newport Ship that were discovered in 2002. This ship, dated to around 1465, was most a trading vessel and may have sailed around Europe or beyond in its lifetime, its presence in the Usk has confirmed what an important trading route the Usk must have been to the many towns and villages along its course. The Usk has played a role in many local legends; the Medieval Latin text De Ortu Waluuanii recounts a humorous tale in which an incognito Gawain pushes his uncle King Arthur into the Usk, is forced to explain to his wife Gwendoloena why he is so wet. Geoffrey of Monmouth writes of Caerleon in the mid 12th century: For it was located in a delightful spot in Glamorgan, on the River Usk, not far from the Severn Sea. Abounding in wealth more than other cities, it was suited for such a ceremony. For the noble river I have named flows along it on one side, upon which the kings and princes who would be coming from overseas could be carried by ship.
"It is not until the 13th century French prose romances that Camelot began to supersede Caerleon, then, many descriptive details applied to Camelot derive from Geoffrey's earlier grand depiction of the Welsh town."The Usk valley contains many sites of prehistorical archaeological significance and the valley has long been a trade route, settlement area and an avenue into Wales for successive invaders such as the Romans and Normans. The Newport Transporter Bridge, the lowest crossing point on the river, has the greatest length of any surviving transporter bridge in the world. List of rivers of Wales Usk Valley Walk List of bridges in Wales The Usk Valley Walk - photos A trophy salmon from the Usk in October 1917 Canoe Wales website information on canoe touring the Usk
Goldcliff is a village and community to the south east of the city of Newport in South Wales. It lies within the Newport city boundaries in the historic county of Monmouthshire and the preserved county of Gwent. Administratively, the community of Goldcliff includes the parish of Whitson; the name is said to have originated from the siliceous limestone cliff, standing about 60 feet high, at Hill Farm, rising over a great bed of yellow mica which breaks the level at the shore and has a glittering appearance in sunshine to ships passing in the Bristol Channel. Giraldus Cambrensis, who toured Wales in 1188 refers to the location as "Gouldclyffe" and describes it in Latin as "...glittering with a wonderful brightness". Together with the neighbouring parishes of Nash and Whitson, it is one of "The Three Parishes" which have long been a unit – geographical economically and ecclesiastically. All three parishes are typical of the Caldicot Levels. At the highest tides the village lies below sea-level; the entire area is drained by a vast network of inter-linking ditches or'reens'.
A main drainage ditch, with an origin near Llanwern, known as "Monksditch" or "Goldcliff Pill" passes through the village on its way to the sea. Local folklore maintains. Fields are drained by low depressions running the width of the fields, known locally as grips; the field area between grips is termed Spain. The grips drain into the reens which are slow-moving and in summer months are stagnant. Reens run towards the sea; the levels of the reens is controlled by means of a series of sluices or stanks, separate boards in which may be raised or lowered to keep water levels high enough for livestock to drink. The faster flowing Monksditch carries water from more distant higher ground, above the level of the reens, some of which pass underneath the ditch by means of culverts; the south of the village is bounded by the foreshore of the Severn Estuary, which lies behind a tall concrete-faced sea wall. A number of groynes can be seen at low tide. A considerable amount of archaeology has centred on Goldcliff and the intertidal region of the coast near the village has attracted archaeological interest.
Goldcliff has notable evidence of occupation by the Silures. Hidden in the laminated silts of the Severn estuary foreshore are 8,000-year-old human footprints. A report, published jointly by CBA and Cadw, was produced by colleagues. Bell was instrumental in the discovery of the mesolithic footprints and in 2004 his work at Goldcliff featured on Channel 4's archaeological television programme Time Team. Further archaeological excavation has been carried out by Martin Locock and colleagues prior to the introduction of the Newport Wetlands reserve, for example at Hill Farm. Following gales and high tides in 1990, a total of eight Iron Age substantial rectangular buildings were discovered, over the course of several season's work, off the coast of the village. Radiocarbon dating dated the site to the second century BC; the buildings, which may have functioned as a short lived and specialised fishing site, were constructed from vertical posts bearing the marks of iron axes. Timbers from the excavation, performed by St David's University College, have been conserved at Newport Museum.
A connection with Roman activity was established with the discovery near Goldcliff Point in 1878 of the inscribed "Goldcliff Stone" recording the work of legionaries on a linear earthwork a sea wall. Further evidence of occupation was found when ash pits were dug at Nash during construction of the Uskmouth Power Station. Goldcliff was owned by the native princes of Wales, but was taken from Owain ap Caradog son of the last king of Gwent, Caradog ap Gruffydd, by the Norman nobleman Robert de Chandos who, shortly before 1113, founded a priory there; the higher coastal parts of the area were reclaimed by the late-11th and early-12th century when Goldcliff and Nash were granted to the Benedictine priory. Lower-lying areas inland were drained by the 13th and 14th century. Goldcliff, as "Goldcliffe", nearby Nash are two of the few villages to appear on the Cambriae Typus map of 1573. On the site of Hill Farm, situated on a prominent knoll of high ground, south of the village and next to the sea, stood Goldcliff Priory.
Founded in 1113 as a subject house of the Abbey of Bec in Normandy, it passed during the fifteenth century into the control of Tewkesbury Abbey and of Eton College. A small enclosure on Chapel Lane to the north of the present parish church, is thought to hold the remains of an ancient chapel connected with the Priory. Located off Chapel Lane, the farmhouse and barn at Great Newra Farm has Grade II listed buildings; the quaint Congregational chapel near the junction of the Sea Wall Road, built in 1840 and restored in 1900–01, is now a private dwelling, but was still active as late as the 1980s. Goldcliff has long been associated with the tidal putcher fishing of salmon, which may well have had its origins with the Priory or in Roman times; the technique used the so-called "putcher" basket traditionally made from hazel rods and withy plait, set out against the tides in huge wooden "ranks". The last main exponent of the art of wooden putcher-making at Goldcliff was George Whittaker, although a working knowledge of the technique was kept into the 1970s by Wyndham Howells of Saltmarsh Farm, the last full-time fisherman at Goldcliff.
Deeds for Saltmarsh Farm for 1867–1918 are held by Gwent Record Office. The mixed school for the parishes of Goldcliff and Whitson was erected in 18
Friars Walk, Newport
Friars Walk is a under-cover shopping centre and leisure complex in Newport city centre, South Wales. It has several levels and includes a range of high street shops, eateries, a cinema, a bowling alley and a soft play area; the complex is linked by the redeveloped John Frost Square to the Kingsway Shopping Centre, Newport Museum, Art Gallery and Central Library and Newport bus station. The complex is a short walk from the high street shops of High Street. Newport railway station is a short walk away; the Friars Walk car park holds 350 cars and over 1000 spaces are available in the adjacent Kingsway multi-storey car park, both accessed from the A4042 Kingsway. There are cycle racks located in Usk Plaza. In June 2017, the site's developer Queensberry Real Estate sold the centre to Talisker Corporation, the Canadian owner of Main Square in Toronto, Canyons Resort in Park City, Utah; the steps connecting Usk Plaza to John Frost Square are inscribed with the six points of the People's Charter to commemorate the Chartist movement and the Newport Rising of 1839 led by John Frost.
Cineworld cinema Super Bowl UK: ten-pin bowling lanes, Crazy Club soft play centre, Laser Quest arena, amusement arcade, retro diner and boutique bar. The original plans by Modus Corovest were scrapped in 2009 because of the 2008 financial crisis but revived in a £100 million scheme by Queensberry Real Estate in 2012. Plans included a six-screen cinema, ten pin bowling alley, eight restaurants and a 350 space carpark. A new bus station was included, with finance coming from a £90 million loan from Newport City Council; the new design was by Leslie Jones Architecture. Construction began in April 2014; the scheme opened on 12 November 2015, raising Newport from 200th to 77th in the UK's retail rankings and heralded as a "lifeline for Newport". The total cost came to £117 million
Rodney Parade is a stadium in the city of Newport, South Wales and operated by the Welsh Rugby Union. It is located on the east bank of the River Usk in Newport city centre; the ground is on Rodney Road, a short walk from the city's central bus and railway stations via Newport Bridge or Newport City footbridge. There is no spectator car park at the ground but a number of multi-storey car parks are nearby. Rodney Parade is the home ground of Dragons regional rugby union team and rugby union club Newport RFC, it is the home ground of Newport County football club, is the second-oldest sports venue in the Football League, after Deepdale. However, stadium capacity is reduced for football matches. Newport Squash Club has four courts at Rodney Parade. Rodney Parade has two covered stands: the two-tier Hazell Stand and the Bisley Stand which are along the touchlines of the pitch; the upper tier of the west stand is seated with 1,996 seats, including 40 Press seats and the lower tier is a standing terrace.
The east stand is all-seated with a 2,526 capacity including 144 seats in 13 hospitality boxes, food/drink outlets and a gantry for television cameras. The cameras are therefore pointing westward and show the sun setting over Newport city centre; the North Terrace is uncovered standing and adjoins the uncovered standing terrace on the west touchline alongside the west stand. The South End of the stadium houses players' changing rooms, a media centre and the small uncovered Sytner Stand with 222 seats for away football fans. Away football fans are sited in block F of the east stand giving a total capacity of 1,300 for away football fans. A large video screen was erected at the south end in December 2013; the hospitality suite is located in the North End of the East Stand on the upper level. The rugby ticket office and club shop is located at the north end of the East Stand accessed via the main gate to the ground off Grafton Road; the Newport County ticket office is a separate building just inside Gate 4.
To the north of the North Terrace is a floodlit grass training area. Further north, parallel to Grafton Road, is the Rodney Hall function room and the rugby clubhouse/office facilities. In 1875, the Newport Athletic Club was created, two years they secured the use of land at Rodney Parade from Godfrey Morgan, 1st Viscount Tredegar for their cricket, tennis and athletics teams. In October 1879 Newport RFC played Cardiff RFC in a floodlit game at Rodney Parade. Newport rugby club enjoyed six successful seasons, having been unbeaten for six consecutive seasons. Newport sustained their first defeat in the 1870s, they were again unbeaten in seasons 1891-2 and 1922-3. Monmouthshire County Cricket Club played at Rodney Parade from 1901 to 1934. Newport RFC provided internationals for every one of the four home countries at Rodney Parade, as well as South Africa. Newport were once scheduled for a regular fixture, against Bristol - a team drawn from Welsh, English and Scottish internationals; the powerful All Blacks of 1924, the strong Springboks of 1960 were considered fortunate to evade defeat at Rodney Parade.
The cricket ground, on the south of the site no longer exists as the new Maindee primary school was built on the site in 1993 and Newport Cricket Club relocated to Newport International Sports Village. Following the introduction of regional rugby union teams in Wales the Newport Gwent Dragons regional team were formed on 1 April 2003 and have shared Rodney Parade with Newport RFC from onwards. On 4 September 2007 it was announced that the Rodney Parade site was due to be redeveloped into a 15,000-capacity stadium by the beginning of the 2010-11 rugby union season; the redevelopment was backed by Newport City Council, Newport Unlimited, Newport RFC and Newport Gwent Dragons. The application received planning consent on 11 March 2009; the plan included construction of covered stands at the north and south ends and to provide cover on the uncovered stretch of the west touchline terrace. In August 2010 it was announced that the target finish date for the first phase had been put back to the beginning of the 2011–12 rugby union season with the full redevelopment planned to take several years.
The new east stand was named the Bisley Stand for sponsorship purposes. In May 2012 it was agreed that Newport County football club would move from Newport Stadium and play its home fixtures at Rodney Parade in an initial three-year deal, the first time that the stadium would host association football matches on a regular basis. In February 2013 Newport County agreed a further 10-year lease to play at Rodney Parade. In April 2013 Newport Athletic Bowls Club relocated from Rodney Parade to Caerleon. In the summers of 2013 and 2014 new drainage and irrigation systems were installed under the grass playing surface. Despite that, serious drainage problems occurred at the end of 2016. Newport County's matches against Barnet on 3 September and Morecambe on 10 December were abandoned at half-time because the pitch was waterlogged and the English Football League stepped in to help identify the problem. In March 2017 sale of the ground to the Welsh Rugby Union was agreed following a vote of Newport RFC Shareholders.
The deal included the WRU wholly owning both the ground and the regional rugby union team, renamed from ‘’’Newport Gwent Dragons’’’ to ‘’’Dragons’’’. The takeover was completed on 27 June 2017 and work started to install a hybrid grass pitch for the 2017-18 rugby and football season. Rodney Parade has hosted six full-cap rugby union international matches for the Wales national rugby union team: It has hosted one match for the Wales women's national football team: List of rugby league stadiums by capac
Motorcycle speedway referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit. The motorcycles are specialist machines which have no brakes. Competitors use this surface to slide their machines sideways, powersliding or broadsiding into the bends. On the straight sections of the track the motorcycles reach speeds of up to 70 miles per hour. There are now both domestic and international competitions in a number of countries including the Speedway World Cup whilst the highest overall scoring individual in the Speedway Grand Prix events is pronounced the world champion. Speedway is popular in Central and Northern Europe and to a lesser extent in Australia and North America. A variant of track racing, speedway is administered internationally by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme. Domestic speedway events are regulated by FIM affiliated national motor sport federations; the early history of speedway race meetings is a subject of much controversy.
There is evidence to show that meetings were held on small dirt tracks in Australia and the United States before World War I. On the 13th November 1905 motorcycle racing was held at the Newcastle NSW Rugby Ground, a distance of 440 yards. American rider named Don Johns was known to have used broadsiding before 1914, it was said that he would ride the entire race course wide open, throwing great showers of dirt into the air at each turn. By the early 1920s, Johns' style of cornering was followed in the US – where it was called "Short Track Racing" – by riders such as Albert "Shrimp" Burns, Maldwyn Jones and Eddie Brinck. Motorcycle Speedway can be traced back to the early 1920s. One track that staged speedway, amongst others, was at the West Maitland Showground, whose first speedway meeting was staged on December 15, 1923; this track had a motorcycle riding entrepreneur as its Secretary and his personal account has him inviting his friends and their associates to do a few laps one Sunday morning, the noise attracted the attention of the Showground committee and approval to race at the “Electric Light Festival “ was won.
Motorcycle racing under lights was a huge success and its promoter was New Zealand born John S Hoskins. These pioneers introduced the Speedway signatures of No Left Footpeg and the Steel Shoe fashioned from worn coal shovels, manufactured in this Steel region. Following the success of Maitland, Speedway meetings were conducted at Newcastle Showground in 1924; these events were successful and led to the construction of Newcastle Speedway off Darling St, Hamilton. Johnnie Hoskins became the Secretary of Newcastle Speedway Ltd; the Newcastle Herald reports the Grand Opening on the 14/11/1925 attracted an audience of 42,000 at that time it was one-third of Newcastle’s entire population. After Maitland, Newcastle Showground is the second oldest Motorcycle Speedway track in the world. However, its first recorded motorcycle race was much earlier in 1908; the first Australian Motorcycle Speedway Championship was held at Newcastle Showground in 1926. It was won by American rider Cec Brown. Visiting English and American racers were common, for they were paid showmen winning a year’s salary in just one night.
It was successful, so Newcastle Showground held the championship again in 1927. Fitting that Newcastle Showground held the first National Speedway Championship anywhere in the world. In 1926 Johnnie Hoskins took his Speedway show to Sydney’s Royal Showground. A wet Sydney summer nearly sent Hoskins broke, so he took the show on the road to Perth, where one good season made him wealthy again, he and his riders decided to take the show to England as the word had spread about this exiting sport. 14th April 1928, Johnnie Hoskins,13 Australian Riders and their motorcycles sailed from Perth on the passenger ship Oronsay to introduce Speedway Solo motorcycle racing to England, the rest is History. The first meeting in the United Kingdom took place at High Beech on 19 February 1928. There are, claims that meetings were held in 1927 at Camberley and Droylsden, Lancashire. Despite being described as "the first British Dirt Track meeting" at the time, the meeting at Camberley on 7 May 1927 differed in that the races were held in a clockwise direction.
Races at Droylsden were held in an anti-clockwise direction but it is accepted that the sport arrived in the United Kingdom when Australians Billy Galloway and Keith McKay arrived with the intention of introducing speedway to the Northern Hemisphere. Both featured in the 1928 High Beech meeting; the first speedway meeting in the UK to feature bikes with no brakes and broadsiding round corners on loose dirt was the third meeting held at High Beech on 9 April 1928, where Colin Watson, Alf Medcalf and "Digger" Pugh demonstrated the art for the first time in the UK. Proto speedway was staged in Glasgow at the Olympic Stadium on April 9, 1928 and the first professional meeting was staged at Celtic Park on April 28, 1928; the first meeting in Wales was staged at Cardiff White City on Boxing Day 1928. In the 1928/29 season at the Melbourne Exhibition Speedway, Australian Colin Stewart won the prestigious Silver Gauntlet, which required the rider to win the feature race 10 times in one season, he won it 12 times.
He achieved success at an international level, racing for Southampton Saints in 1929 and captained Glasgow in the Northern League in 1930 before moving to Wembley Lions in 1931, for whom he rode in just four matches, averaging 4.00 points per match. He
Tredegar House is a 17th-century Charles II-era country house mansion in Coedkernew, at the western edge of the city of Newport, Wales. For over five hundred years it was home to the Morgan family Lords Tredegar. Described as "The grandest and most exuberant country house" in Monmouthshire and one of the "outstanding houses of the Restoration period in the whole of Britain", the mansion stands in a reduced landscaped garden of 90 acres forming the non-residential part of Tredegar Park; the property became a Grade I listed building on 3 March 1952 and has been under the care of the National Trust since March 2012. The earliest surviving part of the building dates back to the late 15th century; the house was built of stone and had sufficient status to host Charles I. Between 1664 and 1672, William Morgan decided to rebuild the house on a larger scale from red brick, at that time a rare building material in Wales; the architectural historian Peter Smith, writing in his work Houses of the Welsh Countryside, called Tredegar, "the most splendid brick house of the seventeenth century in Wales".
In his 1882 publication, local historian Octavius Morgan provides a plan of an intricate garden maze, in place prior to the 1660s improvements and which dated from the time of Queen Elizabeth I. Tredegar's name came from Tredegar Fawr, the name of the mansion or seat of the old Morgans, who were descended from Cadifor the Great the son of Collwyn; the earliest record of someone with the name Morgan living at Tredegar is 1402: a Llewellyn Ap Morgan. Tredegar House, set in 90 acres which remains landscaped for ornamental purposes, with less agriculture than in previous centuries, is the finest Restoration house in Wales and for over five hundred years the estate was home to the Morgan family Lords Tredegar. John Morgan was created a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre; when Henry Tudor was crowned King Henry VII it was of great benefit to the Morgans of Tredegar who were great supporters of Henry. Sir John received reward for his early support, on 7 November 1485 he was appointed by the new king to the office of ‘Sheriff of Wentloog and Newport’ and made ‘Steward’ of the Machen Commote.
His elevation to officer of the Tudor crown placed Sir John Morgan's influence and power at a new height. Around 1490, he commissioned the building of a new house at Tredegar. A wing of Sir John's stone manor house still exists, it is now the oldest part of the present day Tredegar House. A cadet branch of the ‘Tredegar Morgans’ nephews of Sir Thomas Morgan, included three brothers, Thomas and Edward. Thomas became Major-General Sir Thomas Morgan, 1st Baronet, served in the Commonwealth forces during the English Civil War 1642-9, was made Governor of Gloucester in 1645, fought in Flanders, was wounded and in 1661 retired to his estate at Kinnersley, Herefordshire. Recalled in 1665 to become Governor of Jersey, he died at St Helier in April 1679. Married on 10 September 1632, he had nine sons, of whom the eldest, Sir John Morgan followed in his father's profession. Robert Morgan, became a farmer in Llanrhymny, known today as Rhymney 3 miles from Tredegar, was father of Henry Morgan. Edward Morgan became Colonel Edward Morgan, a Royalist during English Civil War 1642–49 and Captain General of the Kings forces in South Wales.
After the King's arrest and execution, he fled to the continent and married Anna Petronilla the daughter of Baron von Pöllnitz from Westphalia. They had two sons and four daughters, he was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica 1664–65. During the civil war after the Battle of Naseby, King Charles I visited Tredegar House in 1645. In 1661 William Morgan rebuilt the house on a grand scale, with the help of the huge dowry of his wife, Blanche Morgan, their fortunes continued to flourish down the generations, tremendously enhanced by the foresight and business enterprises of Sir Charles Gould throughout the 18th century. Following his father's financial successes, his son further expanded several commercial and industrial projects, established Newport as an important trade centre. Whilst consolidating their influence on the political and economic issues of the country, they secured a baronetcy in 1792, a Barony in 1859. In 1854, Godfrey Morgan fought in, survived, the Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaclava.
Godfrey was Captain in the 17th Lancers. His steed, Sir Briggs survived and lived at Tredegar House until the horse's death at the age of 28; the horse was buried with full military honours in the Cedar Garden at Tredegar House. The monument still stands there today. In 1905 Godfrey was created the first Viscount Tredegar, he never married and on his death the estate passed to his nephew Courtenay Morgan. In 1920, the Tredegar Park Polo Club was founded at Tredegar House. Extravagance and weighty death duties depleted the family's financial assets throughout the next three generations. John Morgan, 6th Baron Tredegar died childless in 1962 aged 54, his death signalled the end of the Morgans of Tredegar. In 1951, Tredegar House was stripped, the remaining contents were auctioned, the estate was sold. For over five hundred years it was home to one of the greatest of Welsh families, the M
John Frost Square
John Frost Square is a large public space in the centre of Newport, South Wales, named after the Chartist leader, John Frost. It was redeveloped as part of the Friars Walk shopping and leisure complex in 2014 and 2015. Major features on John Frost Square include the Newport Museum and Art Gallery, the north entrance to Kingsway Shopping Centre and the headquarters of the Monmouthshire Building Society. John Frost Square was completed following 16 years of planning. In 1978 a mosaic mural by artist Kenneth Budd, commemorating the 1839 Chartist uprising, was added to the underpass in the northeast corner of the square. Following the 1992 National Garden Festival, a public clock created for the event was moved and relocated in John Frost Square. Designed by sculptor Andy Plant and called "In the Nick of Time", the clock deconstructed itself at the top of each hour as model figures paraded around it. With skeletons holding hour glasses it functioned as a modern momento mori; the Lonely Planet guide to Wales described it as "a hilarious clock tower that falls to pieces on the hour".
The clock was dismantled in 2008 and put into storage, until 2011 when it was sold to local property developers for £10,000 to re-erect on a 240 hectare Glan Llyn housing development on the old Llanwern Steelworks site. The Chartist Mural was demolished by the city council, despite protests, in October 2013. Shops on the east side of the square were closed and John Frost Square was demolished in January 2014, in preparation for a £100 million refurbishment of the city centre and a new shopping and leisure complex, Friars Walk. Friars Walk and the redesigned John Frost Square were opened to the public in November 2015. New restaurants and a Cineworld cinema face onto the square; the stone steps leading from Kingsway to John Frost Square are inscribed with the six political reforms demanded by the Chartists. Media related to John Frost Square, Newport at Wikimedia Commons