Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Drummoyne, New South Wales
For the seat in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, see Electoral district of Drummoyne. Drummoyne is a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Drummoyne is 6 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district and is the administrative centre for the local government area of the City of Canada Bay. Drummoyne sits on the peninsula between Five Dock Bay, it is surrounded on three sides by Sydney Harbour and the Parramatta River and, as such, has some of Sydney's best waterfront views. Drummoyne neighbours the historic Five Dock and Abbotsford. William Wright, a merchant and sealer bought land in the northern part of the area in 1853; the property was bounded by present-day Lyons Victoria Road. Drummoyne House was built in the Georgian Classical style, it was rectangular in plan with a hipped roof with a concave verandah across the entire front and returned along each side. He named it Drummoyne Park after his family home at Drummoyne on Clyde in Scotland.
In Gaelic, Drummoyne means flat. Drummoyne has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Rawson Avenue: Drummoyne Reservoir In the 2016 census of Population and Housing, the population of Drummoyne stood at 11,950 people, 53.0% females and 47.0% males, with a median age of 40 years. 63.5% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 4.3%, Italy 2.4%, New Zealand 2.3%, China 1.9% and Greece 1.1%. 71.1% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Italian 3.8%, Greek 3.1%, Mandarin 1.9%, Cantonese 1.5% and Spanish 1.2%. The most common responses for religion in Drummoyne were Catholic 31.3%, No Religion 26.8% and Anglican 11.9%. Drummoyne's population is wealthier than the Australian average, with a median weekly household income of $2,353, compared with $1,438 in Australia. 65.3% of the suburbs occupied private dwellings were family households, 27.9% were lone person households and 6.8% were group households. James Magnussen, Olympic swimmer and gold medallist Anthony Field, the blue wiggle Donald Munro Shand and airline founderMichael Pate the actor lived in Drummoyne.
Drummoyne is now part of the City of Canada Bay, a municipality formed in 2000 by the amalgamation of the municipalities of Drummoyne and Concord. It is part of the NSW Legislative Assembly electoral district of Drummoyne whose current member is John Sidoti MP, it is represented in Federal parliament by Craig Laundy. However Drummoyne's polling places return Liberal Party of Australia majorities POLLING PLACE - DRUMMOYNE EASTPOLLING PLACE - DRUMMOYNE. Drummoyne is linked to Rozelle by the Victoria Huntleys Point by the Gladesville Bridge. Victoria Road, one of Sydney's busiest roads, cuts through the heart of Drummoyne en route to the Sydney CBD. Victoria Road's presence makes the CBD transport hub accessible, as numerous and frequent State Transit bus routes from Sydney's west merge in Drummoyne. However, it leads to a bottleneck during the morning and evening peaks. Regular Sydney Ferries Rivercat services from the Wolseley Street wharf provide a transport option for Drummoyne residents, servicing the Parramatta-City route.
Drummoyne is residential with some commercial developments, still retains some of its industrial heritage. The main shopping strip is located along Victoria Road and the intersecting Lyons Road featuring Australia’s largest party store, The Party People as well as restaurants, home improvement stores and specialty shops. There is a small shopping plaza at this point. A shopping mall is located at Birkenhead Point, known as the Birkenhead Point Outlet Centre, featuring a Coles supermarket, specialty shops and factory outlet stores; the Canada Bay Civic Centre, the administration building for the City of Canada Bay, is located in Marlborough Street. Drummoyne Rowing Club, formed in 1919, is one of four rowing clubs on Iron Cove in Sydney Harbour, it has occupied its current site at Drummoyne since its foundation. Drummoyne is home to Drummoyne Oval, situated on the banks of the Parramatta River. In 1931, as a depression project, Drummoyne Oval was constructed on the site of a small oval which the Glebe and Balmain Rugby Union Clubs had used for junior matches since 1892.
To ensure longevity of tenure, because there were not enough sporting grounds in Sydney, the Glebe Balmain Club decided to change its name to the Drummoyne District Rugby Football Club. It did so without giving up its long-held traditions, the scarlet jumpers of Glebe and its tag, "The Dirty Reds" and the black and gold of Balmain, colours still worn by today's players on their socks; the Drummoyne Rugby Club still plays at Drummoyne Oval as it has done for many years and is its permanent home. Drummoyne Oval is a permanent home to Sydney first grade cricket side Balmain-UTS during the summer and hosts the NSW Blues Cricket side in the national ING Cup competition. With a carpet-like playing surface and large capacity, the oval is used for cricket, Australian rules football and Rugby Union. Drummoyne Olympic pool is located on the banks of Iron Cove. Filtered chlorine is separated from open water by 3 metres of poolside deck; the Bay Run is a popular route for walkers. St Bede's Anglican ChurchDesigned in 1931 by Emil Sodersten St Mark's Catholic ChurchWhere the series Correlli was filmed Drummoyne Presbyterian Church Drummoyne Baptist Church Drummoyne Boys' High School closed in 1990 Drummoyne Public School St Mark's Primary School Birkenhead Point Shopping Centre The Bay Run Spokey Blokeys in Drummoyne
Name of Canada
The name of Canada has been in use since the founding of the French colony of Canada in the 16th century. The name originates from a Saint-Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata for "settlement", "village", or "land", it is pronounced in standard Quebec French. In Inuktitut, one of the official languages of the territory of Nunavut, the First Nations word is used, with the Inuktitut syllabics ᑲᓇᑕ; the first French colony of Canada, which formed one of several colonies within New France, was set up along the Saint Lawrence River and the northern shores of the Great Lakes. The area became two British colonies, called Upper Canada and Lower Canada until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, the name Canada was adopted for the new Dominion of Canada; the name Canada is now accepted as originating from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata or canada, meaning "village" or "settlement". Related translations include "land" or "town", with subsequent terminologies meaning "cluster of dwellings" or "collection of huts".
This explanation is documented in Jacques Cartier's Bref récit et succincte narration de la navigation faite en MDXXXV et MDXXXVI. Although the Laurentian language, spoken by the inhabitants of St. Lawrence Valley settlements such as Stadacona and Hochelaga in the 16th century, is now extinct, it was related to other dialects of the Iroquoian languages, such as the Oneida and Mohawk languages; the word kaná:ta' still means "town" in Mohawk, related cognates include ganataje and iennekanandaa in the Onondaga and Seneca languages respectively. Prior to archeological confirmation that the St. Lawrence Iroquois were a separate people from the Mohawk, most sources linked the name's origin to the Mohawk word instead of the Laurentian one. A widespread perception in Canadian folklore is that Cartier misunderstood the term "Canada" as the existing proper name of the Iroquois people's entire territory rather than the generic class noun for a town or village — for instance, the Historica Foundation of Canada's Heritage Minute film devoted to Cartier's landing at Hochelaga is scripted as having Cartier believe that "Kanata" or "Canada" was the established name of the entire country.
This is not supported by Cartier's own writings, however — in Bref récit, Cartier understands the actual meaning of the word, his earliest name for the wider territory is "le pays des Canadas". While the Saint-Lawrence Iroquoian origin for the name Canada is now accepted, other theories have been put forth in the past; the most common alternative theory suggested that the name originated when Portuguese or Spanish explorers, having explored the northern part of the continent and unable to find gold and silver, wrote cá nada, acá nada, aqui nada or el cabo de nada on that part of their maps. An alternative explanation favoured by philologist Marshall Elliott linked the name to the Spanish word "cañada", meaning "glen" or "valley"; the earliest iterations of the Spanish "nothing here" theory stated that the explorers made the declaration upon visiting the Bay of Chaleur, while versions left out any identifying geographic detail. The known Portuguese presence in modern Canadian territory, was located in Newfoundland and Labrador.
Neither region is located anywhere near Iroquoian territory, the name Canada does not appear on any Spanish or Portuguese maps of the North American coast that predate Cartier's visit. No name for the Bay of Chaleur is attested at all in Spanish sources from that period, while the only name for Newfoundland attested in Portuguese sources is Terra Nova do Bacalhao, after the region's plentiful cod. In most versions of the Iberian origin theory, the Spanish or Portuguese passed their name on to the Iroquois, who adopted it in place of their own prior word for a village. Elliott's "valley" theory, was that the Spanish gave their name for the area directly to Cartier, who entirely ignored or passed over the identical Iroquoian word. According to Elliott, Cartier never explicitly stated that there was a direct connection between canada or kanata as the Iroquoian word for "village" and Canada as the new name of the entire territory, never accounted for the spelling difference between kanata and Canada—and thus the Spanish etymology had to be favoured because the spellings matched.
Notably, Cartier never wrote of having any awareness of any preexisting Spanish or Portuguese name for the region either, meaning that Elliott's allegation that the kanata derivation was not adequately supported by Cartier's own writing on the matter was true of his own preferred theory. Franciscan priest André Thevet claimed that the word derived from segada canada, an answer given by Spaniards in the St. Lawrence Valley area when asked what their purpose was. Few academics subscribe to the Iberian origin theory today, although some Spanish or Portuguese historians continue to support it over an Iroquoian root. British philologist B. Davies surmised that by the same process which saw the First Nations mislabelled as Indians, the country came to be named for the Carnata region of India or that region's Kannada ethnic group, although his theory has attracted no significant support from other academics. Additional theories have attributed the name "Canada" to a wor
Comilla known as Cumilla, is a city in the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh, located along the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway. It is the administrative centre of the Comilla District, part of the Chittagong Division. Comilla is the second-largest city of eastern Bangladesh after Chittagong and is one of the three oldest cities in Bangladesh; the Comilla region was joined with Tripura State. This district came under the reign of the kings of the Harikela in the ninth century AD. Lalmai Mainamati was ruled by the Deva dynasty, and. In 1732, it became the centre of the Bengal-backed domain of Jagat Manikya; the Peasants’ Movement against the king of Tripura in 1764, which formed under the leadership of Shamsher Gazi is a notable historical event in Comilla. It came under the rule of East India Company in 1765; this district was established as Tripura district in 1790. It was renamed Comilla in 1960. Chandpur and Brahmanbaria subdivisions of this district were transformed into districts in 1984. Communal tension spread over Comilla when a Muslim was shot in the town during the partition of Bengal in 1905.
On 21 November 1921, Kazi Nazrul Islam composed patriotic songs and tried to awaken the town people by protesting the Prince of Wales's visit to India. During this time, Avay Ashram, as a revolutionary institution, played a significant role. Poet Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi visited Comilla at that time. In 1931 4000 peasants in Mohini village in Chauddagram Upazila revolted against a land revenue tax; the British Gurkha soldiers fired indiscriminately on the crowd. In a major peasant gathering, the police fired at Hasnabad of Laksam Upazila in 1932. Two people were killed and many were wounded. Comilla Victoria Government College in the city was named in memory of Queen Victoria. Comilla Cantonment is the oldest in East Bengal, it was used by the British Indian Army during World War II. It was the headquarter of the British 14th Army. There is a war cemetery, Maynamati War Cemetery, in Comilla, established after the World War II to remember the Allied soldiers who died during World War I and II from Commonwealth states and the United States.
There are a number of Japanese soldiers buried there as well, from the Second World War. People of Comilla served as language fighters in 1952. Students of Comilla Victoria College protested against Pakistan Government. Shaheed Dhirendranath Datta was one of important leaders of the language movement, from Comilla. Shib Narayan Das was one of the designers of the first flag of Bangladesh, he was part of BLF. Comilla was part of sector 2 during the Liberation war of Bangladesh. Comilla covers a total area of 51 square kilometres, it is bounded by Burchiganj and Tripura on the north and Chauddagram on the south, Barura on the west. The major rivers that pass through Comilla include Little Feni; the Tropic of Cancer crosses Comilla town on the south side just over the Tomsom Bridge. Comilla has a tropical savanna climate; the Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Aw. The climate of Comilla is marked with monsoons, high temperature, considerable humidity and heavy rainfall; the hot season continues till July.
The average annual temperature in Comilla is 25.5 °C. About 2,295 mm of precipitation falls annually. Comilla has a number of tourist attractions. Various archaeological relics discovered in the district from the 7th–8th century, are now preserved in the Mainamati Museum. There is a World War II war cemetery in Comilla, protected and maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Comilla Victorians is a professional cricket team based in Comilla and is the second most successful club in the Bangladesh Premier League. Comilla Victorians has the most wins in the league. Comilla is controlled by the Comilla City Corporation, it has 27 wards. These are the neighbourhoods of Comilla city. Baghmara Bara Para Belghar Bholain Bholain Bijoypur Chapapur Chouara Galiara Purba Jorekaran Pachim Jorekaran Perul Perul Comilla is a hub of road communication for the eastern part of Bangladesh. One of the oldest highways of the Indian Subcontinent,'The Grand Trunk Road', passes through the city; the most important Dhaka–Chittagong Highway bypasses the city from the cantonment to Poduar Bazar.
Comilla is located 97 kilometres from the capital city, which can be reached by road or railway. Electric trikes in recent years have begun to overwhelm Comilla's streets because of their convenience in short distance commutation throughout the main town. Comilla is a nearby city of Akhaura Railway Junction. Rail connection is available to Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet; the Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education is responsible for holding public examinations in Comilla and five nearby districts. Daily newspapers published in Comilla include Comillar Kagoj, Daily Amader Comilla and Rupasi Bangla, established in 1972. Amod, founded in 1955, is the city's oldest weekly newspaper. Shib Narayan Das was a member of BLF, he was one of the designers of the first flag of Bangladesh. Shaheed Dhirendranath Datta was ex-Minister of Law, Language movement activist and Shaheed of 1971. Many people like. Lt-Col. Akbar Hussain veteran freedom fighter, he was Minister of Mineral Sources in 1978. He was Minister of Forest Preservation in 1991.
He was Minister of Inland Water. Major Abdul Gani was born in Nagais village under Brahmmanpara upazila of Comilla district on 1 December 1915. He, an officer of t
Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The 10,311 km2 island accounts for 18.7% of Nova Scotia's total area. Although the island is physically separated from the Nova Scotia peninsula by the Strait of Canso, the 1,385 m long rock-fill Canso Causeway connects it to mainland Nova Scotia; the island is east-northeast of the mainland with its northern and western coasts fronting on the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The eastern and southern coasts front the Atlantic Ocean, its landmass slopes upward from south to north. One of the world's larger salt water lakes, Bras d'Or, dominates the island's centre; the island is divided into four of Nova Scotia's eighteen counties: Cape Breton, Inverness and Victoria. Their total population at the 2016 census numbered 132,010 "Cape Bretoners". Cape Breton Island has experienced a decline in population of 2.9% since the 2011 census. 75% of the island's population is in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality which includes all of Cape Breton County and is referred to as Industrial Cape Breton, given the history of coal mining and steel manufacturing in this area, Nova Scotia's industrial heartland throughout the 20th century.
The island has five reserves of the Mi'kmaq Nation: Eskasoni, Wagmatcook and Potlotek/Chapel Island. Eskasoni is the largest in both land area, its name may derive from Capbreton near Bayonne, or more from Cape and the word Breton, the French demonym for Bretagne, the French historical region. Cape Breton Island's first residents were Archaic maritime natives, ancestors of the Mi'kmaq; these peoples and their progeny inhabited the island for several thousand years and continue to live there to this day. Their traditional lifestyle centred around hunting and fishing because of the unfavourable agricultural conditions of their maritime home; this ocean-centric lifestyle did, make them among the first indigenous peoples to discover European explorers and sailors fishing in the St Lawrence Estuary. John Cabot visited the island in 1497. However, European histories and maps of the period are of too poor quality to be sure whether Cabot first visited Newfoundland or Cape Breton Island; this discovery is commemorated by Cape Breton's Cabot Trail, by the Cabot's Landing Historic Site & Provincial Park, near the village of Dingwall.
The local Mi'kmaq peoples began trading with European fishermen when the fishermen began landing in their territories as early as the 1520s. In about 1521–22, the Portuguese under João Álvares Fagundes established a fishing colony on the island; as many as two hundred settlers lived in a village, the name of, not known, located according to some historians at what is now Ingonish on the island's northeastern peninsula. These fishermen did not maintain a permanent settlement; this Portuguese colony's fate is unknown, but it is mentioned as late as 1570. During the Anglo-French War of 1627 to 1629, under Charles I, the Kirkes took Quebec City; these claims, larger European ideals of native conquest were the first time the island was incorporated as European territory, though it would be several decades that treaties would be signed. These Scottish triumphs, which left Cape Sable as the only major French holding in North America, did not last. Charles I's haste to make peace with France on the terms most beneficial to him meant the new North American gains would be bargained away in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which established which European power had claim over the territories, but did not in fact establish that Europeans had any claim to begin with.
The French defeated the Scots at Baleine, established the first European settlements on Île Royale: present day Englishtown and St. Peter's; these settlements lasted only one generation, until Nicolas Denys left in 1659. The island did not have any European settlers for another fifty years before those communities along with Louisbourg were re-established in 1713, after which point European settlement was permanently established on the island. Known as "Île Royale" to the French, the island saw active settlement by France. After the French ceded their claims to Newfoundland and the Acadian mainland to the British by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the French relocated the population of Plaisance, Newfoundland, to Île Royale and the French garrison was established in the central eastern part at Sainte Anne; as the harbour at Sainte Anne experienced icing problems, it was decided to build a much larger fortification at Louisbourg to improve defences at the entrance to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and to defend France's fishing fleet on the Grand Banks.
The French built the Louisbourg Lighthouse in 1734, the first lighthouse in Canada and one of the first in North America. In addition to Cape Breton Island, the French colony of Île Royale included Île Saint-Jean, today called Prince Edward Island, Les Î
Queen Victoria Village
Queen Victoria Village known as QV Melbourne or just QV, is a precinct in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. Covering the city block bounded by Lonsdale, Little Lonsdale and Russell Streets, located directly opposite the State Library of Victoria and Melbourne Central, QV comprises a large shopping centre, a central plaza, an underground food court, Melbourne central city's first full-size supermarket and apartment buildings. QV takes its name from the Queen Victoria Hospital, Melbourne which occupied the site; the site was the Melbourne Hospital, built in the 1840s-1860s as series of Tudor style buildings. The hospital was rebuilt on a much larger scale between 1910–1916 to a design by architect John James Clark in partnership with his son E J Clark; the hospital was composed of several 5-6 storey Edwardian pavilions or towers, running north-south, housing the ward blocks, each with open verandahs for patients to convalesce in the open air. Tudor domed; the hospital became the Royal Melbourne Hospital in 1935, moves began to relocate to a former pig market site in Parkville.
The new hospital was occupied as a military hospital during the war. The move took place in 1944, the old buildings were occupied by the Queen Victoria Hospital, established'by women for women' in 1896. In 1986 with the pending relocation and amalgamation of the hospital, the site was to be redeveloped to house expansions of the State Library and Museum located on the block next door to the north, a competition was held, with a condition being the preservation of the three towers. One such design by post-modern architects Edmond & Corrigan included a giant pyramid as the new book stacks on Swanston Street; the hospital was closed in 1987, the site was valued at A$63 million. During the financial squeeze of the early 1990s, it was sold for only $15 million to property developer David Marriner in 1992. All but three of the hospital pavilions were demolished in the following years, with the final two that would have been preserved demolished in 1994 with a permit from Planning Minister Rob Maclellan over-ruling the HIstoric Buildings Council.
During the 1990s, the empty site was home to a series of failed ventures, including a craft market, mini golf course, skateboard rink, before becoming a simple carpark. Marriner sold-on the site to the country of Nauru, which owned several other sites in the city, notably Nauru House, for $50.3 million. As the site continued to remain unused and abandoned in the centre of Melbourne's business district, it was called a "bloody disgrace" by Premier Jeff Kennett. After Nauru struggled to pay for the empty block, it was returned to the Melbourne City Council in 1999, which announced plans to develop the site. Grocon was awarded the tender to develop a $600 million "urban village" on the site, with the remaining building to become the Queen Victoria Women's Centre; the "urban village" of QV is a high-density, mixed use precinct containing retail and living spaces. Its different components were designed by several architects: Denton Corker Marshall, John Wardle, McBride Charles Ryan and KTA; the site is split into four main structures, named QV1 through QV4, two of which are skyscrapers, the remainder being low-rise structures along Swanston Street.
The spaces between buildings were designed as shop-filled laneways, pointing to Melbourne's historic lanes and arcades, many of which no longer exist due to the amalgamation of plots to build office buildings. These new laneways are named for figures in medicine: Jane Bell Lane, Albert Coates Lane, Artemis Lane, Red Cape Lane. At the centre of the site is an open-air public square, behind the historic Women's Centre. QV began to open progressively from late 2003, is now complete. A Trust was established under the Queen Victoria Women’s Centre Trust Act 1994 to govern the Centre, which acts as a statutory authority consistent with the meaning of ‘public body’ in section 3 of the Financial Management Act 1994; the Queen Victoria Women's centre was opened in 1997 and refurbished in 2005. The Queen Victoria Women’s Centre offers four venue spaces in the beautiful setting in the heritage building; the venues hold celebratory events, workshops, board meetings and smaller gatherings. The building is home to a range of not for profit women’s organisations that offer a range of support and information services to women.
Each organisation is independently run. The skyscraper located on the corner of Lonsdale and Russell Streets houses offices of Telstra, GHD, Accenture and Australia Post. Sensis has its offices at QV, in the building at the corner of Lonsdale and Swanston Streets, the building north of this; these two buildings are linked by two bridges spanning Albert Coates Lane. There is a diverse mix of retailers at QV; some of the major retailers at QV include: Woolworths - 11 aisle full line supermarket Big W - discount department store Harvey Norman/Domayne - furniture and electronics retailer Officeworks - office products Dan Murphy's - liquor store Fitness First - gymAs well as retail outlets, there are many options for entertainment at QV. There are many restaurants at the precinct, as well as bars and a bowling venue. One of the entertainment options available is Flight Experience, a Flight Simulator based on a Boeing 737-800. Apartments are located in two buildings at QV, both of which are located along Little Lonsdale Street.
One of the apartment buildings is the slender
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 410,301, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall; the city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory, 280 km south-west of Sydney, 660 km north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a Canberran. Although Canberra is the capital and seat of government, many federal government ministries have secondary seats in state capital cities, as do the Governor-General and the Prime Minister; the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation's capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australia's two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being an planned city outside of any state, similar to Washington, D. C. in the United States, or Brasília in Brazil. Following an international contest for the city's design, a blueprint by American architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected and construction commenced in 1913.
The Griffins' plan featured geometric motifs such as circles and triangles, was centred on axes aligned with significant topographical landmarks in the Australian Capital Territory. The city's design was influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation; the growth and development of Canberra were hindered by the World Wars and the Great Depression, which exacerbated a series of planning disputes and the ineffectiveness of a procession of bodies that were created in turn to oversee the development of the city. The national capital emerged as a thriving city after World War II, as Prime Minister Sir Robert Menzies championed its development and the National Capital Development Commission was formed with executive powers. Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the Commonwealth Government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority; as the seat of the government of Australia, Canberra is the site of Parliament House, the official residence of the Monarch's representative the Governor-General, the High Court and numerous government departments and agencies.
It is the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance, such as the Australian War Memorial, Australian National University, Royal Australian Mint, Australian Institute of Sport, National Gallery, National Museum and the National Library. The Australian Army's officer corps is trained at the Royal Military College and the Australian Defence Force Academy is located in the capital; the ACT is independent of any state to prevent any one state from gaining an advantage by hosting the seat of Commonwealth power. The ACT has voting representation in the Commonwealth Parliament, has its own Legislative Assembly and government, similar to the states; as the city has a high proportion of public servants, the Commonwealth Government contributes the largest percentage of Gross State Product and is the largest single employer in Canberra, although no longer the majority employer. Compared to the national averages, the unemployment rate is the average income higher. Property prices are high, in part due to comparatively restrictive development regulations.
The word "Canberra" is popularly claimed to derive from the word Kambera or Canberry, claimed to mean "meeting place" in Ngunnawal, one of the Indigenous languages spoken in the district by Aboriginal Australians before European settlers arrived, although there is no clear evidence to support this. An alternative definition has been claimed by numerous local commentators over the years, including the Ngunnawal elder Don Bell, whereby Canberra or Nganbra means "woman's breasts" and is the indigenous name for the two mountains, Black Mountain and Mount Ainslie, which lie opposite each other. In the 1860s, the name was reported by Queanbeyan newspaper owner John Gale to be an interpretation of the name nganbra or nganbira, meaning "hollow between a woman's breasts", referring to the Sullivans Creek floodplain between Mount Ainslie and Black Mountain. An 1830s map of the region by Major Mitchell indeed does mark the Sullivan's Creek floodplain between these two mountains as "Nganbra". "Nganbra" or "Nganbira" could have been anglicised to the name "Canberry", as the locality soon become known to European settlers.
R. H. Cambage in his 1919 book Notes on the Native Flora of New South Wales, Part X, the Federal Capital Territory noted that Joshua John Moore, the first settler in the region, named the area Canberry in 1823 stating that "there seems no doubt that the original was a native name, but its meaning is unknown."' Survey plans of the district dated 1837 refer to the area as the Canberry Plain. In 1920, some of the older residents of the district claimed that the name was derived from the Australian Cranberry which grew abundantly in the area, noting that the local name for the plant was canberry. Although popularly pronounced or, the original pronunciation at its official naming in 1913 was. Before white settlement, the area in which Canberra would be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians. Anthropologist Norman Tindale suggested the principal group occupying the region were the Ngunnawal people, while the Ngarigo lived to the south of the ACT, the Wandandian to the east, the Walgulu to the south, Gandangara people to the north and Wiradjuri to the north-west.
Archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places and quarry sites as well as stone tools and arrangements. Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some po